INDEX - Index Absolute zero, 187 Absorbance, A17—A19...

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Unformatted text preview: Index Absolute zero, 187 Absorbance, A17—A19 Absorption, 571 Accelerators. See Particle accelerators Accuracy, of measurement, 12—14, A10 Acetaldehyde, 1023 Acetic acid, 639, 938 in buffered solutions, 701—703, 712 diluting stock solution of, 141—142 dissociation of, 641, 657—659 naming of, 66, 1024 preparation of, 1020. 1021 reaction with potassium hydroxide, 154 titration with sodium hydroxide, 717-722, 724—725 as weak acid, 1354136, 643, 644, 672 as weak electrolyte, 133 Acetone, 514, 5154516, 1023 Acetylene, 410, 1015 Acetylsalicylic acid, 246, 1025 Acid—base equilibria acid dissociation constant, 641, 659—660 buffered solutions, 701—713 common ion effect, 6984700 determining major species, 651, 652, 654, 660, 668, 683 equilibrium expression in, 641 5% rule in, 653, 654, 719, 721, 723 Henderson—Hasselbalch equation for, 706, 707 for hydrogen halides, 937~939 ion—product constant, 645—647 percent dissociation, 657—660 with polyprotic acids, 666—671 problem—solving strategies for, 650, 654, 660, 683 with salts, 671—677 for strong acids, 650—651 for titrations, 717—721, 725—726 for weak acids, 652—660 for weak bases, 663—666 Acid—base indicators, 157—158, 713, 728—733 Acid—base reactions, 144, 154—160 effect of structure on, 677—678 in gas phase, 642 with ionic compounds, 671—677 Lewis model for, 679—682 normality in, 500 with oxides, 679 stoichiometry of, 1554157 titrations, 157—160 A72 Acid—base titrations, 157—160, 698, 713—728 calculating dissociation constant from, 7254726 determining equivalence point, 728—733 end point of, 157—158, 728, 729, 731 indicators for, 157—158, 728—733 millimole for, 714 neutralization titration, 158—160 problem-solving strategies for, 717 requirements for successful, 157 strong acid—strong base, 714—717 weak acid—strong base, 717—726 weak base—strong acid, 726—728 Acid batteries, 843 Acid dissociation constant (K,), 641 acid~base indicators and, 730—733 acid strength and, 643, 652—653, 676, 938—939 in buffered solutions, 706, 707, 712, 713 for monoprotic acids, 644 for oxyacids, 677—678 from percent dissociation, 659—660 for polyprotic acids, 666—667, 671 for selected substances, A22—A23 in titrations, 720, 725—726 Acidic oxides, 679 Acidic solutions acid ionization, 642—644 autoionization of water, 645—647 common ion effect in, 699—700 of covalent oxides, 679 half—reaction method for, 8 18—82 1 hydrogen ions in, 66, 134, 154, 639, 677 with ionic compounds, 674—676, 677 pH of, 650—660 pH scale and, 6474650 solubility in, 752, 7564757, 762, 763 Acidimeter, 649 Acid rain, 181, 185, 218—219, 220, 572, 639 Acids Arrhenius concept of, 134, 154, 639 Bronsted—Lowry concept of, 154, 639—642, 680 common products containing, 640 conjugate, 640 dilution of, 1414144 diprotic, 643, 666 dissociation reactions, 641, 642—644 equivalent mass of, 500 hydrohalic, 937—939 Lewis model, 679—682 molecular structure of, 677—678 monoprotic, 643—644, A22 naming, 66—67 organic, 643, 1024 oxyacids, 643, 677—678 polyprotic, 666—671, A23 properties of, 134, 639 strength of, 134, 136, 642—647, 677—678, 937—938 water as, 645 See also Strong acids; Weak acids Acid salts, 665 Acrylonitrile, 1029, 1033 Acrylonitrile—butadiene—styrene (ABS), 1033 Actinides, 316, 317, 324, 908, 954 Actinium, 316 Activated complex, 566 Activation energy, 566—570, 571, 608, 773 Active site, of enzyme, 574 Actual yield, 113 Addition in exponential notation, A2—A3 of significant figures, 15 Addition polymerization, 1028—1029 Addition reactions, 1007, 1016, 1017 Adenine, 1046, 1047 Adenosine, 1045 Adenosine 5«phosphoric acid, 1045 Adipic acid, 1030 Adrenaline, 664 Adsorption, 571—572 Aerosol cans, 512—513, 576, 927, 929 Air. See Atmosphere Air bags, 202 Air pollution, 181, 218-220, 236. See also Environmental issues Alanine, 1034, 1035 Alarm pheromones, 389 Alchemy, 40, 41, 47, 876 Alcohols, 442, 1019—1022, 1024 Aldehydes, 1020, 1023—1024, 1039, 1042 Alexandrite, 979 Alkali metals, 324, 9127914 in aqueous solution, 327, 912—913 atomic size of, 325, 909, 913 crystal structure of, 454 hydroxides of, 661 in ionic compounds, 909 ionization energies of, 319, 325—326, 913 melting points of, 325, 913 preparation of, 912, 913 properties of, 56, 325—327, 912—914 qualitative analysis of, 759 reducing abilities of, 326—327, 913 selected reactions of, 9124914 solubility of salts, 148 standard reduction potentials of, 913 Alkaline batteries, 843 Alkaline earth metals, 324, 916918 hydroxides of, 661 important reactions involving, 916—917 oxides of, 909—910, 916 properties of, 56, 916—917 Alkalis. See Bases Alkanes, 100641014 cyclic, 1013—1014 isomerism of, 1007—1009, 1010—1011 naming of, 1009—1012, 1014 reactions of, 1012—1013 selected properties of, 1008 Alkenes, 101441017 naming of, 1014, 1016 reactions of, 1016—1017 Alkyl substituents, 100941010 Alkynes, 101571017 naming of, 1015, 1016 reactions of, 1016—1017 Allomones, 389 Alloys, 455—456 copper, 963 for preventing corrosion, 847 steel, 992—995 surface, 847 tin, 920 - transition metals, 959, 960 See also Steel Alpha ((1) particles, 49 helium and, 875, 940 penetrating ability of, 896 production of, 875, 876 in Rutherford’s experiment, 49—50 Alum, 682—683 Alumina. See Aluminum oxide — Aluminosilicate, 461, 1031 Aluminum abundance of, 852, 911 corrosion of, 845 electron configuration of, 313, 318, 351 in fireworks, 298, 299 heat capacity of, 245 ionization energies of, 318 oxide coating of, 845 price of, 854 production of, 817, 852—855, 912, 990 properties of, 83, 918—919 in steel production, 993 thermodynamic data for, A19 Aluminum chloride, dissolution in water, 675 Aluminum hydroxide, 661 Aluminum ion, hydration of, 641, 675, 678, 681, 683 Aluminum oxide in aluminum production, 845, 854 amphoteric nature of, 918—919 in gemstones, 979 predicting formula for, 351 production of, 989—990 Alvarez, Luis, 2 American Chemical Society, 41, 317 Americium, 82, 883 Amethyst, 445 Amide, 1034 Amines, 662, 664—665, 683, 1020, 1025 Amino acids, 574, 984, 1034—1036, 1046—1048 2—Aminobutane, 1025 Amino group, 1030, 1034 Ammine. 967, 968 Ammonia autoionization of, 645 bonding in, 52, 926 dipole moment of, 347 enthalpies of formation for, 256, 258—260 hybrid orbitals in, 406 as Lewis base, 680 Lewis structure for, 368 as ligand, 759—760, 762, 763, 965, 967, 968, 975, 978 molecular structure of, 380—381, 926 naming of, 63 nitrogen gas from, 111—113 as nitrogen hydride, 926 in Ostwald process, 929 pH of, 663—665 properties of, 926 reaction with ammonium chloride, 699, 708—710 reaction with boron trifluoride, 680—681 reaction with hydrogen chloride, 642 reaction with water, 662 structural formula for, 52 titration with hydrochloric acid, 726—728 as weak base, 136, 662, 663 Ammonia synthesis, 108—111, 915 bacterial, 925 bond strength of nitrogen and, 924—925 catalysis in, 540, 571, 597, 925 entropy changes in, 786 equilibrium concentrations, 620—621 equilibrium constant in, 598—599, 600, 624—625 free energy change in, 790, 795—796, 800—801 reaction quotient in, 608—610 reaction rates in, 540, 571, 597 schematic diagram of, 925 temperature effects in, 624—625 Ammonium chloride, 665 bonds in, 358 formation of, 213—214 pH of, 674—675 reaction with ammonia, 699, 708—710 Ammonium dichromate, 100—1 01 Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 932 Ammonium ion, 62 ionization of, 64] model of, 54 qualitative analysis of, 759 solubility of, 148 Ammonium nitrate, 54, 929 dissolution in water, 131 polyatomic ions in, 61 Amorphous solids, 445, 461 Amount of substance, as 51 unit, 9 Ampere (A), 848 Amphoteric substance, 645, 909, 916 Amplification, 464 Amylopectin, 1042 Amylose, 1042, 1044 Angular momentum quantum numbers, 303—304 Aniline, 1025 Anilinium ion, 641 Anions complex, 966—969 electron affinity and, 321—322 formation of, 54 in ionic liquids, 506 monatomic, 57—58, 61 naming, 57—63 nonmetals as, 56, 325, 350, 908—909 oxyanions, 61—62, 66—67, 939—940 silicate, 460 sizes of, 352—353 See also Ions Annihilation, 876 Anodes, 825—833. See also Electrodes Antacids, 106—107, 661 Anthracene, 1019 Anthracite, 263 Antibiotics, 389 Antibonding molecular orbitals, 4174118, 419—421 Anticodon, 1047 Antifreeze, 25, 518—519, 1021 Antimony, 782—783, 922, 923 Antiparticles, 876 Antiproton, 896 Antitumor agents, 972 Approximations in acid—base problems, 653, 654 in scientific models, 206 successive, A8—A10 uncertainty in measurement, 11—14,A10—Al3 Aqua regia, 763, 836 Aqueous solutions, 130 acid—base reactions in, 154—160, 640 alkali metals in, 327, 912—913 base strength in, 673—674 conductivity of, 132—133 equations for reactions in, 150—151 hydrometallurgy, 989—990 ionic oxides in, 679 ion pairing in, 524—525 ion—product constant in, 645—647, 672 nature of water, 130—132, 327 precipitation reactions, 145—150 preparation of standard, 140—141 redox reactions in, 161—166, 8 17—823 solid/liquid line for, 516, 518 solubility of ionic substances, 147—149 strong and weak electrolytes, 132—136 symbol for, 98, 131 temperature effects, 507-508 See also Acid—base equilibria; Solubility equilibria; Solution composition; Solutions Arabinose, 1041, 1042 Arginine, 1035 Argon, 194 electron configuration of, 313 elemental form of, 340 properties of, 450—45 1, 940, 941 Aromatic alcohols, 1021 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 1017—1019 Arrhenius, Svante, 132—133, 134, 135, 566. 567, 639, 679 A73 Index Arrhenius acid—base concept, 134, 154, 639, 661 Arrhenius equation, 568 Arsenic doping with, 462 extraction of, 622 properties of, 922, 923 Asparagine, 1035 Aspartame, 972 Aspartic acid, 1035 Asphalt, 263 Aspirin. See Acetylsalicylic acid Astatine, 937 Atactic chain, 1032 Atmosphere air pollution, 218—220 carbon dioxide in, 181, 236, 264—265 chemistry in, 217—221 composition of, 181, 217, 911, 933 greenhouse effect, 264 liquefaction of air, 912 ozone in, 217, 573—577, 895, 934, 1013 standard (atm), 182—183, 255 See also Environmental issues Atmospheric pressure, 181—183 Atomic mass average, 79—80 Berzelius’s values for, 46 early studies of, 44—46 modern system of, 78—80 periodic table and, 310 Atomic mass unit (amu), 79 Atomic number (Z), 51—52, 873 electron affinity and, 321 in periodic table, 56, 310 radioactive decay and, 874, 875 Atomic orbitals. See Electron configurations; Orbitals Atomic radii of alkali metals, 325 of halogens, 937 as periodic property, 322—323, 909—910 of transition metals, 959 Atomic solids, 449—450, 471. See also Metals; Network solids Atomic spectrum. See Emission spectrum; Line spectrum Atomic structure Bohr model, 295—300, 302, 303 chemical properties and, 51 discovery of electron, 47—48 modern view of, 50—52 in molecules and ions, 52—54 nuclear atom, 49—50 plum pudding model, 48 quantum mechanical model, 300—309 wave—particle duality, 287—294 Atomic weight, 45, 79. See also Atomic mass A74 Index Atoms, 3—4, 28 calculating number of, 83—84 Dalton’s theory of, 4246, 285 early experiments characterizing, 47—50 early Greeks on, 40, 285, 873 symbols for, 51—52 See also Atomic structure Aufbau principle, 312—318 Austentite. 994 Autoionization, of water, 645, 651 Automobiles air bags in, 202 antifreeze, 25, 518—519, 1021 batteries, 25, 803, 842—843 catalytic converters, 263, 572, 573 ethanol fuel, 271, 1021 exhaust gases, 185, 218—220, 263, 572, 573, 925 fuel cells for, 271, 844 hydrogen fuel, 269—271 methanol fuel, 113, 261—262, 272—273 MR fluids for, 448 nitrous oxide in, 929 vegetable oil fuels, 272 See also Gasoline Average, of measurement. l3, l4. AlO—Al] Average atomic mass, 79—80 Average mass, 77—78, 79 Avogadro, Amadeo, 4546 Avogadro’s hypothesis, 45 Avogadro‘s law, 188—189, 190, 208 Avogadro's number, 81 Azeotrope, 930 Baekeland, Leo H., 1026 Bakelite, 1026. 1027 Balancing chemical equations, 97-102 for redox reactions, 166—168, 817—823 Ball-and—stick models, 52, 53 Balloon flights, 186 Band model, 455 Bar, 255 Barium, 298, 917, A19—A20 Barium chromate, precipitation of, 146—147 Barium hydroxide, 148, 661 Barium nitrate, reaction with potassium chromate, 145—147, 150 Barium sulfate medical uses of, 744 preparation of, 247—248 solubility of, 148, 501 Barometer, 182, 472 Bartlett, Neil, 941 Bases Arrhenius concept of, 134, 154. 639, 661 Bronsted—Lowry concept of, 154, 639—642, 661 common products containing, 640 conjugate, 640 equilibrium constants for, 663, 672—673, 676, 708, A23 equivalent mass of, 500 Lewis model, 679—682 in nucleic acids, 1044, 1045, 1046, 1047 properties of, 134, 639 strength of, 134, 136, 644, 661, 662—666, 673—674 water as, 639—640, 644, 645 See also Acid—base entries; Strong bases; Weak bases Basic oxides, 679, 683, 909—910, 916 Basic oxygen process, 992, 993 Basic solutions half—reaction method in, 821—823 hydroxide ion in, 134, 136, 154. 639. 661, 662 with ionic compounds, 672—674, 676 of ionic oxides, 679 pH of, 662—666 solubility in, 661, 752, 756—757 Batteries, 817 charging. 843, 848 dead, 839, 843 fuel cells, 844—845 lead storage, 25, 500, 842—843, 922 other types of, 843—844 work done by, 803 Bauer, Georg, 40 Bauxite, 852, 854, 989 Bayer process, 989—990 Beckman, Arnold, 648—649 Becquerel, Henri, 4849 Beer—Lambert law, Al7—Al9 Bee stings, 86 Beethoven, Ludwig van, 921 Bell, Valerie, 201 Bent. Henry, 803 Bent structures. See V—shaped (bent) structures Benzaldehyde, 1023 Benzene, 3, 1017—1018 bonding in, 427428, 1017 nomenclature of, 1018 protein damage and, 1038 solution with toluene, 515 structure of, 427, 1017, 1018 Benzoic acid, 713, 1024 neutralization analysis of, 159—160 as weak acid, 643, 644 3,4—Benzpyrene, 1019 Beryl, 293, 979 Beryllium, 310 electron configuration of, 312 molecular orbital model of, 419 properties of, 917 thermodynamic data for, A20 Beryllium chloride, molecular structure of, 378—379 Beryllium oxide, 909—910, 916 Beryllium phosphide, 922 Berzelius, Jons Jakob, 4647 Beta (B) particles, 49, 874, 879 in carbon—14 dating, 884 penetrating ability of, 896 production of, 875—876 Bicarbonate ion, 508, 698 Bidentate ligand, 965—966 Bimolecular step, 563 Binary compounds, 57 Binary covalent compounds, naming, 63—64 Binary ionic compounds crystalline structure of, 468470 electron configurations for, 350 energy effects in, 353—357 naming, 57—60 predicting formulas of, 350—352 sodium chloride structure for, 355 See also Ionic compounds Binding energy, 888—890 Biodiesel, 272 Biological processes acid—base chemistry and, 639 alkali metal ions and, 913 amines and, 664—665 buffered systems in, 698 carbohydrates and, 1038—1044 cellular respiration, 236 chemical communication, 388—389 chiral molecules, 974, 1039—1042 coordination complexes in, 966, 982—986 entropic ordering in, 780 enzymes and, 571. 574—575 impact of radiation on, 879, 895—898 importance of carbon, 459, 919, 1006 importance of molecular structure, 388 importance of nitrogen, 925 nucleic acids, 1044—1048 of polar fish, 528 transition metals in, 954 X~ray diffraction and, 447449 See also Human body; Plants BioSOY, 272 Biot, Jean, 970 Bis(ethylenediamine)dinitroironflll) sulfate, 967 Bismuth, 351—352, 922 Bismuth sulfide, solubility of, 747 Bituminous coal. 263 Black phosphorus, 930—931 Black powder, 298 Blasco, Steve, 457 Blast furnace, 991—992 Blood acidity of, 639, 649, 666 as buffered solution, 698, 701 cells, and osmosis. 522—523 hemoglobin and, 984—986 supercharged, 986—987 supercooled, in polar fish, 528 Blood serum, 140 Blowing agents, 926—927 Body—centered cubic (bcc) unit cell, 446, 454 - Bohr, Niels, 295, 296 Bohr model, 295—300, 302, 303 Boiler scale, 508 Boiling chips, 478 Boiling point elevation, 516—517 Boiling points, 476, 477478 of alcohols, 1019 hydrogen bonding and, 441442, 1019 impact of pressure on, 481 molar mass and, 441, 442, 517 normal, 478 of water, 481 “Bomb calorimeter,“ 248, 249 Bond angles, 381—382, 385—386, 388, 449 Bond energy, 341. 343 average values of, 362 covalent, 361—364 electronegativiry and, 345 enthalpy and, 362—364 of halogens, 937 lattice energy, 354—357 localized electron model and, 416 in molecular orbital model, 422, 423 as potential energy, 238 Bonding molecular orbitals, 417418, 419421 Bonding pairs. 