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21019024 - Industrial applications of microbial lipases...

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Industrial applications of microbial lipases Fariha Hasan , Aamer Ali Shah, Abdul Hameed Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract Lipases are a class of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides. Microbial lipases are currently receiving much attention with the rapid development of enzyme technology. Lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. This review describes various industrial applications of microbial lipases in the detergent, food, flavour industry, biocatalytic resolution of pharmaceuticals, esters and amino acid derivatives, making of fine chemicals, agrochemicals, use as biosensor, bioremediation and cosmetics and perfumery. Keywords: Lipases; Biocatalysts; Industrial application 1. Introduction Enzymes are considered as nature’s catalysts. Most enzymes today (and probably nearly all in the future) are produced by the fermentation of biobased materials [1] . Lipids constitute a large part of the earth’s biomass, and lipolytic enzymes play an important role in the turnover of these water-insoluble com- pounds. Lipolytic enzymes are involved in the breakdown and thus in the mobilization of lipids within the cells of individual organisms as well as in the transfer of lipids from one organ- ism to another [2] . Microorganisms have earlier been found to produce emulsifying agents or biosurfactants to help solubilize lipids [3] . Several thousand enzymes possessing different sub- strate specificities are known, however only comparatively few enzymes have been isolated in a pure form and crystallized, and little has been known about their structure and function. The advent of protein engineering techniques makes their appli- cation to important industrial enzymes, such as proteases and lipases used in detergents, amylases and glucose isomerase used in starch processing and in the bioprocessing of raw materials or in the synthesis of organic chemicals are very efficient [4] . The particular benefits offered by enzymes are specificity, mild conditions and reduced waste. It may be possible, by choos- ing the right enzyme, to control which products are produced, and unwanted side reactions are minimized due to specificity of Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 51 227 8364; fax: +92 51 921 9888. E-mail address: [email protected] (F. Hasan). enzymes that appear in the waste stream. The plant using enzy- matic reactions can be built and operated at much lower capital and energy cost. Enzyme-based processes tend to have lower waste treatment costs. Enzymes however are biodegradable, and since they usually are dosed at 0.1–1.0% of the substrate, the contribution of the enzyme to the BOD in the waste stream is negligible [5] .
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