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Scan_Doc0090 - 182 Chapter Five Gases Figure 5.l The...

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182 Chapter Five Gases Figure 5.l. The pressure exerted by the gases in the atmosphere can be demonstrated by boiling water in a large metal can (a) and then turning off the heat and sealing the can. As the can cools, the water vapor condenses, lowering the gas pressure inside the can. This causes the can to crumple (b). 1 h=760 mmHg for standard atmosphere Figure 5.2 A torricellian barometer. The tube, com- pletely filled with mercury, is inverted in a dish of mercury. Mercury flows out of the tube until the pressure of the column of mercury (shown by the black arrow) "standing on the surface" of the mercury in the dish is equal to the pressure of the air (shown by the purple arrows) on the rest of the surface of the mercury in the dish. Soon after Torricelli died, a German physicist named Otto von Guericke in- vented an air pump. In a famous demon- stration for the King of Prussia in 1663, Guericke placed two hemispheres to- gether, pumped the air out of the result- ing sphere through a valve, and showed
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