365, 366 in VSEPR model, 378—381, 382, 386 Bond length, 342 in molecular orbital model, 422, 423 for selected bonds, 363 shared electron pairs and, 362 X—ray diffraction and, 449 Bond order, 418419, 422, 423, 425 Bond polarity, 344. See also Polar covalent bonds; Polarity; Polar molecules Bonds in coordination compounds, 964—966, 968, 974—976 covalent bonds, 52, 342—344, 361—364 in crystalline solids, 450, 471 dipole moments in, 346—349 electronegativity and, 344—346, 357—358 hybridization, 404—416 hydrogen bonding, 441—442 intermolecular forces, 440—443 ionic bonds, 52—54, 341, 350—357 Lewis structures, 365—369 localized electron model of, 364—365, 413—416 in metals, 454—455 as model, 358—361 molecular orbital model, 416—426 multiple, 362 percent ionic character of, 357—358 polar covalent bonds, 344 resonance structures, 373—374 single, 362 types of, 341—344 VSEPR model, 378—390 See also specific types of bonds Bond strength acid—base properties and, 677 bond order and, 418 Book preservatives, 682—683 Boranes, 918, 919 Borax, 919 Boron doping with, 462—463 electron configuration of, 312 as electron-deficient, 369—370 molecular orbital model of, 419—421, 422, 423 paramagnetism of, 422 properties of, 910, 918 Boron tetrafluoride, hybrid orbitals in, 415 Boron trifluoride as Lewis acid, 680 Lewis structure for, 369—370 molecular structure of, 379 reaction with ammonia, 680—681 Borosilicate glass, 461 Boyle, Robert, 8, 41, 184 Boyle’s law, 184—186, 189, 190, 207 Bragg, William Henry, 447 Bragg, William Lawrence, 447 Bragg equation, 447, 449 Brass, 26, 455—456, 963 Breeder reactors, 894—895 Brine, electrolysis of, 857—858 Brittle tin, 920 Bromide salts, solubility of, 148, 746 Bromine atomic radius of, 322 electron affinity of, 322 oxyacids of, 939 properties of, 937, 938 thermodynamic data for, A20 Bromo ligand, 968 4—Bromopentanoic acid, 1024 Bromthymol blue indicators, 729—730, 731, 732 Bronsted, Johannes N., 154, 639 Bronsted—Lowry acid—base concept, 154, 639—642, 661, 677, 679, 680 Bronze, 920, 963 B20 fuel, 272 Buffered solutions, 698, 701—713 adding strong acid to, 709—712 characteristics of, 710 explanation of buffering, 704—706 Henderson—Hasselbalch equation and, 706 pH calculations, 701—703, 707—710 titrations with weak acids, 717, 722 Buffering capacity, 710—713 Bumping, 478 Buret, 11, 157, 158 Burton, William, 263 Butadiene, 557, 1029, 1033 Butane, 262, 263, 1008 combustion of, 1012 isomerism of, 1007—1008 molecular structure of, 1007 as propellant, 512—513 Butanoic acid, 1024 2—Butanone, 1023 Butene, 1014, 1015 l—Butyl—3—methylimidazolium, 506 Butyl substituent. 1009 Butyraldehyde, 1023, 1024 Cadaverine, 1025 Cadmium, 315, 317, A20 Caffeine, 96—97 Calcine, 992, 993 Calcite. See Calcium carbonate Calcium electron configuration of, 314, 350 in hard water, 916—918 in human body, 916 properties of, 917 thermodynamic data for, A20 Calcium carbonate acid rain and, 218—219 formula unit of, 85 limestone caves, 744, 752, 956 in metallurgy, 991—992, 993 molar mass of, 85—86 scrubbing and, 220, 661 on sunken treasure, 853 thermal decomposition of, 195—196, 604, 787 Calcium chloride, 58, 518 Calcium fluoride dissolution in water, 744—745 ion product for, 753 in solution of sodium fluoride, 75 l—752 Calcium hydroxide equivalent mass of, 500 industrial uses of, 661 solubility of, 148 as strong base, 661 Calcium oxide (quicklime) equilibrium position of, 594 predicting formula for, 350—351 preparation of, 195—196, 604 in water treatment, 661 Calcium silicate, 992 Calcium sulfate, solubility of, 148, 744 Calcium sulfite, 220—221 Calculations, significant figures in, 14—17 Calculators, A4, A5 Californium, 883 Calorimetry, 244—251 Cantilever, 467 Capillary action, 443 Capsaicin, 427 Captive zeros, l4 Carbohydrates, 1038—1044 chiral carbons in, 1039—1042 disacchan'des, 1042 monosaccharides, 1039—1042 polysaccharides, 1042—1044 in sports drinks, 526 Carbon allotropic forms of, 253, 458, 920 atomic mass of, 78—79 atomic number of, 56 biological importance of, 459, 911, 919, 1006 bonding properties of, 910, 920, 1006 compared with silicon, 910 electron affinity of, 321 electron configuration of, 312—3 13 heat capacity of, 245 hybrid orbitals of, 405—406, 407—410 isotopes of, 79, 873 molecular orbital model of, 422, 423 as network solid, 458—460 phase diagram for, 482 properties of, 340, 919—920 as reducing agent, 912, 988 standard state of, 256 thermodynamic data for, A20 See also Hydrocarbons Carbon—14, decay of, 874 Carbon—l4 dating, 884—885 Carbonated beverages, 505, 507 Carbonate ion, 62 Carbonate minerals, 988 Carbonate salts qualitative analysis of, 757 solubility of, 148, 746, 752 Carbon dioxide acidic solution of, 744, 752 bonds in, 347, 348, 910 A75 Index in deep lakes, 510 dissolution in water, 41, 508 effects on climate, 181, 236, 264—265 in fire extinguishers, 483 formula for, 52 Henry’s law for, 507 hybrid orbitals in, 409—410, 460 Lewis structure for, 367, 409, 460, 910 oxidation states of, 164 phase diagram for, 482—483 properties of, 217 removing from space vehicles, 105—106 removing with ionic liquids, 506 as solid, 466, 470, 475, 482—483 in solution, 679 Carbonic acid, 666—667, 698 Carbon monoxide hybrid orbitals in, 414—415 hydrogenation of, 1020 in metallurgy, 989, 991—992, 993 reaction with nitrogen dioxide, 562—564 reaction with steam, 595—596, 612—614 in syngas, 265—266 toxicity of, 986 Carbon steel, 456, 847, 992, 994 Carbon tetrachloride, 348, 368 Carbonyl group, 574, 1023, 1036 Carboxyhemoglobin, 986 Carboxyl group, 643, 1024, 1030, 1034 Carboxylic acids, 1020, 1024 Carboxypeptidase—A, 574—575 Carothers, Wallace H., 1026, 1027 Carvone, 89—90 Catalysis, 570—577, 773 in ammonia synthesis, 540, 571, 597, 925 biological, 571, 574—575 heterogeneous, 571—572 homogeneous, 572—577 for polymers, 1031, 1032 transition metals for, 954, 959 Catalytic converters, 263, 572, 573 Cathode—ray tubes, 47418, 292 Cathodes, 825—833. See also Electrodes Cathodic protection, 847 Cation—exchange resin, 917—918 Cations common Type H, 58, 61 complex, 966—969 formation of, 53 in ionic liquids, 506 metals as, 56, 324, 350, 908 monatomic, 57—58 naming, 57—63 qualitative analysis of, 757—759, 762—764 A76 Index Cations (continued) sizes of, 352—353 See also Ions Cell membranes, 780 Cell potential, 825 concentration and, 836—842 in electrolysis, 848, 850—851 at equilibrium, 839, 841—842 free energy and, 835—836, 839 half-reaction potentials, 826—831 maximum work and, 833—836 measurement of, 825 Nernst equation and, 838—840 standard reduction potentials, 826—833 Cellular respiration, 236 Cellulose. 1042, 1043—1044 Cellulose nitrate, 1026 Celsius scale, 21—24 Cementite, 994 Centimeter (cm), 9 Ceramics, 461462 Cerium, 46 Certain digits, 1] Cesium, 325, 326, 345, 355, 913 Chain arrangements, in polymers, 1032 Chain reaction, 892 Chain theory, 968 Changes of state. 475478 entropy changes and, 780—783 heating curves for, 475476 phase diagrams for, 479483 positional entropy and, 777—778 sublimation, 475, 480, 482 vapor pressure and, 471475, 477478. 516 See also States of matter Charge balancing with half-reactions, 819 of electrons, 4748. 49—50 formal, 375—378 in galvanic cells, 824—825 on ions, 52—54, 58, 60, 163 oxidation states and, 162—163 partial, 131, 344 Charge density, 327 Charge distribution, of dipole moment, 346—347 Charles, Jacques, 186 Charles’s law, 186—188, 189. 190, 207—208 Chelates. 965 Chemical bonds, 52. See also Bonds Chemical change, 28, 40 Chemical equations, 97—99 amounts of reactants and products from, 102—107 balancing, 97—102 coefficients in, 98, 102 complete ionic, 150—151 formula equations, 150—151 meaning of, 98—99 net ionic, 150—151, 247—248 nuclear, 877 physical states in, 98 for reaction in solutions, 150—151 reaction mechanisms and, 562 for redox reactions, 166—168 Chemical equilibrium. See Equilibrium Chemical formulas, 52 for alkanes, 1007 from chemical names, 58, 59 determining, 90—97 early formulations, 4446 empirical formulas, 92—95 molecular formulas, 92—97 percent composition from, 88—90 predicting for ionic compounds, 350—352 whole—number ratios in, 92 Chemical kinetics, 540 catalysis and, 570—577 compared With thermodynamics, 608, 620, 773—774, 794, 798 determining rate law form, 547—551 integrated rate law, 551—562 model for, 565—570 of radioactive decay, 873—875, 878—881 rate laws, 545—547 reaction mechanisms, 562—565 reaction rates, 540—545 See also Rate laws; Reaction rates Chemical properties atomic structure and, 51 periodic trends in, 56, 309—310, 3 18—323 of radiation sources, 897 valence electron configurations and, 314, 323—324, 908, 954 Chemical reactions acid—base, 154—160 balanced equations for, 97—102 classifications of, 144 entropy changes in, 786—790 free energy and, 790—794, 797—798 limiting reactants in, 107—115 oxidation—reduction, 161—166 precipitation reactions, 145—150 predicting extent of, 608 reactants and products in, 97—98, 102—107 reversibility of, 545, 547 See also specific reactions Chemical Stoichiometry. See Stoichiometry Chemical vapor deposition (CVD). 483 Chemistry core ideas of, 3—5 early history of, 4041 fundamental laws, 6, 4144 importance of, 2—3 Chernobyl nuclear accident, 894 Chili peppers, 427 Chip—based laboratories. 143 Chiral molecules, 973—974, 1039—1042 Chlor—alkali process, 857—858 Chlorate ion, 62 Chlorate salts, 940 Chloride ion, 53—54, 967 Chloride minerals, 988 Chloride salts qualitative analysis of, 757, 762 solubility of, 148, 746, 763 Chlorinated alkanes, 1012 Chlorinated organic contaminants, 162—163 Chlorine dipole moment of, 348 electron affinity of, 322 oxyacids of, 61, 66, 939—940 production of, 817, 857—858 properties of, 56, 937, 938 thermodynamic data for, A20 for water treatment, 934 Chlorine monoxide, 577 Chlorite ion, 62 Chloroacetic acid, 713 Chlorobenzene. 1017 3—Chlorobutanal. 1023 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 576—577. 1012—1013 Chloroform, 515—516, 677, 934 Chlorophyll, 982, 983 Chloro substituent, 1028 Chromate ion, 62 Chromate salts, 148, 746, 962 Chromatography, 28 Chromite, 961 Chromium electron configuration of. 314, 317, 957 in human body, 982 metal plating with, 847 oxidation states of, 961 properties of, 100, 954, 955, 957, 958, 961—962 in steel production, 993, 994 thermodynamic data for, A20 Chromium ion, 979 Chromiumflll) oxide, 100—101, 1013. 1031 Cluomium(1V) oxide, 962 Chromous ion, 961 Chrysoberyl, 979 Cinnabar. 934, 988 Cinnamaldehyde, 1024 cis—trans isomerism, 970, 971, 972, 973, 974, 1015 Citric acid, 639 Clausius—Clapeyron equation, 475 Clays, 343, 460, 461462, 527 Cleaning solution, 962 Climate change. See Global warming Closest packing in ionic solids, 468—470 in metals, 451454 types of holes in, 468469 Coagulation, 527 Coal, 220—221, 263—264 Coal gasification, 265—266 Coal slurries, 266 Cobalt, 84 compounds of, 963 electron configuration of, 314 in human body, 982 properties of, 954, 955, 957, 962—963 Cobaltite, 962 Codeine, 665 Codon, 1046, 1047, 1048 “Coffee—cup calorimeter,” 245 Coke, 988, 991—992 Collagen, 1037 Colligative properties, 516 boiling point elevation, 516—517 of electrolyte solutions, 524—525 freezing—point depression, 518—519 osmotic pressure, 520—524 Collision model, 565—570 Colloids, 526—527, 1026 Color changes in acid—base indicators, 728—733 of complex ions, 956, 964. 976, 978—980 diffraction of light and, 292—293 of fireworks, 287, 288, 298—299 of gemstones, 979 monitors, 292—293 spectroscopy and, A l 6—A17 Combined gas law, 189—190 Combustion of alkanes, 1012 for determining formulas, 90—92 early studies of, 41 of ethanol, 99—100 of methane, 97—99, 161, 165—166, 196—198, 244, 256—257, 773, 844—845 of octane, 248—249 of propane, 102—104 as redox reaction, 161 Common ion effect, 698—700, 757 buffering and, 701 solubility and, 745, 750—752 Communication chemical, 388—389 technology, 464465 Complete ionic equations, 150—151 Complex ions, 759, 964 colors of, 956 crystal field model of. 976—982 linear complexes, 981—982 localized electron model for, 974—976 fl in metallurgy, 990 naming of, 966—969 octahedral complexes, 976—980 qualitative analysis of, 762—764 solubility equilibria for, 759—764 square planar complexes, 981—982 tetrahedral complexes, 980—981 of transition metals, 955—956 VSEPR model and, 975 See also Coordination compounds Compounds, 28 Dalton’s atomic theory and, 42—46 determining formulas for, 90—97 formation of, 52—54 naming. See Naming compounds noble gas configurations of, 350, 365 percent composition of, 88—90 standard states of, 255 Compressibility, of states of matter, 26, 217, 439, 443 Compton, Arthur, 290—291 Computer technology, 464—465 Concentration cell potential and, 836—842 changes, and equilibrium, 620—622 equilibrium, 595—596, 598, 600, 610, 612—615, 620 free energy and, 790, 795, 838 molarity, 136—138 pressure and, 601 reaction rates and, 541—545, 546, 565, 596, 773 of solutions, 136—144, 498 standard solution, 140—141, 158—159 See also Solution composition Concentration cells, 837—838 Conceptual problem solving, 87—88 Condensation, 471, 472, 781 Condensation polymerization, 1029—1030, 1034. 1045 Condensed states of matter, 440 Conduction bands. 455, 458, 462 Conductivity of graphite, 458 of ionic compounds, 134, 358, 449 of metals, 56, 454, 455, 458 semiconductors. 462466 of silicon, 462 of solutions, 132-133, 135 of transition metals, 955, 957, 963 Conjugate acid, 640 of weak base, 663, 674 Conjugate acid—base pairs, 640, 706 Conjugate base, 640, 644 of strong acid, 642—643, 672 of weak acid, 643, 672 Constant—pressure calorimetry, 245—248 Constant—volume calorimetry, 248—251 Contact potential, 466 Contact process, 936 Conté, Nicolas—Jacques, 343 Continuous spectrum, 294—295 Control rods, 894 Conversion of temperature scales, 21—24 of units, 8, 17—21, A26 of units of pressure, 183 Coordinate covalent bonds, 965, 975 Coordination compounds, 964—969 biological importance of, 982—986 bonding in complex ions, 974—976 color of, 956, 964, 976, 978—980 coordination numbers, 964—965 crystal field model for, 976—982 isomerism of, 969—974 ligand arrangements in, 965—966 magnetism of, 956, 964, 976, 977—978 naming of, 966—969 structure of, 964, 965 See also Complex ions Coordination isomerism, 969 Coordination numbers, 759, 964—965 Copolymer, 1029—1030, 1033 Copper atomic mass of, 80 compounds of, 963—964 electron configuration of, 314, 317, 957 electroplating of, 848—849, 851 electrorefining of, 855 in fireworks, 298 in human body, 982 properties of, 56, 450—451, 954, 955, 957, 963—964 resistance to corrosion, 845—846, 963 thermodynamic data for. A20 Copper(l) bromide, solubility of, 745—747 Copper(l) chloride, 288 Copper(ll) iodate, solubility of, 748—749 Copper(H) oxide, 111—1 13 Copper(ll) sulfate pentahydrate, 605—606 Core electrons, 314, 318 Corrosion, 845—847 of copper, 845—846, 963 of iron, 774, 801—802, 817, 845, 846—847 oxide coatings and, 845, 847, 921 prevention of, 845, 847, 855—856 of silver, 845—846, 852—853 Corundum, 979 Coulomb’s law, 341—342 Counterions, 964, 967, 969 Counting by weighing, 77—78 Covalent atomic radii, 322 Covalent bonds, 52. 342—344 bond energies for, 361—364 coordinate, 965, 975 electronegativity and, 345—346 in hydrogen molecule, 342—343 Lewis structures for, 365—368 of ligands, 759 localized electron model of, 364—365, 404 in metals, 449, 451 as model, 358—361 in molecular solids, 467—468 in network solids, 449, 457, 458 noble gas configurations and, 350 in nonmetals, 56, 63—64, 350 oxidation states and, 162 partial ionic character of, 357—358 in proteins, 1038 See also Bonds Covalent compounds electron configurations for, 350 naming binary, 63—64 oxidation states of, 162—165 Covalent hydrides, 915 boiling points of, 441—442 boranes, 918 water as, 915 Cracking, 263, 914 Crenation, 522 Critical fission reaction, 892 Critical mass, 892 Critical point, 480 Critical pressure, 480 Critical temperature, 480 Crosslinking. 1027, 1028 Cryolite, 853, 854 Crystal field model, 976—982 Crystalline solids closest packing model of, 451—454 entropy values for, 787—788 ionic solids, 468—470 lattices and unit cells, 445, 446 metallic hydrides, 916 metals, 451—456 molecular solids, 466—468 network solids, 457—466 types of, 449—451 X—ray diffraction of, 292—293, 4454149 Crystallinity, of polymers, 1027, 1032 A77 Index Cubic closest packed (ccp) structure. 