Rayen Patnaik Classical Test Qin Dynasty China Han Dynasty China Mauryan Empire India Gupta Empire India Ancient Greece Roman Empire S ocial • Large gaps between the social classes; scholar-gentry Mandarins on top • Peasantry was illiterate, many worked the fields or were one of the “mean” peoples working unskilled jobs—viewed lower than field peasants • Peasants commonly formed “secret societies”; unions that provided communal support during times of conflict with local landowners • Women were subservient to men regardless of social class; stress on respect to father and husband • Social unity further influenced by adoption of Mandarin Chinese • Hindu traditions would have a great influence; Caste system = social control • Social classes called varnas were rigidly enforced; brahmans (priests) and kshatriyas (warriors) were at the very top • Vaisyas • Sundras were below (common laborers); Untouchables at the very bottom • Legal/social rights were proportional to caste position; no social movement • The spread of Buddhism during the reign of Ashoka would offer parts of India a different social paradigm, but permanent changes would not take hold • Bulk of population were farmers, many owned their land • Upper classes rounded out by a wealthy aristocracy • Slavery was prevalent • Women had greater say in family affairs • herdsmen; often not own land • Plebian : common citizens • Patrician : aristocracy • Slavery was common • Women had a greater say in family P olitical • Qin Shi Huang-di , 1st Emperor; ruled with an iron fist • Took power away from regional lords; harshly punished disloyalty • Formed a VERY centralized government based on military might • Appt’d bureaucratic governors
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2010 for the course HIST 233 taught by Professor Kumar during the Spring '10 term at Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai.