02- Chemistry of Life.pdf - CHEMISTRY OF LIFE General...

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CHEMISTRY OF LIFE General Biology LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20
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Reference Texts Chapters 2, 3 Chapter 2 Chapters 2, 3 Chapters 2, 3 LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 2
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Intended Learning Outcomes At the end of this topic, the student should be able To identify the functional groups that constitute the structure of an organic compound To describe the two main reactions in the formation of a more complex compound from simpler subunits and the breaking of a complex compound into its constituent subunits, namely condensation and hydrolysis, respectively To list the four main organic compounds that are important in biology, namely carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids To describe the basic chemical structures of the four biological molecules, and to relate the structures to the functions of the molecules. LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 3
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Outline Organic Molecules Functional groups Synthesis and breakdown Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Proteins Amino acids Protein structure Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Waxes Steroids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 4
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LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 5
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Organic Molecules Contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms Linked by covalent bonds May also be bonded to other atoms Each carbon atom Able to bond with up to four other atoms By single, double or triple bonds Carbon atoms Able to form chains or rings LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 6
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Functional Groups Clusters of atoms linked to carbon skeleton Confer specific chemical properties to molecules Reactivity Polarity LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 7
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Synthesis and Breakdown Most molecules in living things Large organic molecules Polymers ( many parts in Greek) of many repeating units or subunits Repeating units called monomers ( one part in Greek) Joined through dehydration synthesis, dehydration or condensation Broken through hydrolysis LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 8
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Synthesis and Breakdown Dehydration synthesis, dehydration or condensation OH from one molecule and H from another removed Production of water (H 2 O) Formation of covalent bond LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 9
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Synthesis and Breakdown Hydrolysis Splitting water in Greek Water broken into H and OH Covalent bond between monomers broken LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 10
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Biological Molecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 11
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CHEMISTRY OF LIFE General Biology LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20
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Outline Organic Molecules Functional groups Synthesis and breakdown Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Proteins Amino acids Protein structure Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Waxes Steroids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA LSM1301 Semester 1 AY2019/20 2
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Carbohydrates Main functions – energy source, structural support Many polar hydroxyl (OH) groups Most small carbohydrates – hydrophilic (water-soluble) Subunit – monosaccharide ( single sugar in Greek) Linked by condensation Two sugars – disaccharide
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