451—454, 469 Cubic unit cells. See Unit cells Curie, Irene, 881 Curie, Marie, 933 Curie, Pierre, 933 Curium, 883 Cyanidation, 989, 990 Cyanide ion, 62 basic properties of, 673—674 Lewis structure for, 367—368 reaction with silver, 822—823 toxicity of, 986 Cyano ligands, 966, 967, 977 Cyano substituent, 1028, 1033 Cyclamate, 972 Cyclic alkanes, 1013—1014 Cyclobutane, 1013 Cyclohexane, 1013, 1014 Cyclohexene, 1015 Cyclone separators, 987, 988 Cyclopentane, 1013 Cyclopropane, 1013 Cyclotron, 881—882 Cysteine, 1034, 1035, 1036, 1038 Cytochromes, 982, 986 Cytosine, 1046, 1047 Dacron, 1030 Dalton, John, 42—46, 52, 199, 285 Dalton’s law of partial pressures, 199—205, 208 Davis, James H., 506 Davisson, C. J., 292 Davy, Humphry, 929 d—block transition metals, 954, 955 DDT, 501 de Broglie, Louis, 291, 300 de Broglie’s equation, 291, 292—293 Decane, 1008 Decay series, 878, 886 Decimeter (dm), 9 Definite proportion, law of, 42 Degenerate orbitals, 305, 309, 312, 421, 957 Dehydrogenation reactions, 1013 Delocalization, 361, 426—428 Delocalized 7r bonding, 428, 1017 Demokritos (Democritus), 40. 285 Denaturation, of proteins, 1038, 1039 Dendrochronologists, 884 Denitrification, 925 Density of alkali metals, 325 of closest packed solid, 453 of common substances, 25 determining, 24—25 gas, and molar mass, 198—199, 205 of nucleus, 873 of states of matter, 439, 443 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 780, 1044—1048 Deoxyribose, 1044 A78 Index Dependent variable, A6 Depletion force, 780 Desalination, 27, 523—524 Desorption, 572 Detection devices, 467 Determinate error, 1 3, A10 Dextrorotatory isomers, 973 Dialysis, 521—522 Diamagnetism, 421—423, 977, 984. See also Magnetism Diamond, 920 as atomic solid, 450 bonding in, 343, 458 enthalpy of combustion for, 253 entropy value for, 788 graphite and, 253, 459, 482—483, 540, 774, 792—793 as insulator, 458, 462 low—pressure production of, 4824183 properties of, 340, 450—451, 458, 459 structure of, 458 Diamond anvil cell, 369 Diaphragm cells, 857—858 Diatomic molecules, 4, 45—46, 56 dipole moment of, 347 heteronuclear, 425—426 homonuclear, 419—425 molecular orbital models of, 419—426 Diborane, 918, 919 Diborane gas, 193, 254 1,2—Dibromoethane, 1038 1,2—Dibromopentane, 1017 Dichloroethane, 94 Dichromate ion, 961-962 Diesel, Rudolph, 272 Diesel fuel, 263, 272 Diethylenetriamine (dien), 965 Diethyl ether, 472, 473, 474 Diethylzinc (DEZ), 683 Differential rate law. 546, 547, 561 Diffraction, of light, 292—293, 445—449 Diffractometer, 447 Diffusion, 212 Dihydroxyacetone (DHA). 1040—1041 Dilute solution, 498, 499 Dilution, 141—144 Dimensional analysis, 17—21 Dimer, 557, 1030 Dimethylamine, 662, 1025 2,2—Dimethylbutane, 101 1 2,3—Dimethylbutane, 1011 Dinitrogen monoxide. See Nitrous oxide Dinitrogen pentoxide properties of, 928 rate of decomposition of, 547—548, 551—555, 568—569 Dinitrogen tetroxide, 610, 928 Dinitrogen trioxide, 928 Dinosaurs, 2 fl Dioxygen difluoride, 940 Dipeptide, 1034 Dipolealipole attraction, 440—442 in molecular solids, 467—468, 471 in proteins, 1038 Dipole moments, 346—349, 357. 387, 440 instantaneous and induced, 442—443 Diprotic acid, 643, 666 Direct reduction furnace, 992 Disaccharides, 1042 Disorder, 775. See also Entropy Disproportionation reaction, 940 Dissociation. See Ionization Dissociation constant. See Acid dissociation constant; lon— product constant Distillation, 27 Disulfide linkage, 1038 Division in exponential notation, A2 of significant figures, 15 Dobereiner, Johann, 310 Doping, 4624163, 961 d orbitals, 304, 305, 307, 309 of complex ions, 976—982 filling of, 314—317 of Group 6A elements, 932 group designation and, 908 of transition metals. 314, 954, 955, 956—958, 959 Double bonds, 362. 370 as effective pairs, 407 hybrid orbitals and, 408, 409 in hydrocarbons, 1007, 1014—1015 in polymers, 1028 in resonance structures. 426—427 sigma and pi bonds in, 408 in VSEPR model, 387 Double displacement reaction, 145. See also Precipitation reactions Double-helix DNA structures, 1046, 1047 Downs cell, 856—857 Drake, Edwin, 262 Dry cell battery, 843 Dry ice, 466, 475, 483 a’sp2 hybrid orbitals, 975 dsp3 hybrid orbitals, 41 1412, 414, 923 d2sp3 hybrid orbitals, 412—413, 414, 923, 975 Dubnium, 883 Ductility, of metals, 56, 454, 457 Duet rule, 365 DuPont Company, 298 Eaithenware, 462 Earth's crust, elements in, 911 Eastern skunk cabbage, 246 E85 fuel, 271, 1021 Effusion, 212—213 Eiler, John M., 269 Einstein, Albert, 289—290, 888, 897 Electrical conductivity. See Conductivity Electric arc method, 993—994 Electric current generation of, 817, 824—825 as SI unit, 9 work done by, 803, 824, 833—835 Electrochemical cells. See Galvanic cells Electrochemistry, 817 batteries, 842—845 corrosion, 845—847 electrolysis, 847—851 galvanic cells, 823—826 standard reduction potentials, 826—833 thermodynamics and, 833—836 See also Batteries; Electrolysis; Galvanic cells Electrodes in batteries, 842—844 in galvanic cells, 825—833 glass, 840—841 ion—selective, 840—841 standard hydrogen, 826 Electrolysis, 847—851 aluminum production, 852—855 characteristics of, 825 in charging batteries, 843 commercial uses of, 817, 852—858 compared with galvanic cells, 848 electroplating, 848—850, 855—856 electrorefining of metals, 855 in metallurgy, 912, 989 of mixtures of ions, 850—851 overvoltage in, 851 relative oxidizing abilities in, 851 of sodium chloride, 851, 856—858 of water, 4—5, 28, 268. 843, 850, 915 Electrolytes, 132—136 coagulation and, 527 colligative properties of. 524—525 in sports drinks, 526 Electrolytic cell, 847 Electromagnetic force, 896 Electromagnetic radiation, 285—287 classifications of, 286—287 photoelectric effect and, 289—290 spectroscopy, A16—A19 wave nature of, 285—287 wave—particle duality of, 288—291 Electromotive force (emf). 825. 833. See also Cell potential Electron acceptor, 165 Electron affinity, 321—322, 909 Electron capture, 876 Electron configurations for actinides, 316 for first 18 elements, 312—313 for ionic compounds, 350—352 for lanthanides, 315 periodic table and, 312—318, 324 for transition metals, 314—315, 324, 956—958 valence, 314 See also Molecular orbitals; Noble gas electron configurations; Orbitals; Valence electron configurations Electron correlation problem. 308, 416 Electron density map, 302, 306 Electron donor, 165 Electronegativity, 344—346, 909 acid strength and, 677—678 bond types and, 345—346, 357—358, 442 of Group SA elements, 922 of halogens, 937 Electron—pair donors and acceptors, 679—682, 759 Electron pairs. See Bonding pairs; Lone pairs Electron repulsions, 308—309, 320 bonding and, 342, 343, 413 electron affinity and, 321—322 ionization energy and, 318, 319 See also Valence shell electron- pair repulsion model Electrons antiparticles of, 876 beta particles as, 875—876 in Bohr model, 295—300 bonding and, 52 chemical properties and, 51 core, 314 discovery of, 47—48 energy levels of, 295—300 photoelectric effect and, 289 properties of, 48, 50 quantum mechanical model of, 300—309 valence, 313—314 wave nature of, 292—294, 300 See also Energy levels, of electrons Electron sea model, 455 Electron spin, 306—308 Electron spin quantum number, 306—308 Electron transfer, in redox reactions, 161, 165, 819, 824 Electroplating, 847, 848—850, 851, 855—856 Electrorefining, of metals, 855 Electrostatic potential diagram, 347 Electrostatic repulsion, 527, 881, 895 Elementary steps, 563—564 Elements, 28 abundance of, 911 Boyle’s definition of, 4l Dalton’s theory of, 44 electronegativity values for, 345 enthalpy of formation of, 258 Greek system of, 40, 41 oxidation state of, 163 periodic table and, 54—57 standard states of, 255 symbols based on original names, 55 transuranium, 883 See also Periodic table; specific groups and elements Emeralds. 979 Emission spectrum fireworks and, 287, 288, 298—299 of Group 1A cations, 759 of helium, 940 of hydrogen atom, 294—295 Empirical formulas, 92—95, See also Chemical formulas Enantiomers, 973 Endothermic reactions, 238—240, 245, 354 enthalpy and, 243, 244, 787 entropy change and, 781, 782 vaporization, 471 End point, of titration. 157—158, 728, 729, 731 Energy, 236 activation, 566—570 in chemical systems, 238—243 Einstein’s equation, 888 electromagnetic radiation, 285—287 English—metric equivalents, A26 exothermic and endothermic reactions, 238—240 internal, 239—242 in ionic bonding, 353—357 kinetic, 237 law of conservation of, 236, 239, 773 mass associated with, 887—888, 896 mass of element from, 290—291 nature of, 236—242 nuclear, 890—895 nuclear binding, 888—890 potential, 237 quantization of, 288—294, 295, 300 redox reactions and, 161 sign indicating flow of, 239—240 of solution formation, 501—504 as state function, 237—238 wasted, 803, 804, 824, 834 wave—particle duality of, 287—294 zero point of, 296, 297, 342 Energy crisis, 220, 804 Energy diagrams, 239, 295, 355, 356, 406. 407 Energy levels, of electrons in Bohr model, 295—300 excited state, 305 ground state, 296, 305 of hydrogen atom, 305, 308 negative sign for, 296 in polyelectronic atoms, 308—309, 310 Energy sources alternative, 265—273 coal, 220—221, 263—264 coal conversion, 265—266 conventional, 262—265 ethanol, 271, 1021 fuel cells, 844—845 hydrogen fuel, 249, 266—271, 916 impact on climate, 264—265 methanol, 113, 261—262, 272—273, 1020 nuclear, 888, 890—895 petroleum and natural gas, 262—263, 893 , pollution from, 218, 220—221, 263, 264, 572, 573, 922, 925 seed oils, 273 solar power, 893 used in US, 262 vegetable oil fuels, 272 wind power, 267, 893 English system of units, 9 conversion factors, 17—21, A26 Enfludpy(IiL 243—244 for acid dissociation reaction, 938—939 bond energy and, 362—364 change in, 243 characteristics of, 252, 787 constant—pressure calorimetry and, 245—248 constant—volume calorimetry and, 248—251 entropy change and, 782 as extensive property, 246, 252 free energy and, 783—786, 790—792 Hess’s law and, 251—255, 79] pressure and, 795 sign indicating flow of, 252, 258 as state function, 243, 251, 256 Enthalpy of formation, 255—262, 791, 793 calculations using, 258—262 for selected substances, 256, A19—A22 standard states and, 255—256 Enthalpy of fusion. See Heat of fusion Enthalpy of hydration, 503, 939 Enthalpy of solution, 502—504, 508, 5 14—5 15 Enthalpy of vaporization. See Heat of vaporization Entropy (S), 775 absolute values of, 787—788 for acid dissociation reaction, 938—939 changes in system and surroundings, 780—783 in chemical reactions, 786—790 free energy and, 783—786, 791 of hydration, 939 irreversible processes and, 803 molecular structure and, 790 as organizing force, 780 of perfect crystal, 787—788 positional probability and, 777—779, 786—787 predicting changes in, 778—779 pressure and, 795 second law of thermodynamics and, 779—780, 786 sign of change in, 781—782, 787 of solution formation, 778 spontaneous processes and, 773—780, 834 standard values, 788—789, A19—A22 as state function, 788 temperature and, 788 third law of thermodynamics and, 788 Environmental issues acid rain, 181,185,218—219, 220, 639 air pollution, 181, 218—220, 236, 573 automobile exhaust, 185, 263, 572, 573, 922, 925 burning of coal, 264 carbon dioxide, 181, 236, 264—265 global warming, 181, 236, 264—265, 927 groundwater treatment, 162—163 hydrogen fuel, 269 nitrogen oxides, 218—220, 573—576, 925 ozone decomposition, 573, 576-577, 1013 photochemical smog, 219—220 pyrometallurgy, 989 sulfur oxides, 218—219, 220—221, 572, 936 thermal pollution, 508 Enzymes, 571, 574—575, 1043—1044 Ephedrine, 664 Epsomite, 934 Equation of state, 190—191 Equations. See Chemical equations l¥79 Index Equilibrium, 594 in cell reactions, 839, 841—842 characteristics of, 597 concentration changes and, 620—622 as dynamic condition, 594—595 equilibrium condition, 594—597 free energy and, 785, 790, 794, 797—802 heterogeneous, 604—606 homogeneous, 604 involving concentrations, 610, 612—615,616—617 involving pressures, 601—604, 610—612, 617—618 law of mass action and, 597—600 Le Chatelier’s principle, 62m626 pictorial example of, 606—608 pressure and volume changes and, 622—624 problem—solving strategies, 615—620 reaction rates and, 545, 608, 621 temperature changes and, 624—626, 646—647, 802 of vapor pressure, 471—472 See also Acid—base equilibria; Solubility equilibria Equilibrium constant (K), 597—601 applications involving, 606—615 for bases, 663, 672—673, 676, 708, A23 calculating values of, 598—599 for complex ion formation, 759—761 vs. equilibrium position, 600—601 extent of reaction and. 608 free energy and, 799 for partial pressures, 602—604, 610—612, 617—618 reaction quotient and, 608—610, 621 for redox reactions, 841—842 for selected substances, A22—A24 in stepwise reactions, 762 system with small, 618—619 temperature and, 802 without units, 598, 600 See also Acid dissociation constant; Ion—product constant; Solubility product constant Equilibrium expression, 597—600, 615 in acid—base reactions, 641 conclusions about, 600 for heterogeneous equilibria, 604—606 involving pressures, 601—604 liquids and solids omitted from, 604, 641 in solubility equilibria, 745 writing, 598 A80 Index Equilibrium point, 798 polymers based on, 1028—1029, Flashbulb reaction, 248 Freezing—point depression, 517, Equilibrium position, 594, 1030—1033 Flotation process, 988. 991 518—519, 524 600—601, 604 Ethylenediamine (en), 965. 967, 974 Fluorapatite, 744 Freons, 363—364. 576—577, factors controlling, 620—626 Ethylenediaminetetraacctate Fluoride 1012—1013 in thermodynamics, 798 Equilibrium vapor pressure, (EDTA), 965, 966 Ethylene glycol, 518—519, salts, solubility of, 746 tooth decay and, 744, 748 Frequency, of wave, 285—286, 289 Frequency factor, 568 472, 509 1021, 1030 Fluorine Frictional heating, 237, 803, Equivalence point, 157—158, 713, Ethyl group, 663 atomic size of, 910 825, 834 715, 716 Ethylhexane, 1009 electron affinity of, 322, Fluctose, 1039—1040, 1041, 1042 common methods for Ethyl substituent, 1009 910, 937 Fry, Art, 7 determining, 728 vs. end point, 728, 729 stoichiometry and, 722 for strong acid—strong base titrations, 716, 722 for weak acid—strong base titrations, 720, 721, 722, 723—725 for weak base—strong acid titrations, 727 See also Acid—base titrations Equivalence statements, 17, 18 Equivalent mass, 500 Erements, Mikhail, 369 Errors. See Approximations; Uncertainty in measurement ETS—4 (Engelhard TitanoSilicate—4). 201 Evaporation, 471, 472. See also Vaporization Exact numbers, 14 Excited state, 294, 296, 297, 305 Excluded—volume force, 780 Exothermic reactions, 238—240, 245, 354 alkali metals in water, 327 enthalpy and, 243, 244, 787 nuclear processes, 891 spontaneity and, 774—775, 781—783 Experimental error, A10. See also Uncertainty in measurement electron configuration of. 313 electronegativity value for, 345 Lewis structure for, 366, 370 molecular orbital model of, 422, 423 oxidation state of, 163 oxyacids of, 939, 940 properties of, 937, 938 reaction with nitrogen dioxide, 564—565 symbol for, 51—52 thermodynamic data for, A20 Fluxes, 991, 992 Foecke, Tim, 457 forbitals. 304, 305, 307 group designation and, 908 Fuel cells, 271, 844—845 Fuels. See Energy sources Fullerenes. 920 Functional groups, 1019, 1020 Fusion, nuclear, 891, 895 Galactose, 1041 Galena, 166, 921, 934, 964 Galileo, 8 Gallium, 310, 314, 325,918, 919 Gallium arsenide, 290 Galvani, Luigi, 826 Galvanic cells, 823—826 batteries, 842—845 cell potential in, 825—833 compared with electrolytic Erythropoietin receptor (EPO—R), Experiments, 5, 6 of inner transition metals, cells, 848 986—987 Explosives 315—316, 954, 955, 959 complete description of, Esters, 1020, 1024—1025. 1045 detecting plastic, 467 Formal charge, 375—378 831—833 Ethane, 262, 263, 1008 concentration cells, 837—838 boiling point of, 1019 bonds in, 1007, 1015 dehydrogenation of, 1013 Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) boiling point of, 442 combustion of, 99—100 commercial uses of, 1020—1021 from fermentation, 268, 271, 1020—1021 formula for, 89 as fuel, 271, 1021 hydrogen gas from, 268 Lewis structure for, 514 mass percent of elements in, 89 as nonelectrolyte, 136 oxidation of, 1024 reaction with potassium dichromate, 820—821 solubility of. 132 solution with hexane, 514—515 spontaneity of formation of, 794 vapor pressure of, 472, 474 Ethene. 1014 Ethers, 1020 5~Ethyl—3-heptyne, 1016 Ethylamine, 662, 1025 Ethylene bonds in, 1007. 1015 from ethane, 1013 in ethanol production, 1021 hybrid orbitals in, 407—408, 1014 hydrogenation of, 571—572, 1007 Lewis structure for, 407, 1014 nitrogen—based, 924, 929 Exponential notation, 15, Al—A3 Extensive properties, 246 Face—centered cubic unit cell. 446, 451—454, 469 Fahrenheit scale, 21—24 Families, in periodic table, 56 Faraday (F). 834 Faraday, Michael. 834 Fats, 132. See also Oils Fat-soluble, 505 Feldspar, 461—462 Ferrate ion, 967 Ferric ion, 58 Ferrochrome, 961 Ferrous ion. 58 Ferrovanadium, 960 Fertilizer. 