article - Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 2002 7 57-66 Hydrolysis...

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Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng . 2002 , 7: 57-66 ± Hydrolysis of Oils by Using Immobilized Lipase Enzyme: A Review V. Ramachandra Murty*, Jayadev Bhat, and P. K. A. Muniswaran Department of Chemical Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, A Constituent Institution of Manipal Acad- emy of Higher Education (Deemed University), Manipal-576119, India Abstract This review focuses on the use of immobilized lipase technology for the hydrolysis of oils. The importance of lipase catalyzed fat splitting process, the various immobilization proce- dures, kinetics, deactivation kinetics, New immobilized lipases for chiral resolution, reactor con- figurations, and process considerations are all reviewed and discussed. Keywords : hydrolysis, enzyme immobilization, enzyme kinetics, deactivation kinetics, immobi- lized enzyme reactors, chiral compounds IMPORTANCE OF LIPASE-CATALYZED FAT SPLITTING PROCESS The production of fatty acids by the hydrolysis of natural oils and fats is a very important component in the economic exploitation of these naturally produced renewable raw materials. These products include oils from corn, rapeseed, sunflower, palm, coconut, olives and rice bran, and a wide range of animal fats such as tallow’s. A significant number of high-value products require fatty acids in their manufactures. These include coatings, adhesives, specially lubricating oils, shampoos and other personal care products. Oils and fats are part of a group of compounds known as fatty esters or triglycerides, and their hy- drolysis essentially involves reactions with water to produce valuable free fatty acids and glycerol. There are three major routes currently used for the hydrolysis of fats and oils in the production of fatty acids; high pres- sure steam splitting, alkaline hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The high temperature and pressure (typi- cally 250 ° C, 70 bar) necessary for steam splitting make this process unsuitable for splitting sensitive tri- glycosides, unconjugated systems (which may undergo thermal degradation), hydroxylated fats and oils (which may dehydrate) or polyunsaturated oils with high io- dine number (which may polymerize). There are also difficulties associated with alkaline hydrolysis, namely high energy costs and the need to acidify the soaps formed, to produce the fatty acid products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triglycerides may be carried out at ambient conditions (typically 35 ° C and atmos- pheric pressure), making it energy efficient in compari- son to the steam splitting process. In this technology an aqueous solution of lipase is contacted with the oil, forming a liquid –liquid dispersion. The lipases are en- * Corresponding author Tel: +91-08252-571061 Fax: +91-08252-571071 e-mail: [email protected] zymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the oils into free fatty acids and glycerol at the interface between the two liquids. The hydrolysis reaction yields 1mole of glycerol and 3moles of fatty acids per mole of triglycerides. Triglycerides here on called “lipids”, do not
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2010 for the course GENETIK 12 taught by Professor Atillabasar during the Spring '10 term at Istanbul Technical University.

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article - Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 2002 7 57-66 Hydrolysis...

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