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review - Copyright and Their Industrial Inc Lipases 2004 by...

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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 118, 2004 Copyright © 2004 by Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved. 0273-2289/04/118/0155/$25.00 155 *Author to whom all correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Lipases and Their Industrial Applications An Overview A LAIN H OUDE ,* A LI K ADEMI , AND D ANIELLE L EBLANC Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Food Research and Development Centre, 3600 Casavant Boulevard West, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, J2S 8E3, E-mail: [email protected] Received May 19, 2003; Revised August 26, 2003; Accepted August 28, 2003 Abstract Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) are part of the family of hydrolases that act on carboxylic ester bonds. The physiologic role of lipases is to hydrolyze triglycerides into diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol. These enzymes are widely found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, as well as in molds and bacteria. Of all known enzymes, lipases have attracted the most scientific attention. In addition to their natural function of hydrolyzing carboxylic ester bonds, lipases can catalyze esterifi- cation, interesterification, and transesterification reactions in nonaqueous media. This versatility makes lipases the enzymes of choice for potential applications in the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, leather, textile, cosmetic, and paper industries. The most significant industrial applications of lipases have been mainly found in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical sectors. Limitations of the industrial use of these enzymes have mainly been owing to their high production costs, which may be overcome by molecular tech- nologies, enabling the production of these enzymes at high levels and in a virtually purified form. Index Entries: Lipases; industrial applications; detergent; protein engi- neering; rational protein design; directed evolution. Introduction The activities of enzymes have been known and exploited since ancient times. Enzymes have found great uses in several industries such as food, dairy, pharmaceutical, detergent, textile, pulp and paper, animal feed, leather, and cosmetics. The number of enzymes commercially available
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156 Houde, Kademi, and Leblanc Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 118, 2004 and the range of applications are gradually increasing. In 2000, the indus- trial market for enzymes reached US $1.5 billion (1) . There are many rea- sons for the growing interest in enzyme-mediated reactions compared to chemical processes, including high degree of specificity, mild reaction con- ditions, decrease in side reactions, and simplicity of postrecuperation. Fur- thermore, enzyme-mediated processes are energy saving and reduce the extent of thermal degradation (2,3) . Among all enzymes, lipases are gaining more importance. They are used in most of the fields mentioned for enzyme applications. This great interest in lipases is mainly owing to their properties in terms of enantio- selectivity, regioselectivity and broad substrate specificity.
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  • Spring '10
  • AtillaBasar
  • Lipase, industrial applications, Lipases, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Applied Biochemistry

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