929. 932, 936 Fibrous proteins, 1033, 1036 Filtration, 27 Firewalking, 250 Fireworks, 287, 288. 298—299 First ionization energy, 318, 319 First law of thermodynamics, 239, 240, 773. 803 First—order reactions. 548, 549, 551—554. 557. 562 half—life of, 554—556, 558 pseudo-first—order, 560 in radioactive decay, 879 First—row transition metals, 956—958, 959—964 Fisher, Mel, 852 Fission, nuclear, 875, 891—895 Flame test, 757, 759 Formaldehyde, 1023 Formation constants. 759—761 Formic acid, 844 Formula equation. 150—151 Formulas. See Chemical formulas Formula units, 85 Forward bias. 464, 466 Fossil fuels, 236, 264, 266. 893. See also Energy sources; Petroleum Fractional charge, 344 Fractional distillation. 959 Francium, 325 Frasch, Herman, 934 Frasch process, 912, 934 Free energy (G), 783—786 cell potential and, 835—836, 839 in chemical reactions, 790—794, 797—798 concentration and. 790, 795, 838 equilibrium and, 785, 790, 794, 797—802 of formation, standard, 793—794, Al9—A22 pressure and, 794—799 spontaneity and. 783—786, 787, 794, 797—798 standard state, 790—794 as state function, 791 temperature and. 794 work and, 802—804 Free radicals, 1028—1029 Freezing point, 478 molar mass and, 519 of noble gases, 443 fuel cells, 844—845 line notation for, 831, 832 redox reaction in, 823—826 spontaneity in, 831 standard reduction potentials in, 826—833 thermodynamics and, 833—836 See also Batteries; Cell potential Galvanizing, 847, 964 Gamma ()1) rays, 49, 286, 876. 896 Gangue, 987 Gases in atmosphere, 217—221 atmospheric pressure. 181—183 attractive forces in, 206, 215—216, 217, 444 Avogadro’s hypothesis, 45 characteristics of several common, 217 collecting over water, 203—204 compression of, 240, 241 early studies of, 41, 45—46 effusion and diffusion of, 212—214 equilibria with, 594—604 expansion of, 240—241 ideal gas, 185 kinetic molecular theory of, 205—212 mixtures of, 199—205, 208, 213—214 molar concentration of, 601 molar mass of, 198—199, 205 molar volume of, 195 mole fractions of, 201~202 partial pressures of, 199—205, 602 positional entropy of, 777—778, 787, 795 pressuregtemperature relationship, 207 pressure—volume relationship, 184—186, 207 properties of, 26, 181, 439 real, properties of, 206, 211, 214—216 root mean square velocity of, 210—212 separating, 201 solubility of, 505—507, 508 spontaneous uniform expansion of, 774, 775—778 standard state of, 255 at standard temperature and pressure, 195 stoichiometry of, 194—199 universal gas constant, 189 velocity distribution in, 212, 213, 566 volume—number of moles relationship, 188—189, 208 volume—temperature relationship, 186—188, 207—208 work done by, 2404242 See also Gas laws; Ideal gas; Kinetic molecular theory Gasification reactions, 265—266 Gas laws, 1834189 Avogadro’s law, 188—189, 208 Boyle’s law, 184—186, 189, 207 Charles’s law, 186e188, 189, 207—208 combined gas law, 189—190 Dalton’s law of partial pressures, 199—205, 208 ideal gas law, 189—194, 514 Gasohol, 271, 1021 Gasoline, 444 air pollution and, 218—220 combustion of, 237, 240—241, 802 compared with hydrogen fuel, 270—271 compared with methanol, 261—262 lead in, 263, 922 octane ratings, 103 Gay—Lussac, Joseph Louis, 45416 Geiger—Muller counter, 883—884 Gemstones, 979 Gene, 1046 Genetic code, 104641048 Genetic damage, 896 Geometrical isomerism, 969. 970, 974 Geometric structure. See Molecular structure Germanium, 310, 311, 920 Germer, L. H., 292 Gibbs, Josiah Willard, 783 Glass capillary action of, 443 structure of, 445, 461 titanium dioxide coating, 961 types of, 461 Glass electrodes, 840—841 Glauberite, 934 Glazing, 462 Global warming, 181, 236, 264—265, 927 Globular proteins, 1033, 1037 Glucose, 1041, 1042, 1043 dissolution in water, 517, 524 formation of, 793 polymers of, 1042—1044 Glucose metabolism, 526 Gluons, 896 Glutamic acid, 1035 Glutamine, 1035 Glyceraldehyde, 1039 Glycerine, 1040 Glycerol, 444 Glycine, 1034, 1035 Glycogen, 526, 1042, 1044 Glycosidases, 1043—1044 Glycoside linkage. 1042—1044 Gold alloys, 963 as atomic solid, 446. 470 dissolving of, 836 extraction of, 989 properties of, 846, 955 Goodyear, Charles, 1027—1028 Goudsmit, Samuel, 306 Graduated cylinder, 1 1 Grafting, 1033 Graham, Thomas, 212—213 Graham’s law of effusion, 212—213 Graphing functions, A67A7 Graphite, 920 bonding in, 343, 458 conductivity of, 41 diamond and, 253, 459, 482—483, 540, 774, 792—793 enthalpy of combustion for, 253 entropy value for, 788 in pencils, 343 properties of, 340 structure of, 458, 459 Gravimetric analysis. A16 Gravitational force, 774, 896 Gravitons, 896 Gray tin, 920 Grease, 444, 504 Greenhouse effect, 264. See also Global warming Ground state, 296, 297, 305 Groundwater, clean—up of, 130, 162—163 Group 1A. See Alkali metals Group 2A. See Alkaline earth metals Group 3A, 910, 9187919 Group 4A, 910, 919~922 _—— Group SA, 316, 910, 922—923 Group 6A, 910, 932—933 Group 7A. See Halogens Group SA. See Noble gases Groups. in periodic table, 56 special names of, 324 valence electrons and, 316 Guanine, 1046, 1047 Guericke, Otto von, 182 Guldberg, Cato Maximilian, 597 Gypsum, 219, 934 Haber, Fritz, 597, 620 Haber process, 540, 571, 597, 598—599, 915, 924—925. See also Ammonia synthesis Hadrons, 896 Hafnium, 318, 959 Hair analysis, 921 structure of, 1038 Half—life, 49 of radioactive samples, 879—881 of reactants, 554—556, 558—559, 562 of transuranium elements, 883 Half-reaction method, 166, 8177823 for acidic solutions, 818—821 for basic solutions, 8214823 cell potential and, 826—831 standard reduction potentials in, 828, 829, A25 Hall, Charles M., 853 Hall—Heroult process, 853—855 Halogenation, of hydrocarbons, 1012, 1017, 1020 Halogens, 324, 937—940 atomic size of, 910 electron affinities of, 322 hydrogen halides, 677, 937—939 as ligands, 966 oxyacids of, 939—940 preparation of, 912 properties of, 56, 937 Hard water, 661, 916~9l7 Hassium, 56 Heat, 237 calorimetry and, 244—251 energy and, 236, 237 enthalpy and, 243 entropy changes and, 781—783 exothermic and endothermic reactions, 238—240 flow of, 774 frictional heating, 237 internal energy changes and, 239—242 sign indicating flow of, 239, 246 vs. temperature, 237 See also Thermochemistry Heat capacity, 244~245, 250 Heating oil, 263 Heat of fusion, 439, 476 Heat of hydration. See Enthalpy of hydration A81 Index Heat of reaction, 243. See also Enthalpy Heat of solution. See Enthalpy of solution Heat of vaporization, 439, 471, 473—475 Heat radiation, 264 Heisenberg, Werner, 300, 301 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 301—302 Helium alpha particles and, 875, 940 in dive tanks, 200 electron configuration of, 312 electron repulsions in, 308 elemental form of, 340 freezing point of, 443 Lewis structure for, 366 molecular orbital model of, 419 properties of, 940, 941 root mean square velocity for, 211 stellar fusion and, 895 a-Helix, 10364037 Hematite, 991 Heme complex, 982, 983, 984 Hemoglobin, 780, 984—987 Hemolysis, 522 Henderson—Hasselbalch equation, 706, 707, 709, 711, 730, 731 Henry, William. 506 Henry’s law, 506~507 Heptane, 263, 1008 Heroult, Paul, 853 Hertz (Hz), 286 Hess’s law, 251—255, 256, 791 Heterogeneous catalysis, 571—572 Heterogeneous equilibria, 6047606 Heterogeneous mixtures. 26 Heteronuclear diatomic molecules, 425—426 Hexadentate ligand, 966 Hexafluorophosphate, 506 Hexagonal closest packed (hcp) structure, 451—452, 454, 455 Hexahydro-l ,3,5—triazine (RDXL467 Hexamethylenediamine, 1030 Hexane, 263, 1008, 1009 Lewis structure for, 514 solution with ethanol, 5147515 as solvent, 504 structural isomers of, 1010—101 1 Hexoses, 1039, 1040, 1041 1—Hexy1—3-methylimidazolium, 506 High—altitude sickness, 985—986 High—density polyethylene (HDPE), 1031 High—spin case, 977 Hill, Julian. 1026 Histidine, 1035, 1036 Homogeneous catalysis, 571, 5724577 Homogeneous equilibria, 604 A82 Index Homogeneous mixtures, 26. 132, 498. See also Solutions Homonuclear diatomic molecules, 419—425 Homopolymer, 1029—1030 Honary, Lou, 272 Hot—air balloons. 242 Human body effects of radiation on, 879, 895—898 elements in, 911, 916 potassium and, 326 proteins and, 1033—1038 redox reactions in, 161 selenium and, 47, 933 sports drinks, 526 tooth decay. 748 transition metals in, 954, 982—986 vision, 290 See also Biological processes; Blood; Medicine Hund, F. H., 312 Hund’s rule, 312 Hybridization. 404—416 in alkanes, 1007, 1013 in alkenes, 1014 in alkynes, 1015 in coordination compounds, 975—976 (15173 hybrid orbitals, 411—412 (125123 hybrid orbitals, 412413 sp hybrid orbitals, 409—410 3172 hybrid orbitals. 407—408 sp3 hybrid orbitals, 404—406 summary of, 414 Hydration of alkali metal ions, 327, 913 enthalpy of, 503, 939 entropy of, 939 of halide ions, 939 of ions in solution, 131—132, 327 of metal ions, 675, 678, 681, 683 Hydrazine, 926—927 Hydride ion, 351, 418, 915 Hydrides boiling points of, 441—442 boranes, 918, 919 covalent, 441—442, 915 ionic, 915 metallic, 916 nitrogen, 926—927 Hydrocarbon derivatives, 1019—1025 alcohols, 1019—1022 aldehydes and ketones, 1023—1024 amines, 1025 carboxylic acids, 1024 esters, 1024—1025 Hydrocarbons alkanes, 1006—1014 alkenes and alkynes, 1014—1017 aromatic, 1017—1019 hydrogenation of, 571—572 names of common, 263 petroleum, 262—263 as propellants, 512—513 saturated and unsaturated, 571, 1006—1007 straight—chain, 1007 Hydrochloric acid. 66, 937—939 in aqua regia, 763, 836 in buffered solutions, 709—712 equivalent mass of, 500 importance of, 939 ionization of, 641 pH of, 650—651 reactions neutralizing, 106—107 reaction with sodium hydroxide, 154, 155—156 as strong acid, 134, 643 as strong electrolyte, 133 titration with ammonia, 726—728 See also Hydrogen chloride Hydrocyanic acid. 66 dissociation in water, 673—674 pH of mixture with, 655—657 titration with sodium hydroxide, 722—725 Hydrofluoric acid dissociation equilibrium of, 698—700 pH of, 652—653 reaction with sodium fluoride, 698—700 as weak acid, 652 Hydrogen in ammonia synthesis, 597. 600, 620—621 atomic mass of, 79—80 Bohr model of, 295—300 bonding in, 52, 342—343, 909 chemistry of, 914—916 effusion rate of, 213 emission spectrum of, 294—295 energy of combustion for, 249—251, 266, 269—271 energy quantization in, 297 as fuel, 249, 266—271, 916 in fuel cells, 844, 845 in human body, 911 industrial uses of, 915 Lewis structure for, 365 molecular orbitals in, 416-418 as nonmetal, 908, 909, 912, 915 orbitals of, 301—306, 309, 312 oxidation state of, 162, 163 preparation of, 266—268, 912, 914—915 properties of, 217, 325, 914 as reducing agent, 989 standard, electrode, 826, 827 in syngas, 265—266 thermodynamic data for, A20 in water, 4—5, 130—131 Hydrogenation, 571—572, 915, 1007, 1016 Hydrogen bonding, 441—442 in ammonia, 926 boiling points and, 441—442, 1019 in nucleic acids, 1046 in nylon, 1027 in proteins, 1036, 1037, 1038 viscosity and, 444 in water, 441, 467—468, 473 Hydrogen bromide, 938 Hydrogen chloride dipole moment of, 348 dissolution in water, 639—640, 677 reaction with ammonia, 642 See also Hydrochloric acid Hydrogenwhlorine cannon, 937 Hydrogen cyanide. 722 Hydrogen fluoride, 937—939 bonding in, 344, 346—347, 937, 938 Lewis structure for, 368 molecular orbital model of, 426 synthesis of, 603, 614—617 as weak acid, 677, 938, 939 Hydrogen fuel cells, 271, 844. 845 Hydrogen halides, 677, 937—939 Hydrogen iodide. 617—618, 938 Hydrogen ions in acidic solutions, 66, 134, 154, 639, 641, 677 autoionization of water and. 645—647, 651 in buffered solutions, 705, 706, 707, 710, 712 pH of solutions and, 647—650 solubility and, 752 Hydrogen peroxide, 63 Hydrogen phthalate ion, 159 Hydrogen sulfide, 349 Hydrogen sulfites. 936 Hydrohalic acids. 643, 937—939 Hydrometallurgy, 989—990 Hydronium ion, 640, 641, 645 Hydrophilic. 505, 1034 Hydrophobic. 505, 1034 Hydrostatic pressure, 520 Hydrosulfuric acid, 66 Hydroxide ion, 62 autoionization of water and, 645—647 in basic solutions, 134, 136, 154, 639, 661, 662 in buffered solutions, 702—703, 704, 705, 710, 712 ionic oxides and, 679 pOH and, 648—650 solubility and, 752 as strong base, 154—155 Hydroxides solubility of, 148, 661, 746 as strong bases, 661 Hydroxo ligands, 966 Hydroxyapatite. 744, 748 Hydroxyl group, 1019. 1042 Hydroxyl radicals, 219, 1028—1029 Hyperbola, 184 Hypertonic solutions, 522 Hypervitaminosis, 505 Hypochlorite ion, 654—655 Hypochlorous acid, 713, 940 pH of, 654—655 as weak acid, 643, 644 Hypofluorous acid, 940 Hypophosphorus acid, 932 Hypothesis, 5, 6, 7 Ice dry, 466, 475, 483 freezing-point depression, 518 melting of, 439, 440, 467, 476, 481, 774, 775, 784—785 as molecular solid, 449, 450, 466 properties of, 26 structure of, 915 vapor pressure of, 477 ICE (initial, change, equilibrium) table, 614, 656, 664, 666, 668 Ideal gas, 185, 189—190 free energy of, 795—796 fundamental characteristics of, 200 molar volume of, 195 work and, 241 Ideal gas law, 189—194, 514, 601 behavior of real gases and, 215—216 calculations using, 190—194 derivation of, 209—210 equation of state and, 190—191 kinetic molecular theory and, 206—210, 214, A13—A16 molar mass and, 198 partial pressures and, 199, 201—202 Ideal solution. 514—515 Ilmenite. 960 Independent variable, A6 Indeterminate error, 13, A10 Indicators. See Acid—base indicators Indium, 310, 918. 919 Inert gases, 385. See also Noble gases Infrared radiation, 264. 286, 287. 927 Initial rates. of reaction, 548—55 1. 561 Ink, paper chromatography of, 28 Insect pheromones, 388, 389 Insoluble solids, 147—148 Instantaneous rates, 543—544, 548 Insulators, 462 Integrated rate law, 546, 547, 551—562 for complex reactions, 559—560 first-order rate law, 551—554, 879 second—order rate law, 556—559 zero—order rate law, 559 See also Rate laws Intensive properties, 246 Intercept, in graphs, A6 Intermediate species, 562 Intermolecular forces, 440—443 dipole—dipole attraction, 440—442, 467—468 hydrogen bonding, 441—442, 1019 in liquid—liquid solutions, 514, 516 in liquids, 443—444, 473 London dispersion forces, 442—443 in molecular solids, 467—468 in noble gas solids, 450 in real gases, 206, 215—216, 217 solubility and, 502 vapor pressure and, 473 Internal energy, 239—242, 243 International System. See SI system of units International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), 255, 316—317 Interstitial alloy, 456, 994 Interstitial hydrides, 916 Intramolecular bonding, 440. See also Bonds Inverse relationship, 184, 212 Iodide salts, solubility of, 148, 746 Iodine electron affinity of, 322 medical uses of, 886, 887 oxyacids of, 939 properties of, 937, 938 radioactive decay of, 875 sublimation of, 475 thermodynamic data for, A20 Ion exchange, 917—918 Ion—exchange resin, 917—918 Ionic bonds, 52—54, 341, 344, 350—357 electronegativity and, 345—346 lattice energy of, 353—357 noble gas configurations and, 350—352 percent ionic character of, 357—358 in proteins, 1038 Ionic compounds acid—base properties of, 671—677 bonding in, 341 colligative properties of, 524—525 common ion effect, 698—700, 745, 750—752 conductivity of, 358, 449 coordination compounds as, 964 crystalline structure of, 355, 449, 450, 468—470 as electrolytes, 133—136, 524—525 electron configurations of, 350—352, 365 energy effects in, 353—357 equations for, in solution, 150—151 formula units of, 84—85 Lewis structures for, 365 naming of binary, 57—61 operational definition of, 358 oxidation states of, 162—163 with polyatomic ions, 61—63, 358 in precipitation reactions, 145—150 predicting formulas of, 350—352 properties of, 471 role of ion size in, 352—353 solid state vs. gas stage, 350 solubility of, 131—132, 145, 147—149, 503, 744—752 solubility products for common, 746, A24 solubility rules for, 147—149 of transition metals, 955—956 water—insoluble, 763 zero net charge of, 146 See also Binary ionic compounds; Crystalline solids Ionic hydrides, 915 Ionic liquids, 506 Ionic radii, 352—353 Ionic solids, 54, 449, 450, 468—470, 471. See also Ionic compounds Ion interchange, 148—149 Ionization of acids, 641, 642—644 autoionization of water, 645, 651 electrolytes and, 134—136 percent, 657—660 Ionization energy of alkali metals, 325—326 as periodic property, 3 1 8—32 1, 909 of transition metals, 957, 958 Ionizing ability, of radiation, 897 Ion pairing, 524—525 Ion product (Q), 752—753 Ion—product constant (KW), 645-647, 648—649, 672 Ions concentration of, 138—139 electrical conductivity and, 132—133, 135 electron affinity and, 321 energy of interaction between, 341 formation of, 52—54 hydration of, 131—132, 327 isoelectronic, 352—353 naming, 57—63 