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80 Chapter Three Stoichiometry •... il 100 B E o s " B 80 " I~ "0 :! '" co 4-< 0 C il 60 .;;; ! " .D c: E .!l , :j ;::l 40 .s c: II " E I' ;> '" I .p " II '" 20 .D II 4~ II I ~ c: 0 .... 0 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Mass number (a) (b) (c) 91 9 .~I 20 21 22 Mass number Figure 3.2 (a) Neon gas glowing in a discharge tube. The relative intensities of the signals recorded when natural neon is injected into a mass spectrometer, represented in terms of (b) "peaks" and (c) a bar graph. The relative areas of the peaks are 0.9092 ~oNe), 0.00257 ~1Ne), and 0.0882 ~2Ne); natural neon is therefore 90.92% 2°Ne, 0.257% 21Ne, and 8.82% 22Ne. for natural hydrogen, which is a mixture of IH and 2H (deuterium). No atom of hydrogen actually has the mass 1.008. In addition to being useful for determining accurate mass values for individual atoms, the mass spectrometer is used to determine the isotopic composition of a natural element. For example, when asample of natural neon is injected into amass spectrometer, the mass spectrum shown in Fig. 3.2 is obtained. The areas of the "peaks" or the heights of the bars indicate the relative abundances of ~gNe,~JNe, and ?6Neatoms.
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