gure 1.8 results of several dart throws show _"'" d"rfference between precise and ac-e. (a) Neither accurate nor precise .8 random errors). (b) Precise but not ate (small random errors, large sys-a,mc error). (c) Bull's-eye! Both precise accurate (small random errors, no SJ<::iI.ematicerror). 1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 13 (b) (e) Two different types of errors are illustrated in Fig. 1.8. A random error (also called an indeterminate error) means that a measurement has an equal probability of being high or low. This type of error occurs in estimating the value of the last digit of a measure-ment. The second type of error is called systematic error (or determinate error). This type of error occurs in the same direction each time; it is either always high or always low. Figure 1.8(a) indicates large random errors (poor technique). Figure 1.8(b) indicates small random errors but a large systematic error, and Figure 1.8(c) indicates small random errors and no systematic error. In quantitative
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