polyatomic, 61—63 selective precipitation of, 755—757, 762—764 sizes of, 352—353 spectator ions, 150—151 See also Anions; Cations; Complex ions Ion—selective electrodes, 840—841 Iridium, 2, 959 Iron abundance of, 911 compounds of, 962, 963 corrosion of, 774, 801—802, 817, 845, 846—847 crystal structure of, 994 electron configuration of, 314 for groundwater clean-up, 162—163 heat capacity of, 245 in human body, 982—984 metallurgy of, 991—992 oxide coating of, 845 properties of, 955, 957, 962 reaction with permanganate ion, 818—820 in steel, 456, 954, 992—994 thermodynamic data for, A20 Iron ore, 818 Iron oxide in ammonia synthesis, 540, 571, 925 reduction of, 992 in rust, 774, 846 Iron pyrite, 991 Irreversible process, 803 Isoamyl acetate, 389 Isobutane, 1008 Isobutyl substituent, 1009 Isoelectronic ions, 352—353, 356 Isoleucine, 1035 Isomerism, 969—974 of alkanes, 1007—1009, 1010—1011 coordination, 969 geometrical, 970, 974 linkage, 969—970 optical, 970—974, 1039—1042 of simple sugars, 1039—1042 stereoisomerism, 970—974, 1015 structural, 969—970 Isopentane, 1009 Isopentyl acetate, 86—87 Isopropyl alcohol, 25 Isopropyl substituent, 1009 Isotactic chain, 1032 Isotonic solutions, 522—523 Isotopes, 51, 79, 80, 873 Jets alloys used in, 960 fuels for, 263 Joliot, Frederick, 881 Jorgensen, Sophus Mads, 968 Joule (J), 211, 240 Juglone, 85, 389 Juhl, Daniel, 267 A83 Index Junction potential, 466 Junction transistor, 464 Kairomones, 389 Kelvin scale, 21—24 Charles’s law and, 187, 207 ideal gas law and, 193 kinetic molecular theory and, 206, 209, 210 a—Keratin, 1037 Kerogen, 271 Kerosene, 262—263 Ketones, 1020, 1023—1024 Kilojoule (kJ), 240 Kinetic energy, 209, 237 in chemical bonds, 342 in collision model, 566 of electrons, 308 internal energy and, 239 photoelectric effect and, 289 temperature and, 206, 209, 210 total energy constant and, 773 Kinetic molecular theory (KMT), 205—212, 565 effusion rates and, 213 ideal gas behavior and, 206—210, 214 meaning of temperature and, 210 postulates of, 206 quantitative model, A13—A16 real gas behavior and, 214—216 root mean square velocity in, 210—212 Kinetics. See Chemical kinetics Kinetic stability, of nucleus, 873—875, 878—881 Krypton, 314, 470, 941 Kuznicki, Steven, 201 Lactic acid. 526, 698 in buffered solution, 707 dissociation reaction for, 659—660 Lake Nyos tragedy, 510 Lamp oil, 262—263 Lanthanide contraction, 959 Lanthanide series, 315, 317, 324, 908, 954, 959 Lanthanum, 315 Lattice energy, 353—357 Lattices, 445, 446 Laughing gas, 929 Lavoisier, Antoine, 8, 41412, 285, 852 Law of conservation of energy, 236, 239, 773 Law of conservation of mass, 6, 41 Law of definite proportion, 42 Law of mass action, 597400, 604, 615, 745 Law of multiple proportions, 43—14 Laws fundamental chemical, 41—44 natural, 6 vs. theory, 6, 205 _ A84 Index Leaching, 989, 990 Lead atomic number of, 56 in gasoline, 263 geological dating with, 885—886 ions of, 351 metallurgy of, 166, 921 pencils and, 343 properties of, 311, 920, 92 1—922 thermodynamic data for, A20 toxicity of, 2, 921~922, 1038 Lead(II) acetate, 2, 921 Leading zeros, 14 Lead storage battery, 2, 25. 500, 842—843, 922 Le Chatelier’s principle, 620—626, 646—647, 698, 797. 802, 836, 994 Leclanché, George, 843 LE model. See Localized electron model Length Englishfimetric equivalents, 17, A26 as S1 unit, 9 Leptons, 896 Leucine, 1034, 1035 Leucippus, 40. 285 Levorotatory isomers, 973 Lewis, G. N., 359, 365, 679 Lewis acid—base model, 679—682 for complex ions, 759, 955—956, 964, 965, 975 Lewis structures, 365—369 for covalent bonds, 3654368 duct and octet rules, 365—366 equivalent vs. nonequivalent, 375 exceptions to octet rule, 369—373 formal charge and, 375—378 for ionic bonds, 365 odd~electron molecules and, 374 resonance structures, 373—374, 426 steps for writing, 366 in VSEPR model, 390 Libby. Willard, 884 Ligands, 759, 964, 965 coordination numbers and, 759, 964 in crystal field model, 976—982 as Lewis base, 759, 955—956, 964 naming of, 966 porphyrin, 982 spectrochemical series of, 977—978 types of, 965—966 Light color and, 978—980 diffraction of, 292—293, 445-449 dual nature of, 291 nature of, 285—287 plane—polarized, 970—973, 1040 speed of, 285—286 . visible light, 294—295, A16—A17 See also Electromagnetic radiation Light emissions. See Emission spectrum Lightning, 925 Lignite, 263 “Like dissolves like,” 132, 501—504 Lime. See Calcium oxide Lime boil, 993 Lime—soda process, 661 Limestone. See Calcium carbonate Limiting reactant (reagent), 107—115,151.153,594 Linear accelerator, 881—882 Linear complexes, 981—982 Linear equations, A6~A7 Linear low—density polyethylene, 1031 Linear model, of radiation damage, 898 Linear structure, 379, 382, 383 for coordination compounds, 964, 965, 975 in crystal field model, 981—982 with polar bonds, 348 of 5]) hybrid orbitals, 409, 414 Line notation. 831. 832 Line spectrum, of hydrogen, 295. See also Emission spectrum Linkage isomerism, 969—970 Liquefaction, 912 Liquid—liquid solutions, 513~516 Liquids capillary action of, 443 equilibrium expression and, 604, 641 intermolecular forces in, 440, 443—444, 473 ionic, 506 magnetorheological fluids, 448 positional entropy of, 777—778 properties of, 26, 439, 443—444 standard state of, 255 structural model for, 444—445 supercooled and superheated, 478 surface tension of, 443 viscosity of, 444 Liter (L), 9 Lithium electron configuration of, 312, 419 manic depression and, 2 molecular orbital model of, 419, 420, 455 properties of, 325, 327, 909, 913 reducing ability of, 326—327, 913 Lithium fluoride as ionic solid, 470 lattice energy for, 354—355 Lithium hydroxide, 105—106 Localized electron (LE) model, 3644365, 1017 for complex ions, 974—976 hybridization and, 404—4 1 6 Lewis structures, 365—369 limitations of, 405, 416 with molecular orbital model, 426—428 odd—electron molecules and, 374 resonance and, 374, 4264128 summary of, 413—416 three parts of, 365, 413 Logarithms, 647, A4—A6 London dispersion forces, 442—443, 450, 467, 471, 503, 1038 Lone pairs formal charge and, 375, 377 in localized electron model, 365, 366 in VSEPR model, 378, 381—382, 385—386, 388, 390 Low—density polyethylene (LDPE), 1031 Lowry, Thomas M., 154 Low—spin case, 977 Lubricating oil, 263, 272 Luminous intensity, as SI unit, 9 Lysine, 1034, 1035 Macroscopic world, 34 Maentyranta, Eero, 986, 987 Magic numbers, 875 Magnesium in cathodic protection, 847 crystal stmcture of, 455, 456 electron configuration of, 313 in fireworks, 298, 299 in hard water, 916—918 in human body, 916 ionization energy of, 321 properties of, 917 thermodynamic data for, A20 Magnesium hydroxide, 661 reaction with hydrochloric acid, 106, 107 solubility of, 752 Magnesium nitride, 922 Magnesium oxide, 350 lattice energy of, 3564357 Magnetic quantum numbers, 304 Magnetism, 421—423, 425 of complex ions, 977—978 of coordination compounds, 956, 964, 976, 984 See also Diamagnetism; Paramagnetism Magnetite, 164—165, 991 Magnetorheological (MR) fluids, 448 Maillard, Louis-Camille. 1040 Maillard reaction, 1040 Main-group elements. See Representative elements Major species, 651, 652, 660, 668, 683 Malleability, of metals, 56, 454 Manganese compounds of, 962 electron configuration of, 314, 957 in human body, 982 properties of, 954, 957, 962 in steel production, 992, 993, 994 thermodynamic data for, A20—A21 Manganese nodules, 962 Manic depression, 2 Mannose, 1041 Manometer, 182, 183 Marble, and acid rain, 2184219 Mars Climate Orbiter, 8 Masel, Richard, 844 Mass average, 77—78, 79 calculations with moles. 82484 of energy, 290—291 energy associated with, 887—888, 896 English—metric equivalents, 17, A26 in fission reactions, 892 kinetic energy and, 237 law of conservation of, 6, 41 molar mass, 84—87 percent composition of. 88—90 of reactants and products, 102—107, 115 as SI unit, 9—10 vs. weight, 9710 See also Atomic mass; Molar mass Mass action. See Law of mass action Mass defect, 888, 890 Mass number (A), 51—52, 873 radioactive decay and, 874, 875 Mass percent determining formula from, 96—97 of elements in compounds, 88790 for solution composition, 498, 499, 501 Mass spectrometer, 78479, 80, 885 Mathematical procedures, A1—A13 exponential notation, A1—A3 graphing functions, A64A7 logarithms, A4—A6 significant figures in, 15—17 solving quadratic equations, A7—A 10 See also Measurement Matter classification of, 26—29 composition of, 3, 28 early Greek explanations of, 40 nuclear physics and, 896—897 states of, 26, 439 wave—particle duality of, 287—294 See also Changes of state; States of matter Matter—antimatter collisions, 876 Mean, A11 Mean free path, 212 Measurement, 6 calculating final results, 14—17 determining density, 24—25 exponential notation, 15, A1—A3 mass vs. weight, 9—10 powers and roots, A3 precision and accuracy in, 12—14 significant figures, 12, 14—17 temperature, 21—24 uncertainty in, 11—14, A10—A13 unit conversions, 8, 17—21 units of, 9—11 units of pressure, 182—183 volume, 9, 11 See also Mathematical procedures; Significant figures; Uncertainty in measurement Median, All Medicine antitumor agents, 972 artificial kidney machines, 522 early development of, 40 intravenous fluids, 522 knee prosthesis, 448 radiotracers, 879, 886—887 Melting points, 476, 477—478 of alkali metals, 325, 913 impact of pressure on, 481 of metals, 454 normal, 478 for selected solids, 471, 476 Memorization, problem solving and, 87—88 Mendeleev, Dmitri, 56, 310, 311, 314 Meniscus, 11, 443, 444 Mercuric iodide, 28 Mercury convex meniscus of, 443, 444 heat capacity of, 245 for measuring pressure, 182 properties of, 325, 955, 1038 standard state of, 255 thermodynamic data for, A21 Mercury barometer, 182, 472 Mercury cells, 843, 857—858 Mescaline, 664 Messenger RNA (mRNA), 104641048 Metal—ammine compounds, 968 Metal chlorides, in fireworks, 298—299 Metal hydroxides, 661. See also Hydroxides Metal ions complex ions, 759—764 hydration of, 675, 678, 681, 683 selective precipitation and, 755—757 See also Complex ions; Ions Metallic hydrides, 271, 916 Metallic radii, 322 Metalloids (semimetals), 325, 908 Metallurgy, 911—912, 986—995 early development of, 40 electrorefining, 855 hydrometallurgy, 989—990 of iron, 991—992 of lead, 166, 921 pyrometallurgy, 989 as redox reaction, 166 roasting in, 166, 622, 988—989 steel production, 992—995 typical steps in, 987 Metal plating. See Electroplating Metals alloys, 455—456 as atomic solids, 449, 450 in binary ionic compounds, 57—63, 350 bonding models for, 454455 as cations, 56, 324, 350, 908 compared with nonmetals, 908—909 corrosion of, 845—847 crystal structure of, 451454 electrorefining of, 855 oxide coating of, 845, 847, 955 in periodic table, 56, 324—325 properties of, 56, 324—325, 451, 454, 455, 471, 909 as reducing agents, 326—327, 852, 913 Meter (m), 9 Methane bonding in, 52, 349, 358—359, 1007 chlorination of, 1012 combustion of, 97—99, 161, 165—166, 196—198, 238, 244, 256—257, 773, 844—845 decomposition of, 361 energy of combustion for, 249—251, 269 as greenhouse gas, 265 hybrid orbitals in, 404—406 hydrogen gas from, 266—267 Lewis structure for, 368, 404 molar mass of, 84 in natural gas, 262 properties of, 217, 1008 reaction with sulfur, 570 separating mixtures with, 201 structure of, 52, 53, 379—380, 38], 404, 1007 Methanol (methyl alcohol) commercial uses of, 1019—1020 enthalpy of combustion for, 261—262 u formation reaction for, 256, 793—794 as fuel, 113, 261—262, 272—273, 1020 in fuel cells, 844 hydrogen bonding in, 442, 1019 molecular structure of, 388—389 preparation of, 113—115, 796—797 produced from syngas, 266 as solvent, 504' standard state of, 256 Methionine, 1035 Vlethod of initial rates, 548—551, 561 Vlethylamine, 662, 666, 966, 1025 Vlethyl chloride, 359 4—Methyl—cyclopentene, 1015 Vlethylcyclopropane, 1013 Methylene group, 1007 Vlethyl group. 663 3—Methylhexane, 1010 Vlethyl orange indicators, 729, 732 2—Methy1pentane, 1010 3—Methylpentane, 1010 Vlethyl phenyl ketone, 1023 Vlethyl substituent, 1009, 1010—1011, 1028 ‘VIetric system, 9—11 conversion factors, 17—21, A26 Vleyer, Julius Lothar, 310 Microchip laboratories, 143 Microscopic world, 4 Vlicrostates, 775—777, 778 Vlicrowave radiation, 286, 287 Milk of magnesia, 106, 107 Millikan, Robert, 48, 49 Milliliter (mL), 9 Millimeter of mercury (mmHg), 182 Millimole (mmol), 714 Minerals, 987, 988 Minton, Allen, 780 Mixtures, 26 diffusion process, 213—214 of gases, 199—205, 208, 213—214 probability for, 503 separating, 27—28, 201 solutions, 498 Models, 6 for chemical kinetics, 565—570 concept of chemical bonds, 358—361 correcting and updating, 214—215 fundamental properties of, 361 for liquids, 444445 purpose of, 205—206 Moderator, 894 Molal boiling-point elevation constant, 517 Molal freezing—point elevation constant, 517, 518 Molality (m), 499, 500, 501, 517 Molar heat capacity, 245 Molarity (M), 136—144, 152, 498, 499, 500—501, 714 A85 Index Molar mass, 84—85 boiling point and, 441, 442, 517 calculations using, 85—87 determining formula from, 96—97 freezing point and, 519 of gas, 198—199, 205 osmotic pressure and, 520—521 vapor pressure and, 473, 511 Molar volume, 195 Mole (mol), 81—82 Avogadro’s law, 188—189 calculations using, 82—84, 151 relationship with volume, 188—189, 208 Molecular formulas, 92—97. See also Chemical formulas Molecularity, 563 Molecular orbital (MO) model, 416—426 bond order in, 418419 delocalized bonding and, 426—428 for diamond and graphite, 458 of helium molecule, 419 of heteronuclear diatomic molecules, 425—426 of homonuclear diatomic molecules, 419425 of hydrogen molecule, 416418 with localized electron model, 426428 for metals, 455 paramagnetism and, 421—423 Molecular orbitals (M05), 416 bonding and antibonding, 417—418, 419421 conduction bands, 455 pi (7T), 420421 sigma (0'), 417 Molecular orientations, in collision model, 567 Molecular sieve, 201 Molecular solids, 449. 450, 466468, 471 Molecular structure, 378 acid—base properties and, 677—678 entropy values and, 790 hybridization and, 404416 linear, 379, 382, 383 octahedral, 382, 383, 412 optical activity and, 970 see—saw, 383 solubility and, 504—505 square planar, 386 tetrahedral, 379—380, 382, 383, 405406 trigonal bipyrainidal, 382, 383, 411 trigonal planar, 379, 382, 407, 409 trigonal pyramidal, 381, 383 T—shaped, 383 VSEPR model, 378—390 V—shaped (bent), 381, 383 _ A86 Index Molecular weight, 84 of polymers, 1031—1032 See also Molar mass Molecules, 52 diatomic, 4, 45—46 hybrid orbitals in, 404—416 Lewis structures for, 365—369 representations of, 52 See also Intermolecular forces; Molecular structure; Polar molecules Mole fractions partial pressure and, 201—202 for solution composition, 498—499 of solvent, 510, 51] Mole ratios, 104—107, 151 Molybdenum, 880, 959 Momentum in kinetic molecular theory, Al4—A15 uncertainty principle and, 301—302 Monatornic ions naming, 57458, 61 oxidation states of, 162—163 Monoclinic sulfur, 935, 936 Monodentate ligand, 965, 966 Monomethylhydrazine, 926 Monoprotic acids, 643—644, A22 Monosaccharides, 1039—1042 Multiple bonds, 362, 386388 Multiple proportions, law of, 4344 Multiplication in exponential notation, A2 of significant figures, 15 Muscle fibers, 1037 Myoglobin, 9834984, 1037 Naming compounds, 57—67 acids, 66—67, 1024 alcohols, 1019, 1022 aldehydes and ketones, 1023 alkanes, 1009—1012, 1014 alkenes and alkynes, 1014, 1015, 1016 amines, 1025 -ane, -yl suffixes, 1009 of benzene, 1018 binary covalent compounds, 63—64 binary ionic compounds, 57~61 carboxylic acids, 1024 common names, 57, 63 coordination compounds, 9667969 determining formula from, 58, 59 esters, 1024 flowcharts for binary compounds, 60, 64—65 hydro— prefix, 66 hypo—, per- prefixes, 61 —ic, -ous suffixes, 58, 66—67 —ide suffix, 57 -ite, —ate suffixes, 61, 66—67, 966 number prefixes used in, 63, 966 with polyatomic ions, 61—63 using Roman numerals, 58—61, 966 mamyl acetate, 1024 Naphthalene. 1019 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 8 Natta, Giulio, 1031 Natural gas, 262—263, 506. See also Methane Natural law, 6. See also Laws Neon electron configuration of, 313 ionization energy of, 320—321 isotopic composition of, 80 Lewis structure for, 366 molecular orbital model of, 424—425 properties of, 940, 941 Neopentane, 1009 Neoprene, 1027 Neptunium, 882, 883 Nernst, Walther Hermann, 838 Nernst equation, 838—840 Net ionic equations, 1504151, 152, 153, 245, 247—248, 714 Network solids, 449. 