Chapter 9 - Cellular Respiration - Harvesting Chamical Energy

Chapter 9 - Cellular Respiration - Harvesting Chamical Energy

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AP Biology ROOSEVELT HIGH SCHOOL Dr. Block Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration:  Harvesting Chemical Energy Lecture Outline Overview To perform  their many  tasks, living cells require energy from outside  sources. Energy enters most ecosystems as sunlight and  leaves as heat. Photosynthesis generates oxygen and  organic molecules that the mitochondria  of eukaryotes use as fuel for  cellular respiration. Cells harvest the chemical energy stored  in organic molecules and  use it to regenerate ATP, the molecule that  drives most cellular work. Respiration has three key pathways: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and  oxidative phosphorylation. Student Misconceptions  1. Cellular respiration  is one of the most difficult and  poorly understood  topics dealt with in general biology  courses. Many students  merely memorize the steps of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and  the electron transfer chain. Such  rote learning leads to fragmentation  of student  knowledge. Students may not understand  how  the processes of cellular  metabolism  relate to one another and  may falter when  asked  to explain the significance of these stages. They may not  appreciate how  cellular metabolism  is relevant to higher levels of biological organization, such as organismal physiology  or energy flow in communities. Students may have considerable difficulty explaining the relationship  of breathing  and  digestion to cellular respiration. As much  as possible, avoid  exam questions about cellular respiration  that reward  memorization  and  rote learning.  Mention the significance of cellular metabolism  when  covering community  ecology, gas exchange, digestion,  and  circulation.  2. Students may be confused  by terms that have familiar, everyday  meanings distinct from their biological  definitions. The term  respiration  is particularly confusing, because it is an everyday  term with two biological  definitions, both in cellular respiration  and  in breathing.  3. Although  most students  recognize that plants respire, they may not fully understand  that cellular respiration  plays the same role in all aerobically respiring organisms. Many students  do not appreciate the relationship   between  photosynthesis and  respiration  in plants. Watch out for some of these common  misconceptions: a. Photosynthesis is the plant’s form of cellular respiration. b. Plants respire only when  they don’t photosynthesize.
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