214 Chapter Five Gases Cotton wet with NH3(aq) Glass tube Air Cotton wet with HCl(aq) Air . ' ' ~ ,_.-.-~: .c·,.'·-~HCI dNH3 '--v-./ I '------dHCl Figure 5.24 (above right) When HCI(g) and NH3(g) meet in the tube, a white ring of NH 4 CI(s) forms. (above left) A demonstration of the relative diffusion rates of NH3 and HCI molecules through air. Two cotton plugs, one dipped in HCI(aq) and one dipped in NH 3 (aq), are simultaneously inserted into the ends of the tube. Gaseous NH3 and HCI vaporiz-ing from the cotton plugs diffuse toward each other and, where they meet, react to form NH 4 CI(s). 2.0-.IT nRT 1.0 o o 200 400 600 800 1000 P(atm) Figure 5.25 Plots of PV/nRT versus P for several gases (200 K). Note the significant devia-tions from ideal behavior (PV/nRT = 1). The behavior is close to ideal only at low pressures (less than 1 atm). 1.8 lA PV nRT 1.0 gas 0.6 o 200 400 600 800 P(atm) Figure 5.26 Plots of PV/nRT versus P for nitrogen gas at three temperatures. Note that although
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