450, 457—466, 930 carbon and silicon, 458—461 ceramics, 461—462 properties of, 457—458, 471 semiconductors, 462—466 Neutralization reactions, 155. See also Acidibase reactions Neutral solutions, 645, 672 Neutrons in fission reactions, 892 isotopes and, 51 nuclear stability and, 874~875 in nuclear transformations, 882 properties of, 50, 873 v Newlands, John, 310 Newton (N), 182 Newton. Isaac, 285 Nickel as catalyst, 572, 1016 compounds of, 963 electron configuration of, 314 in human body, 982 properties of, 955, 957, 963 in steel production, 993, 994 thermodynamic data for, A21 Nickel—cadmium battery, 844 Nicotine, 389 Night vision technology, 290 Niobium, 2, 959 Nitrate ion, 62 bonding in, 426427, 428 Lewis structure for, 373—374 model of, 54 oxidation state of, 164 structure of, 386387 Nitrate salts, solubility of, 148 Nitric acid in air pollution, 219 in aqua regia, 763, 836 pH of, 651 preparation of, 101, 238, 929—930 properties of, 930 reaction with potassium hydroxide, 156—157 as strong acid, 134, 643, 714 titration with sodium hydroxide, 714—717 ' Nitric oxide formation of, 540—546, 925 molecular orbital model of, 425, 928 as odd—electron molecule, 374 paramagnetism of, 425, 928 properties of, 927—928 reactions with ozone, 573—576 Nitrite ion, 62 Lewis structure for, 374 as ligand, 969—970 Nitrito ligand, 970 Nitrobenzene, 1017 Nitrogen in ammonia synthesis, 597, 600, 620—621 in atmosphere. 217 in bases, 662, 664 biological processes and, 911, 925 bond strength and stability of, 923924, 930 chemistry of, 922, 923—930 common compounds of, 927 electron affinity of, 321 electron configuration of, 313 elemental form of, 910, 923, 930 explosives, 924 hybridization of, 406, 410 LeWis structure for, 368 liquid, boiling point of, 24 molecular orbital model of, 422, 423 oxyacids of, 929—930 preparation of, 111—113, 912 under pressure, 369 properties of, 217 separating mixtures with, 201 thermodynamic data for, A21 valence electrons of, 313 velocity distribution for, 212 Nitrogen cycle, 925 Nitrogen dioxide acid rain and, 218 in air pollution, 218w220, 925 dimerization of, 594 equilibrium pressure of, 610 preparation of, 251—252, 256 properties of, 928 rates for decomposition of, 540—546, 559, 560 reaction with carbon monoxide, 562~564 reaction with fluorine, 564—565 in solution, 679 Nitrogen fixation, 925, 954 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 925 Nitrogen hydrides, 926~927 Nitrogen monoxide. See Nitric oxide Nitrogen oxides, 9274929 air pollution and, 218—220 names for, 63 See also specific compounds Nitroglycerin, 924 Nitro ligand, 970 Nitromethane, 677 Nitrosyl bromide, 566—567 Nitrosyl chloride, 602, 618—620 Nitrosyl ion, 928 - Nitrous acid, 66 pH of mixture with, 655—657 as weak acid, 643, 644 Nitrous oxide, 927, 929 Noble gas electron configurations, 413, 908—909 of covalent compounds, 350 in ionic compounds, 350—352, 365 in Lewis structures, 365, 366 Noble gases, 324, 940—941 compounds of, 385, 941 freezing point of, 443 ionization energies of, 319 London forces in, 442—443 properties of, 56, 940—941 as solids, 449—450, 471 Noble metals, 845—846, 847, 852, 955 n-octyl acetate, 1024 Nodes of orbitals, 305 of standing waves, 301 Nonane, 1007, 1008 Nonelectrolytes, 132, 133, 136 Nonmetals as anions, 56, 325, 350, 908—909 in binary ionic compounds, 350 compared with metals, 908—909 covalent bonds in, 56, 63—64, 350 as oxidizing agents, 326 in periodic table, 324 preparation of, 912 properties of, 56, 325 Nonpolar molecules intermolecular forces and, 442, 443, 503 solubility and, 132, 501~504 Nonpolar side chains, 1034 Nonsuperimposable mirror images, 972—973, 1039 Nonzero integers, l4 Norepinephrine, 664 Normal boiling point, 478 Normal hydrocarbons. See Straight— chain hydrocarbons Normality (N), of solutions, 500, 501 Normal melting point, 478 Novocaine, 665 n—type semiconductor, 4624163, 464, 465, 466 Nuclear atom, 49—50 Nuclear charge ionization energy and, 318, 319 shielding of, 308—309, 320 Nuclear chemistry binding energy, 888—890 biological effects of radiation, 895—898 medical applications of, 886—887 nuclear energy, 890—895 nuclear stability, 873—875, 887—890 nuclear transformations, 881—883 radiation detection instruments, 883—884 radioactive dating, 884—886 radioactive decay, 874—878 See also Radioactive decay Nuclear fission, 875, 891—895 Nuclear fusion, 891, 895 Nuclear physics, 896—897 Nuclear power, 893—895 Nuclear reactors, 893—895 Nuclear transformations, 881—883 Nuclear waste disposal, 898 Nucleic acids, 1044—1048 Nucleons, 873 Nucleotides, 1044, 1047 Nucleus discovery of, 49—50 kinetic stability of, 873—875 properties of, 50—51, 873 radius of, 873 thermodynamic stability of, 887—890 Nuclides radioactive decay of, 874—876, 878—881 as radiotracers, 886—887 symbol for, 873 Numbers. See Measurement; Significant figures Nylon, 1026—1027, 1029—1030 Observations, 5, 6, 7 Oceans, elements in, 911 Octahedral complexes, 976—980 Octahedral holes, 468—469 Octahedral structure, 382, 383 for coordination compounds, 964, 965, 968, 970, 975 in crystal field model, 976—980 d2sp3 hybrid orbitals, 4124113, 414 Octane, 263, 1008 combustion of, 248—249 in gasoline, 103 Octaves, periodic, 310 Octet rule, 366 comments about, 371 exceptions to, 369—373 Odd-electron molecules, 374 Oils hydrogenation of, 571—572 immiscibility in water, 503 from plants, 272, 273 residual, 266 See also Petroleum Oil shale, 271 Open hearth process, 992, 993 Operator, 301 Optical isomerism, 969, 970—974, 1039—1042 Orbital diagrams, 312, 313 Orbitals, 301 d orbitals, 304, 305, 307, 309 dsp3 hybrid orbitals, 411—412 dzsp3 hybrid orbitals, 412—413 electron spin in, 306—308 f orbitals, 304, 305, 307 of hydrogen atom, 301—306 hydrogenlike, 309, 312 mathematical signs for, 305 periodic table and, 312—318 physical meaning of, 302—303 of polyelectronic atoms, 308—309 p orbitals, 304, 305, 306, 309 quantum numbers and, 303—304 shapes and energies of, 305—306 shielding and, 309 s orbitals, 301—303, 304, 305, 309 sp hybrid orbitals, 409—410 sp2 hybrid orbitals, 407—408 sp3 hybrid orbitals, 404—406 See also Electron configurations; Molecular orbital model Orbit—transition diagram, 295 Order overall reaction, 549 of reactant, 545 Ores, 911—912, 987—988. See also Metallurgy Organic acids, 643, 1024 Organic chemistry, 1006. See also Hydrocarbon derivatives; Hydrocarbons Organoceramics, 462 Orthophosphoric acid, 931. See also Phosphoric acid Osmium, 959 Osmosis, 520—524 dialysis, 521—522 isotonic solutions, 522—523 reverse osmosis, 523—524 Osmotic pressure, 520—524, 525, 1042—1043 Ostwald process, 101, 929—930 Overall reaction order, 549 Overvoltage, 851 Oxalate, 965, 966, 969 Oxidation, 165—166 at anode, 825 corrosion, 845—847 in steel metallurgy, 992—994 Oxidation numbers. See Oxidation states Oxidation—reduction reactions, 144, 161—166 in acidic solutions, 818—821 in basic solutions, 821—823 characteristics of, 165—166 electron transfer in, 161, 165, 819, 824 equilibrium constants for, 841—842 in galvanic cells, 823—826 half-reaction method for balancing, 166, 817—823 in metallurgy, 166, 987, 988—989, 991—993 between metals and nonmetals, 326 normality in, 500 oxidation states method for balancing, 166—168 Oxidation states, 162—165 vs. actual charges, 163, 375, 378 for balancing reactions, 166—168 in coordination compounds, 964 in half—reaction method, 818, 820 for nitrogen, 927 noninteger, 165 rules for assigning, 162—163 for transition metals, 955, 957, 958, 960—961 Oxide coating, of metals, 845, 847, 955 Oxide ion, 322, 350—351 Oxide minerals, 988 Oxides acid—base properties of, 679, 681, 909—910 of alkaline earth metals, 909—910, 916 nitrogen, 927—929 phosphorus, 931 sulfur, 935—936 transition metal, 955 Oxidizing agents, 165—166 in electrochemistry, 823—825 in fireworks, 298, 299 nonmetals as, 326 oxyanions as, 940 relative abilities of, 851 Oxyacetylene torch, 1016 Oxyacids, 643 acid strength of, 677—678 of halogens, 939—940 of nitrogen, 929—930 of phosphorus, 931—932 of sulfur, 936 Index A87 Oxyanions, 61—62, 66—67, 939—940 Oxygen, 3 abundance of, 911, 933 in atmosphere, 217, 933 chemistry of, 933—934 covalent bonds in, 52 discovery of, 41 electron affinity of, 321—322 electron configuration of, 350 elemental form of, 910, 933 in human body, 911, 982—986 liquid, 933 molecular orbital model of, 422, 423, 424 molecular velocities for, 212 oxidation state of, 162, 163 paramagnetism of, 423, 933 preparation of, 203, 204—205, 912 properties of, 932 standard state of, 255 thermodynamic data for, A21 in water, 4—5, 130—131 Oxygen difluoride, 940 Oxytocin, 1036 Ozone bonding in, 426—427 decomposition of, 573, 576—577 molecular structure of, 933 oxidizing power of, 933—934 preparation of, 933 reactions with nitric oxide, 573—576 in troposphere, 218—219, 573—576 in upper atmosphere, 217, 576—577, 895, 934, 1013 Ozonolysis, 934 Paint for corrosion, 847 lead—based, 921—922 Palladium, 916, 955 antitumor activity of, 972 as catalyst, 572, 954, 959, 1016 Paper, acid decomposition in, 682—683 Paper chromatography, 28 Paracelsus, 40 Paramagnetism, 421—423, 425. 933, 977. See also Magnetism Partial charge, 131, 344 Partial pressures collecting gases over water and, 203—204 Dalton’s law of, 199—205, 208 equilibrium constant and, 602—604, 610—612, 617—618 mole fractions and, 201—202 See also Pressure Particle accelerators, 56, 82, 881—882, 896, 897 Particle physics, 896—897 Particle—wave duality, 287—294 Pascal (Pa), 183 i A88 Index Pasteur, Louis, 970 Pathway, 237—238, 773—774 Patina, 846, 963 Pauli, Wolfgang, 308 Pauli exclusion principle, 308, 312, 313 Pauling, Linus, 344—345, 359 Pencils, 343 Penetration effect, 309, 315 Penicillin, 972 Pentaamminechlorocobalt(lll) chloride, 967 Pentaborane, 919 Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 467 Pentane, 263, 1008 isomers of, 1008—1009 2—Pentanone, 1023 Pentoses, 1039, 1040, 1041 Peptide linkage, 1034, 1047 Percent composition, of compounds, 88—90 Percent dissociation, 657—660 Percent yield, 113—115 Perchloric acid, 134, 643, 939 Perfluoroethylene, 1028 Periodic table alternative format for, 57, 316—317 Aufbau principle and, 312—318 electronegativity values, 345 history of, 309—311 illustration of, 55, 311, 315, 316, 908 information contained in, 323—325 introduction to, 54—57 properties of alkali metals, 325—327 representative elements, 908—912 transuranium elements, 883 Periodic trends atomic radius, 322—323, 909—910 in chemical properties, 285, 309—310, 318—323 electron affinity, 321—322 ionic radii, 352—353 ionization energies, 318—321 quantum mechanics and, 309, 908 of transition elements, 954 Periods, in periodic table, 57 Permanganate ion as oxidizing agent, 962 reaction with iron(ll), 818—820 in spectroscopic analysis, A18—A19 Pesticides, 501, 927 Petroleum air pollution and, 218—220 composition and fractions of, 262—263 dwindling supplies of, 220, 236 Pewter, 456, 920 pH, 647—650 buffered solutions and, 701—713 calculating pH and pOH, 648—650 at equivalence point, 721, 722, 724 indicators and, 730—733 meter, 647, 649, 701, 728, 840 of polyprotic acids, 667, 668—671 of salt solutions, 672—675 solubility and, 752 of strong acid solutions, 650—651 of strong base solutions, 662 values of common substances, 647 of weak acid solutions, 652—660 of weak base solutions, 663—666 See also pH curve Phase diagrams, 479—483 for carbon dioxide, 482—483 for water, 479—482, 516 pH curve, 714 indicators and, 728, 733 for strong acid—strong base titrations, 716—717 for weak acid—strong base titrations, 717—726 for weak base—strong acid titrations, 726—728 Phenanthrene. 1019 Phenolphthalein indicators, 158—159, 728—729, 732 Phenols, 1021 Phenylalanine, 1035 Phenyl group, 1018 Phenyl substituent, 1028, 1033 Pheromones, 3, 389 “Phlogiston,” 41 Phosphate ion, 62 Phosphate salts, solubility of, 148, 746 Phosphide salts, 931 Phosphine, molecular structure of, 390, 931 Phosphoric acid, 66, 931—932 in nucleotides, 1044, 1045 pH of, 668—669 as polyprotic acid, 666, 667—669 as weak acid, 643, 932 Phosphors, 290, 292 Phosphorus chemistry of, 922, 923, 930—932 elemental form of, 910, 930—931 in fertilizers, 932 ionization energy of, 320 molecular orbital model of, 425 oxides, 931 oxyacids of, 931—932 in steel production, 992, 994 thermodynamic data for, A2] white, 466 Phosphorous acid, 932 Phosphorus pentachloride decomposition of, 605 hybrid orbitals in, 411 Lewis structure for, 371, 411 molecular structure of, 384 preparation of, 624 Phosphorus pentoxide, 95 Phosphorus trichloride, 624 Photochemical smog, 219—220, 925 Photoelectric effect, 289—290 Photons, 288—289 apparent mass of, 290—291 electromagnetic force and, 896 energy of, 288 gamma rays as, 876 Photosynthesis, 161, 264, 268, 982 Physical changes, 27 Physical states, See Changes of state; States of matter Pi (7r) bonds, 408, 409, 410 in alkenes, 1014, 1015, 1016 atomic size and, 910, 923 of carbon, 910, 920 of nitrogen, 930 resonance structures and, 427—428 Pig iron, 992, 993 Pi (7r) molecular orbitals, 420—421, 422, 428, 458, 459, 1017 tapet 11,142 Planar structure, with polar bonds, 348. See also Square planar structure; Trigonal planar structure Planck, Max, 287—288, 295 Planck’s constant, 288, 295, 302 Plane—polarized light, 970—973, 1040 Plants carbohydrates in, 1042—1043 chemical communication of, 388, 389 fuels from, 271—273 photosynthesis, 264, 268, 982 thermogenic, 246—247 Plasma televisions, 292—293 Plastic explosives, detecting, 467 Plastics, blowing agent for, 926—927. See also Polymers Platinum, 955 antitumor activity of, 972 as catalyst, 572, 954, 959, 1016 as electrode, 826, 831 Platinum group metals, 959 Pleated sheet structure, 1036, 1037 Plumber’s solder, 456 Plum pudding model, 48, 49, 50 Plunkett, Roy, 1028 Plutonium, 883, 895 p—n junction semiconductors, 463—466 pOH, 648—649. 665 Polar covalent bonds, 344 dipole moments and, 346—349 electronegativity and, 345—346 intermolecular forces and, 440—442, 443—444 percent ionic character of, 357—358 Polar fish, 528 Polarity acid—base properties and, 677 solubility and, 501—505 Polarizability, 443, 473 Polarized light, 970—973, 1040 Polar molecules, 131 dipole moment of, 346—349, 440 electronegativity and, 345 water as, 131, 327, 344, 640 Polar side chains, 1034 Pollution. See Air pollution; Environmental issues Polonium, 446, 932, 933, 937 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 1029 Polyatomic ions, 54, 358 bonding of, 358 naming compounds with, 61—63 Polyatomic molecules, dipole moment of, 347 Polybutadiene, 1029 Polydentate ligand, 965, 966 Polyelectronic atoms, 308—309 Polyester, 1030 Polyethylene, 1028—1029, 1031 Polyhydroxy ketones, 1039 Polyhydroxyl alcohols, 1021 Polymerization, 1017 Polymers, 1026—1033 carbohydrates, 1038—1044 in ceramics, 462 chain arrangements in, 1032 entropic ordering in, 780 ethylene—based, 1028—1029, 1030—1033 history of development of, 1026—1028 nucleic acids, 1044—1048 properties of, 1031—1033 proteins, 574, 1033—1038 types of, 1026, 1028—1030 Polypeptide, 1034, 1036 Polypropylene, 1029, 1032 Polyprotic acids, 666—671, A23 characteristics of weak, 671 common ion effect and, 699 dissociation constants for, 667 pH calculations, 668—671 Polysaccharides, 1042—1044 Polystyrene, 1029, 1032—1033 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 1029, 1033 p orbitals. 304, 305, 306, 309 in alkynes, 1015 filling of, 312—317 group designation and, 908 Porcelain, 462 Porous disk, 824—825, 832 Porphyrin, 982, 983, 984 Positional probability, 777—779, 780, 786—787 Positive—ion bombardment, 881—882 Positron production, 876 Post—it Notes, 7 Potassium electron configuration of, 314 human nutrition and, 326 properties of, 325, 327, 913 reducing ability of, 327 thermodynamic data for, A21 Potassium bromide, 365 Potassium chlorate, decomposition of, 203, 204—205 Potassium chloride, 326 Potassium chromate, reaction with barium nitrate, 145—147, 150 Potassium dichromate, reaction with ethyl alcohol, 820—821 Potassium hexacyanoferrateflll), 967 Potassium hexafluorocobaltateflll), 968, 969 Potassium hydroxide reaction with acetic acid, 154 reaction with nitric acid, 156—157 solubility of, 148 as strong base, 134, 661 Potassium iodide, 504 Potassium perchlorate, in fireworks, 298, 299 Potential difference, 833 Potential energy, 237 in chemical bonds, 342, 343 in chemical systems, 238—239 in collision model, 566 of electrons, 308 internal energy and, 239 of nucleus, 873, 887 total energy constant and, 773 Potentiometer, 649, 825, 834, 840 Powers, in exponential notation, A3 Precipitates, 145 Precipitation reactions, 144, 145—150 in hydrometallurgy, 990 ionic equations for, 150—151 predicting solid products, 145—150, 753, 755 selective precipitation, 755—757, 758, 762—764 solubility equilibria for, 752—759 stoichiometry of, 151—154 See also Solubility equilibria Precipitator, electrostatic, 527 Precision, of measurement, 12—14, A10, A11 Predictions, of products, 145—150 Pressure atmospheric, 181—183 changes, and equilibrium, 620, 622—624 concentration and, 601 constant—pressure calorimetry, 245—248 critical, 480 English—metric equivalents, A26 enthalpy and, 243—244 entropy and, 795 equilibrium calculations involving, 601—604, 610—612, 617—618 free energy and, 790, 794—799 gas solubility and, 505—507 ideal gas behavior and, 214 kinetic molecular theory and, 206 osmotic, 520—524 partial pressures, 199—205, 208 in phase diagrams, 479—483 of real gases, 215—216 relationship with temperature, 207 relationship with volume, 184—186, 207 spontaneity and, 784, 786 standard, 255 units of, 182—183 work and, 241—242, 243 See also Partial pressures; Vapor pressure Priestley, Joseph, 41, 929 Priestley Medal, 41 Primary alcohol, 1019, 1022 Primary structure, of protein, 1034—1036 Primer pheromones, 389 Principal quantum numbers, 303, 309, 313, 317 Printed circuits, 464—465 Probability entropy and, 775—778 mixed state and, 503 positional, 777—779 of radioactive decay, 878 Probability distribution, 302—303, 305, 306 in molecular orbitals, 417 Problem solving conceptual, 87—88 “pigeonholing method” of, 87—88 scientific approach to, 5 Products balancing in chemical equations, 97—102 calculating mass of, 102—107, 115, 152—154 equilibrium favoring, 594 predicting, 145—150 Proline, 1035 Propane, 262, 263, 1008 combustion of, 102—104 formation of, 1016 molecular structure of, 1007 as propellant, 512—513 Propanoic acid, 713 1-Propanol, 1020 2—Propan01, 1020 Propellants, 512—513, 929 Propene, 1014 Propylene, 1029 Propyl substituent, 1009 Prosthesis, with MR fluid, 448 Proteins, 780, 1033—1038 a-amino acids in, 1034—1036, 1046—1048 denaturation of, 1038, 1039 as enzymes, 574—575 erythropoietin, 986—987 fibrous, 1033, 1036 globular, 1033, 1037 hydrogen bonding in, 1036, 1037, 1038 in polar fish blood, 528 in respiratory chain, 982, 983, 984, 985 structure of, 360, 1034—1038 Protein synthesis, 1046—1048 Proton acceptors, 154, 639—640, 661, 662, 677 Proton donors, 154, 639—640, 642, 677 Protons, 49 nuclear stability and, 874—875 properties of, 50, 873 See also Hydrogen ions Proust, Joseph, 42 Pseudo—first-order rate law, 560 p—type semiconductors. 463, 464, 465, 466 Putrescine, 1025 Pyramidal structure, of Group SA elements, 922, 923 Pyridine, 662, 663 Pyrite, 445, 934 Pyrolytic cracking. 263 Pyrometallurgy, 989 Pyrophoric substance, 930 Quadratic equations, 616, 618, 653, 671, A7—A10 Qualitative analysis, 757—759, 762—764 Qualitative observations, 6 Quantitative observations, 6, 9, 41. See also Measurement Quantization of energy, 288—294, 295, 300 Quantum mechanical model, 285, 300—309 Bohr’s contributions to, 295—300 electron spin in, 306—308 for hydrogen, 301—306, 416, 417 periodic table and, 309, 312—318, 908 for polyelectronic atoms, 308—309 probability distribution in, 302—303 " A89 Index quantum numbers, 303—304 uncertainty principle, 301—302 wave functions, 301—303 Quantum numbers, 303—304, 306—307, 309 Quarks, 28, 873, 896 Quartz, 340, 460, 461, 910, 956 Quinine, 665 Racemic mixture, 973 Radial probability distribution, 302—303 Radiation damage, 895—898 exposure sources, 898 factors contributing to, 896—897 models of, 898 to protein, 1038 with short-term exposure, 898 Radioactive decay biological effects of, 879, 895—898 dating by, 884—886 detection devices, 883—884 discovery of, 48—49 half—life, 879—881 kinetics of, 878—881 medical applications of, 886—887 nuclear equations for, 877 nuclear stability and, 873—875 types of, 49, 875—876 Radioactivity, 48—49. See also Radioactive decay Radiocarbon dating, 884—885 Radiotracers, 886—887 Radio waves, 286 Radium, 318, 917 Radon, 941 Rads (radiation absorbed dose), 896 Random—coil arrangement, 1037 Random error, 13, A10 Raoult, Francois M., 510 Raoult‘s law, 510—51 1, 513—514 Rate constant, 545, 546, 550, 551, 559, 565, 567—568, 569 Rate-determining step, 563—564 Rate laws for complex reactions, 559—560 determining form of, 547—551 differential rate law, 546, 547 elementary steps and, 563—564 first—order, 548, 549, 551—554, 562, 879 integrated rate law, 546, 547, 551—562 introduction to, 545—547 method of initial rates, 548—55 1, 561 pseudo-first—order, 560 reaction mechanisms and, 562—565 second-order, 549, 556—559, 562 summary of, 547, 561—562 zero—order, 559, 562 See also Reaction rates A90 Index Rate of decay, 878—879 Rates of reaction. See Reaction rates Reactants balancing in chemical equations, 97—102 calculating mass of, 102—107, 115 half—life of, 554—556 limiting, 107—115, 151, 153,594 order of, 545 Reaction mechanisms, 540, 562—565 Reaction order, 549. See also Rate laws Reaction quotient (Q), 608—610, 615, 621, 659, 753, 796, 838 Reaction rates, 540—545 average, 543 catalysis and, 570—577 collision model of, 565—570 concentration and, 541—545, 546, 565, 596 equilibrium and, 545, 608, 621 half—life of reactants, 554—556, 558—559, 562 initial rates, 548—551 instantaneous, 543—544, 548 issues in defining, 546 for radioactive decay, 878—879 reaction mechanisms and, 540, 562—565 temperature and, 565—571, 773 thermodynamics and, 608, 620, 773—774, 794, 798 See also Rate laws Reactor core, 894 Real gases, 206, 211, 214—216 Rectifier, 466 Redox reactions, 161. See also Oxidation—reduction reactions Red phosphorus, 930—931 Reducing agents, 165—166 in electrochemistry, 823—825 in metallurgy, 912, 988—989 metals as, 326—327, 852, 913 transition metals as, 958, 96] Reduction, 165—166 at cathode, 825 in iron metallurgy, 991—992 Reduction potentials, 826—833, 845, A25 of transition metals, 957, 958 Refining process, 993 Relative solubilities, 749—750 Relativity, theory of, 290, 888 Releaser pheromones, 389 Rem (roentgen equivalent for man), 897—898 Representative elements abundance of, 911 atomic radii for, 322, 323 electron configurations of, 316, 317 ionization energies of, 320 preparation of, 911—912 properties of, 954 4—_—_———————————----IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Survey of, 908—912 See also specific groups Residual oil, 266 Resonance structures in benzene, 1017 combined models for, 426428 localized electron model and, 373—374, 416, 426 in VSEPR model, 386—387, 390 Respiratory chain, 982—986 Respiratory inhibitor, 986 Reverse bias, 464, 466 Reverse osmosis, 523—524 Reverse reactions, 545, 547 Reversible process, 803, 834 Rhodium, 959 Rhodochrosite, 956 Rhombic sulfur, 935, 936 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 1044, 1045, 1046—1048 Ribose, 1041, 1042, 1045 Ribosomes, 1046, 1048 Ribulose, 1041 Roasting, in metallurgy, 166, 622, 988—989 Root mean square velocity, 210—212 Roots, in exponential notation, A3 Rubber, 1027—1028 Rubidium, 315, 325, 913 Ruby, 979 Rust, 774. See also Corrosion Ruthenium, 959 Rutherford, Ernest, 49—50, 294, 873, 881 Rutherfordium, 883 Rutile, 960 Salicylic acid, 246 Salt bridge, 824—825, 846 Salts. See Ionic compounds Sand, 34, 460, 912 Sapa syrup, 2, 921 Sapphire, 979 Saturated hydrocarbons, 1006—1014. See also Alkanes Saturated solutions, 745 Scandium, 310, 314, 956, 957, 960 Scanning tunneling microscope (STM), 3 Scheele, Karl W., 41, 343 Schierholz, Otto, 683 Schmidt, Lanny, 268 Schoenbein, Christian, 1026 Schrodinger, Erwin, 300, 301 Schrodinger equation, 301, 303, 308 Scientific method, 5—8, 205—206 Scintillation counter, 884 Scoville, Wilbur, 427 Screening electrons. See Shielding electrons Scrubbing, 220—221, 661, 935 Scuba diving, 200 Seaborgium, 883 Seawater, desalination of, 27, 523—524 Secondary alcohol, 1019, 1022 Secondary structure, of protein, 1036—1037 Second ionization energy, 318 Second law of thermodynamics, 779—780, 786, 803 Second—order reactions, 549, 556—559, 562, 563 half—life of, 558—559 Seddon, Kenneth R., 506 Seed oils, 273 See—saw structure, 383 Selective precipitation, 755—757, 758, 990 Selenium, 4647, 932, 933 Semiconductors, 462466, 920, 933 Semimetals. See Metalloids Semiochemicals, 388—389 Semipermeable membrane, 520, 521—522 Serine, 1035 Seven Sisters chalk cliffs, 604 Sex attractants, 2—3, 389 Shielding electrons, 309, 319, 320 Sickle cell anemia, 984 Side chains, 1034 Siderite, 991 Sigma (0) bonds, 408, 409, 410, 411 in alkenes, 1014 resonance structures and, 427428 Sigma (0) molecular orbitals, 417, 418,419, 421,422 Significant figures calculations and, 14—17 for logarithms, 647 in mathematical operations, 15—17, A2 rounding off, 16, 17, 87 rules for counting, 14 uncertainty and, 12, A10 Silica, 460461, 910 Silicate minerals, 987, 988 Silicates anions, 460 ceramics, 461—462 structure of, 460 Silicon abundance of, 911 bonding of, 910, 920 compared with carbon, 910 discovery of, 46, 47 geological importance of, 459, 919, 1006 as network solid, 459466 properties of, 340, 919—920 as semiconductor, 462466, 920 in steel production, 992, 993, 994 thermodynamic data for, A21 Silicon chip, 47, 83, 464465 laboratories, 143 Silk, 1037 Silver complex ions of, 759—763 corrosion of, 845—846, 852—853 electrodes, 837 electroplating of, 849—850, 851 extraction of, 822—823 naming of compounds, 60 properties of, 954, 955 salts, solubility of, 148, 752 structure of, 453 thermodynamic data for, A21 Silver, Spencer F., 7 Silver cell battery, 843 Silver chloride precipitation of, 147—149 solubility of, 131, 752 Silver chromate, in solution of silver nitrate, 750—751 Silver phosphate, solubility of, 752 Silver plating, 855—856 Silver sulfide, 846, 852—853 Silver tarnish, 846 Simple cubic, 446 Simple sugars, 1039 Single bonds, 362 SI system of units, 9—11 conversion factors for, 17—21, A26 examples of, 10 fundamental units, 9 prefixes used in, 9, 10 Slag, 991—993 Slaked lime, 661. See also Calcium hydroxide Slightly soluble solids, 147—148 Slope, in graphs, A6, A7 Slurry, 220, 266 Smaltite, 962 Smart fluids, 448 Smelting, 988 Smog, 181, 219—220, 925 Snake venom, 326 Soda ash, 661 Soda—lime glass, 461 Sodium electron configuration of, 313 electron repulsions in, 308 in fireworks, 298, 299 ionization energy of, 321 isotopes of, 51 production of, 856—858 properties of, 325, 327, 913 radioactive decay of, 876 reducing ability of, 327 standard state of, 255 thermodynamic data for, A21 valence electrons of, 313 Sodium acetate, 672 Sodium ammonium tartrate, 970 Sodium azide, 202 Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), 106—107 Sodium chloride, 3 bonding in, 52—54, 341 crystal structure of, 355, 468, 469—470 electrolysis of, 851, 856—858 formation of, 161, 325—326 formula unit of, 85 as ionic solid, 449, 450 ion pairing in solution, 524—525 isotonic solution of, 522—523 for melting ice, 518 melting point of, 506 properties of, 341 solubility of, 131, 503, 504, 744 as strong electrolyte, 132—134 vapor pressure of solution of, 511 Sodium chloride structure, 355 Sodium fluoride lattice energy of, 356—357 pH of, 673 reaction with hydrofluoric acid, 698—700 Sodium hydroxide in buffered solutions, 702—703 equivalent mass of, 500 pH of, 662 production of, 817, 857—858 reaction with hydrogen chloride, 154, 155—156 solubility of, 148 standard solution of, 158—159 as strong base, 134, 661 titration with acetic acid, 717—722 titration with hydrocyanic acid, 722—725 titration with nitric acid, 714—717 Sodium ion, 53 Sodium lactate, 707 Sodium sulfate, 358, 512—513 Solar power, 893 Solder, 456, 920 Solids amorphous, 445 atomic, 449450 crystalline, 445, 449451 equilibrium expression and, 604, 641 insoluble, 763 ionic, 350, 449, 468470 melting points of selected, 476 metals, 451—456 molecular, 449, 466468 network atomic, 457466 positional entropy of, 777—778, 787—788 in precipitation reactions, 145—150, 752—753 solubility of selected, 508 solubility rules for, 147—149 standard state of, 255 types and properties of, 26, 439, 471 vapor pressure of, 475 X-ray diffraction of, 445449 See also Crystalline solids; Ionic compounds Solid solutions, 26, 916 Solubility of complex ions, 762—764 as equilibrium position, 745 of gases, 505—507, 508 importance of, 744 of ionic substances, 131—132, 145, 147—149, 503, 744—752 molecular structure and, 504—505 polarity and, 501—505 pressure and, 505—507 rules, for predicting precipitates, 147—149 temperature and, 507—508, 763 of vitamins, 501, 504—505 in water, 131—132 Solubility equilibria, 744—752 calculating solubility, 748—749 calculating solubility product, 745—748 common ion effect and, 745, 750—752 with complex ions, 759—764 formation constants, 759—761 ion product in, 752—753 pH of solutions and, 752 for precipitation reactions, 752—759 qualitative analysis of common cations, 757—759, 762—764 relative solubilities, 749—750 Solubility product constant (K,,,), 745—750, 756 for common ionic solids, 746, A24 relative solubilities and, 749—750 Solutes, 132, 498 ionic, 512—513 nonvolatile, 509—511, 516 in solution formation, 501—504 volatile, 513—516 Solution composition, 136—144, 498—501 concentration and volume, 140, 142—143 dilution calculations, 141—144 ion concentrations, 138—139 molarity, 136—138, 498, 500—501 normality, 500 various methods for describing, 499—501 Solutions, 26, 498 aqueous, 130 boiling point elevation, 516—517 colloids, 526—527 conductivity of, 132—133, 135 electrolyte, 524—525 energy of formation, 501—504, 508, 514—515 entropy of formation, 778 equations for reactions in, 150—151 factors affecting solubility, 504—508 freezing—point depression, 5 18—519 hypertonic, 522 ideal, 514—5 15 isotonic, 522—523 liquid—liquid, 513—5 16 osmotic pressure, 520—524 pH of, 647—650 Raoult’s law, 510—511, 513—514 saturated, 745 solid, 26, 916 standard, 140—141, 158—159 standard state of substance in, 255 stock, 141 stoichiometry of, 151—154 vapor pressure of, 509—516 various types of, 498 See also Acidic solutions; Aqueous solutions; Basic solutions Solvents, 132, 498, 499 ionic liquids, 506 ketones as, 1023 in solution formation, 501—504 water as common, 130—132, 503 Somatic damage, 896 s orbitals, 301—303, 304, 305, 309 filling of, 312—317 group designation and, 908 for transition metals, 957—958 Space-filling models, 52, 53 Space—filling unit cell, 446 Space shuttle fuels for, 610, 845, 926 Mars Climate Orbiter, 8 removing carbon dioxide, 105 transition metals used in, 959 Specific heat capacity, 245 Spectator ions, 150—151 Spectrochemical series, 977—978 Spectrophotometer, A l6—A 17 Spectroscopy, 444, A 1 6—A 19 Speed of light, 285—286 Sphalerite, 964 Spheres, 443 sp hybrid orbitals, 409410, 414, 975, 1015 spz hybrid orbitals, 407408, 414, 458, 1014, 1017 tsp} hybrid orbitals, 404406, 414, 458,919,975, 1007, 1013 Spinneret, 1027 Splitting of the 3d orbital energies, 977—982 Spontaneous fission, 875, 876 _ A91 Index Spontaneous processes cell potential and, 831, 835—836 energy waste and, 803, 834 entropy and, 773—780, 834 exothermicity and, 774—775, 781—783 free energy and, 783—786, 787, 794, 797—798, 802 rate of, 540, 773 temperature and, 780—786 work and, 802—803, 833 Sports drinks, 526 Square planar complexes, 981—982 Square planar structure, 386 for coordination compounds, 964, 965, 970, 975 in crystal field model, 981—982 Stability, nuclear, 873—875 Stability constants, 759—761 Stahl, Georg, 41 Stainless steel, 847, 962, 994 Stalactites and stalagmites, 743, 744, 752 Standard atmosphere (atm), 182—183, 255 Standard deviation, A 11 Standard enthalpy of formation, 255—262, Al9—A22 Standard free energy change, 790—794 Standard free energy of formation. 793—794, 796, A19—A22 Standard hydrogen electrode, 826, 827 Standard pressure, 255 Standard reduction potentials, 826—833, 845, 850, A25 Standard solution, 140—141, 158—159 Standard states, 255 cell potential and, 826, 827, 832 enthalpy and, 255—256 entropy and, 788 free energy and, 790 Standard temperature and pressure (STP), 195, 255 Standing waves, 300—301 Starch, 1042—1043 State function (property), 237—238 energy as, 238 enthalpy as, 243, 251, 256 entropy as, 788 free energy as, 791 States of matter, 26, 439 in chemical equations, 98 condensed states, 440 mobile and stationary phases, 28 vapor pressure and, 471475 See also Changes of state Staudinger, Hermann, 1026 — A92 Index Steel carbon in, 456, 847, 992, 994 cathodic protection of, 847 composition of, 456, 846, 847, 954, 959, 962, 992, 993, 994 corrosion of, 774, 845, 846—847, 921, 964 electroplating of, 847, 855, 921, 961 galvanizing of, 847, 964 heat treatment of, 994—995 production of, 992—994 in racing bicycles, 456 stainless, 847, 962, 994 tempering of, 995 from Titanic, 457 vanadium, 960 Stellite, 962 Stereochemistry, 968 Stereoisomerism, 969, 970—974, 1015 Steric factor, 568 Sterling silver, 456, 963 Stibnite, 782 Stock solutions, 141 Stoichiometric mixture, 109—] 10 Stoichiometric point, 157—158, 716. See also Equivalence point Stoichiometry, 77 of acid—base reactions, 155—157 for acid—base titrations, 716, 717—722 amounts of reactants and products, 102—107 atomic masses, 78—80 balancing chemical equations, 97—102 in buffered solutions, 702, 704 for complex ion formation, 760 counting by weighing, 77—78 determining formulas, 90—97 of electrolysis process, 848—849 gas, 194—199 limiting reactant, 107—1 15 masses of reactants and products, 115 molar mass, 84—87 moles, 81—84 percentage composition, 88—90 percent yield, 113—115 of precipitation reactions, 151—154 Straight—chain hydrocarbons, 1007, 1013 Strong acids, 134, 642—644 in buffered solutions, 709—712 common, 643 conjugate base of, 642—643, 672 pH calculations, 650—651 reactions with strong base, 672 titrations with strong base, 714—717 titrations with weak base, 726—728 Strong bases, 134, 661 pH calculations, 662 reactions with strong acid, 672 titrations with strong acid, 714—717 titrations with weak acid, 717—726 Strong electrolytes, 132—134, 150. See also Electrolytes Strong—field case, 977 Strong forces, 896 Strontium electron configuration of, 315 in fireworks, 287, 298 properties of, 917 radioactive decay of, 879, 880 Strontium hydroxide, 661 Structural formula, 52, 1007 Structural isomerism, 969—970 of alkanes, 1007—1009, 1010—101 1 Styrene, 1029. 1032—1033 Styrene—butadiene rubber, 1029 Subbituminous coal, 263 Subcritical fission reaction, 892 Sublimation, 475, 480, 482 Subshells, 304 Substitutional alloys, 455—156 Substitution reactions of alkanes, 1012—1013 of benzene, 1017 Substrates, enzyme, 574, 575 Subtraction in exponential notation, A2—A3 of significant figures, 15 Sucrose, 1042. 1043 as molecular solid, 449 as nonelectrolyte, 133, 136 solubility of, 744 vapor pressure of solution of, 511 Sugar of lead, 2, 921 Sugar. See Carbohydrates; Sucrose Sulfate ion, 61, 62, 967 Lewis structure for, 375—377 Sulfate minerals, 988 Sulfate salts, solubility of, 148, 746 Sulfide ion, 747, 756 Sulfide minerals, 988 Sulfide salts qualitative analysis of, 757 solubility of, 148, 746, 756—757 Sulfite ion, 61, 62 Sulfites, 936 Sulfur, 466 chemistry of, 934—936 electron configuration of, 317, 370—37 1 elemental form of, 910, 935 ionization energy of, 320 ores of, 934 oxides, 935—936 oxyacids of, 936 preparation of, 912, 934—935 properties of, 932 reaction with methane, 570 in steel production, 994 thermodynamic data for, A21 Sulfur dioxide, 935—936 acid rain and, 185, 218—219 catalytic oxidation of, 572 molecular structure of, 387—388 reaction with oxygen, 601, 787 roasting of, 988 scrubbing of, 220—221, 661, 935 in solution, 679 Sulfur hexafluoride hybrid orbitals in, 412 Lewis structure for, 370—371, 412 oxidation states of, 164 Sulfuric acid, 66 acid rain and, 218—219, 220, 572 in batteries, 842 commercial uses of, 936 diluting stock solution of, 142—143 equivalent mass of, 500 as nonvolatile solute, 509 pH of, 669—671 as polyprotic acid, 666, 669—671 preparation of, 571, 572, 639, 936 solution stoichiometry of, 500—501 as strong acid, 134, 643 Sulfur monoxide, 935 Sulfurous acid, 66, 936 Sulfur trioxide dissolution in water, 679, 681 formation of, 601 polar bonds in, 348, 349 pollution and, 572, 936 Supercooled liquids, 478 Supercritical fission reaction. 892 Superheated liquids, 478 Superphosphate of lime, 932 Surface tension, 443 Surroundings, 238—240 entropy changes in, 779, 780—783, 786 Syndiotactic chain, 1032 Syngas (synthetic gas), 265—266 System, 238—240 entropy changes in, 779. 780—783, 786 Systematic error, 13, A10 Table salt. See Sodium chloride Taconite, 991 Tanning lotions, 1040—1041 Tantalum. 959, 960 Technetium, 879, 886 Teflon, 972, 1028, 1029 Televisions, 292—293 Tellurium, 932, 933 Temperature absolute zero, 187 changes, and equilibrium, 620, 624—626, 646—647, 802 changes of state and, 475—478 conversion between scales, 21—24 critical, 480 entropy and, 788 free energy and, 794 vs. heat, 237 ideal gas behavior and, 214, 216 as intensive property, 246 kinetic molecular theory and, 206, 209, 210, 565 in phase diagrams, 479—483 profile, of atmosphere, 217 reaction rates and, 565—571, 773 relationship with pressure, 207 relationship with volume, 186—188, 207—208 as SI unit, 9 solubility and, 507—508, 763 spontaneity and, 780—786 systems for measuring, 21—24 vapor pressure and, 473—475, 477—478 velocity distribution and, 212, 566 Tempering, of steel, 995 Termolecular step, 563 terr—butyl substituent, 1012 Tertiary alcohol, 1019, 1022 Tertiary structure, of protein, 1038 Tetraethyl lead, 263, 922 Tetrafluoroborate, 506 Tetrafiuoroethylene, 1028, 1029 Tetrahedral complexes, 980—981 Tetrahedral holes, 468—469 Tetrahedral hydrides, 441 Tetrahedral structure, 379—380, 381, 382, 383 for coordination compounds, 964, 965, 975 in crystal field model, 980—981 in Group 4A compounds, 919 of Group SA elements, 923 with polar bonds, 348 of sp1 hybrid orbitals, 405—406, 414 Tetraphosphorus decoxide, 931 Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide, 931 Thallium ions of, 352 medical uses of, 886 properties of, 311,918,919 Theoretical yield, 1 13—1 15 Theory, 6 vs, laws, 6, 205 See also Models Thermal conductivity. See Conductivity Thermal energy, 238, 773, 781. See also Heat Thermal pollution, 508 Thermite reaction, 260 Thermochemistry calorimetry, 244—251 enthalpy, 243—244 Hess’s law, 251—255 nature of energy, 236—242 standard enthalpy of formation, 255—262 See also Heat Thermodynamics, 239 change in functions in, 787 compared with kinetics, 608, 620, 773—774, 794, 798 degree symbol on functions, 255, 784 electrochemistry and, 833—836 first law of, 239, 240, 773, 803 indicating quantities in, 239 second law of, 779—780, 786, 803 third law of, 788 work potential in, 803 See also Enthalpy; Entropy; Free energy; Spontaneous processes Thermodynamic stability, of nucleus, 873, 887—890 Thermogenic plants, 246—247 Thermometers, 919 Thermoplastic polymer, 1026 Thermoset polymer, 1026 Thiocyanate ligand, 969 Third law of thermodynamics, 788 Thomson, J. 1., 47—48, 294 Thorium, 46, 875 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, 894 Threonine, 1035 Thresh, L. T., 427 Threshold energy, 566 Threshold model, of radiation damage, 898 Thundat, Thomas, 467 Thymine, 1046 Time, as SI unit, 9 Tin ions of, 351 isotopes of, 874 metal plating with, 847, 855, 921 properties of, 920—921 thermodynamic data for, A21—A22 Tin cans, 855 Tin disease, 920 Titanic, 457 Titanium in cathodic protection, 847 compounds of, 960 electron configuration of, 314, 956—957 properties of, 954, 955, 957, 960 thermodynamic data for, A22 Titanium(lV) chloride, 1031 Titanium dioxide, 960, 961 Titanosilicate compound, 201 Titration Curve. See pH curve Titrations, 157. See also Acid—base titrations Toluene, 515, 1017 Tooth decay, 744, 748 Topaz, 979 Torquato, Salvatore, 454 Torr, 182 Torricelli, Evangelista, 182 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Earth Probe, 576 Trailing zeros, 14 Trail pheromones, 389 Irans—4-methyl—2—hexene, 1016 Transfer RNA (tRNA), 1047—1048 trans isomerism. See cis—trans isomerism Transistors, 464—465 Transition metals, 56, 324 complex ions of, 955—956 coordination compounds, 964—969 electron configurations of, 314—315, 317, 324, 908, 954, 956—958 first—row, 956—958, 959—964 4d and 5d series, 959 general properties of, 954—956 importance of, 954 ionization energies of, 957, 958 metallic hydrides of, 916 oxidation states of, 955, 957, 958 rarity of, 911 reduction potentials for, 957, 958 See also Complex ions; Coordination compounds Transition state, 566 Transmittance, A17 Transuranium elements, 883 Triads, periodic, 310 Triamminebromoplatinumfll) chloride, 968 Trichloroethane, 1038 Trichloroethanoic acid, 1024 Triethylaluminum, 1031 Trigonal bipyramidal structure, 382, 383 of alsp3 hybrid orbitals, 41 1, 412, 414 Trigonal holes, 468—469 Trigonal planar structure, 379, 382 of Sp2 hybrid orbitals, 407, 409, 414 Trigonal pyramidal structure, 381, 383 of Group SA elements, 922, 923 Triiodide ion bonding in, 412 Lewis structure for, 372, 412 structure of, 386 Trimethylamine, 662, 1025 Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 924 Tripeptide, 1034, 1036 Triple bonds, 362 hybrid orbitals and, 409—410 in nitrogen, 923—924 Triple phosphate, 932 Triple point, 480 Triprotic acids, 667. See also Polyprotic acids Troposphere, 217 Tryptophan, 1035 Tsapatsis, Michael, 201 T—shaped stiucture, 383 Tungsten, 325, 955, 957 Tyndall effect, 527 Tyrosine, 1035, 1036 Uhlenbeck, George, 306 Ultraviolet radiation biological impact of, 1038 chlorination reactions and, 1012 properties of, 286 titanium dioxide and, 961 in upper atmosphere, 217, 576, 895, 934 Unbranched hydrocarbons. See Straight—chain hydrocarbons Uncertainty in measurement, 11—14, A10—A13 average values, 13, 14, A1(PA11 simplified method for estimating, A12—A13 standard deviation, All types of experimental error, A10 Uncertainty principle, 301—302 Unidentate ligand, 965, 966 Unimolecular step, 563 Unit cells, 445, 446, 451—454 Unit factor method, 17—21 Units of measurement. 9—1 1. See also Measurement Universal gas constant (R), 189, 210, 211 Universe energy content of, 773 entropy changes in, 779, 780, 786 Unpaired electrons, 312—313 Unsaturated hydrocarbons, 1006—1007 alkenes and alkynes, 1014—1017 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1017—1019 hydrogenation of, 571—572, 915 Uracil, 1047 Uranium, 310 fission reactions of, 891—892, 894—895, 898 geological dating with, 885—886 metallurgy of, 990 neutron bombardment of, 882 radioactive decay of, 48—49, 875, 876, 878, 881 structure of, 446 thermodynamic data for, A22 A93 Index Uranium hexafluoride, 213 Urea, 1006 Valence, primary and secondary, 964 Valence electron configurations, 315, 320 for alkali metals, 325 chemical properties and, 314, 323—324, 908, 954 group labels and, 316, 317 in molecular orbitals, 419 for stable compounds, 350—352 Valence electrons, 313—314, 318 electron sea model and, 455 formal charge and, 375—377 in Lewis structures, 365—368 in semiconductors, 462—463 Valence shell electron—pair repulsion (VSEPR) model, 365, 378—390 complex ions and, 975 effectiveness of, 390 for multiple bonds, 386—388 with no central atom, 388—389 predicting molecular structure, 378—386, 404, 413 resonance structures and, 386—387, 390 steps for applying, 380 summary of rules, 390 Valine, 1035 Vanadium electron configuration of, 314, 957 oxidation state of, 960—961 properties of, 954, 957, 960—961 in steel production, 960, 993 Vanadium(V) oxide, 571 van der Waals, Johannes, 215 van der Waals equation, 216 Vanillin, 1023 van’t Hoff factor, 524—525 Vaporization, 471 endothermic nature of, 471 enthalpy change for, 439, 440, 473—475 entropy changes and, 780—781 of water, 439, 440, 780—781 Vapor pressure, 471—475, 511 calculations using, 475 changes of state and, 477—478, 516 equilibrium, 471—472, 509 measuring, 472 in phase diagrams, 479—483 of solids, 475, 477—478 of solutions, 509—516 of superheated liquids, 478 temperature and, 473—475, 477—478 volatility and, 473, 509—515 of water, 203, 472, 473, 474, 475 Vasopressin, 1036 A94 Index Vegetable oil fuels and lubricants, 272 Velocity distribution of, 212, 213, 566 effusion rates and, 213 kinetic energy and, 237 in kinetic molecular theory, 209, 2107212, A13—A16 root mean square, 210—212 Venus, 264 Vinyl chloride, 1029, 1033 Viscosity, 444 Visible light, 286, 2944295, A16—A17 Vitamins, solubility of, 501, 5047505 Volatility, 27 vapor pressure and, 473, 509—5 15 Volt (V), 825, 833 Volta, Alessandro, 826 Voltaic cells, 826 Voltmeter, 825, 826, 834 Volume changes, and equilibrium, 6224624 constant—volume calorimetry, 248—251 English—metric equivalents, 17, A26 enthalpy and, 243—244 kinetic molecular theory and, 206 measurement of liquid, 9, 11, 12, 13—14 molar, of ideal gas, 195 molarity and, 13$l44, 152 of real gases, 215, 216 relationship with number of moles, 1884189, 208 relationship with pressure, 184—186, 207 relationship with temperature, 186—188, 207—208 as unit of measurement, 9 work and, 241—242, 243 Volumetric analysis, 157, A16. See also Acid-base titrations Volumetric flask, 11, 142 Volumetric (transfer) pipet, 142 Voodoo lily, 246, 247 VSEPR model. See Valence shell electron-pair repulsion model V—shaped (bent) structures, 130, 381, 383 Vulcanization, 1027, 1028 ,: Waage, Peter, 597 Walsh, William, 921 Water acid ionization and, 134, 641 alkali metals in, 327, 912—913 as amphoteric substance‘,645 autoionization of, 645, 651 as base, 639—640, 644 ' boiling point of, 481 bonding in, 52, 130—131, 441, 467—468, 473 ’ collecting gases over. 2037204 as covalent hydride, 915 density of, 25, 439 desalination of, 27, 523—524 dipole moment of, 347 electrolysis of, 445, 28, 268, 843, 850, 915 evaporative cooling of, 471 freezing and melting of, 774, 784—785 freezing—point depression, 518 greenhouse effect and, 264 groundwater, 130, 1624163 heat capacity of, 245 heating curve for, 476 importance of, 130, 443 Lewis structure for, 366-367 as mixture, 27, 28 molecular structure of, 381 naming of, 63 oxidation states of, 162 phase diagram for, 4794182, 516 as polar molecule, 131, 327, 344, 640 softening of, 916—91 8 as solvent, 130—132, 503 in sports drinks, 526 structural formula for, 52 supercooling of, 478 thermal decomposition of, 268 thermal pollution of, 508 thermochemical decomposition, 268 three states of, 26, 439, 440 vaporization of, 439, 440, 471, 475, 7804781 vapor pressure of, 203, 472, 473, 474, 477 Water cycle, 264 Waters of hydration, 219 Water-soluble, 505 Water treatment chlorine for, 934 for groundwater, 130, 162—163 for hard water, 661, 916—917 ozone for, 933—934 Wave functions, 3014303, 416. See also Orbitals Wavelength, 285—286, 29CP291 Wave mechanics. See Quantum mechanical model Wavegparticle duality, 287~294 Waves characteristics of, 285—286 diffraction patterns and, 292, 445—447 electrons as, 2924294, 300 interference of, 445, 447 standing, 300—301 Weak acids, 136, 643 in buffered solutions, 701—706, 710 common, 643 common ion effect and, 698—700 conjugate base of, 643, 672 mixtures of, 655—657 percent dissociation, 6574660 pH calculations, 652—660 salts as, 674—676 titrations with strong base, 7177726 Weak bases, 136, 6627663 in buffered solutions, 7074709, 710 common ion effect and, 698—700 conjugate acid of, 663, 674 equilibrium constants for, A23 pH calculations, 663—666 salts as, 673 titrations with strong acid, 7264728 Weak electrolytes, 1327133, 1357136. See also Electrolytes Weak—field case, 977, 981 Weak forces, 896 Weight atomic, 45, 79 counting by, 77—78 vs. mass, 9—10 molecular, 84 Weight percent. See Mass percent Wentorf, Robert H., Jr., 482 Werner, Alfred, 964, 968 White phosphorus, 466, 930 White tin, 920 Wind power, 267, 893 thler, Friedrich, 1006 Wood, burning of, 774 Wood alcohol, 1019. See also Methanol Woodward, Scott, 884 Work, 237 done by gases, 240—242 electrochemical, 824, 833~836 energy and, 236, 237 free energy and, 802—804 internal energy changes and, 239—242 pressure—volume, 241—242, 2437244 sign indicating flow of, 240, 241 Wulfenite, 956 Xenon compounds of, 941 hybridization of, 412—413 properties of, 941 thermodynamic data for, A22 Xenon difiuoride, hybrid orbitals in, 415—416 Xenon tetrafiuoride, 941 preparation of, 252 structure of, 385 Xenon trioxide, Lewis structure for, 377—378 X—ray diffraction, 292—293, 4454149 X rays, 286, 1038 Yttrium, 315 Zero»order reactions, 559, 562 Zeros, classes of, 14 Ziegler, Karl, 1031 Ziegler—Natta catalyst, 1032 Zinc as anode, 826 electron configuration of, 314 galvanizing with, 847, 964 in human body, 911, 982 naming of compounds, 60 properties of, 954, 957, 964 thermodynamic data for, A22 Zinc sulfide, 469, 990 Zirconium, 959 Zone of stability, 874, 875, 876 Zone refining, 989 ...
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INDEX - Index Absolute zero, 187 Absorbance, A17—A19...

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