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Unformatted text preview: RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Forced unbinding of GPR17 ligands from wild type and R255I mutant receptor models through a computational approach Chiara Parravicini 1 , Maria P Abbracchio 1* , Piercarlo Fantucci 2,3 , Graziella Ranghino 3 Abstract Background: GPR17 is a hybrid G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by two unrelated ligand families, extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs), and involved in brain damage and repair. Its exploitment as a target for novel neuro-reparative strategies depends on the elucidation of the molecular determinants driving binding of purinergic and leukotrienic ligands. Here, we applied docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) to analyse the binding and the forced unbinding of two GPR17 ligands (the endogenous purinergic agonist UDP and the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast from both the wild-type (WT) receptor and a mutant model, where a basic residue hypothesized to be crucial for nucleotide binding had been mutated (R255I) to Ile. Results: MD suggested that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and extracellular loop (EL) 2. The driving interaction involves R255 and the UDP phosphate moiety. To support this hypothesis, steered MD experiments showed that the energy required to unbind UDP is higher for the WT receptor than for R255I. Three potential binding sites for pranlukast where instead found and analysed. In one of its preferential docking conformations, pranlukast tetrazole group is close to R255 and phenyl rings are placed into a subpocket highly conserved among GPCRs. Pulling forces developed to break polar and aromatic interactions of pranlukast were comparable. No differences between the WT receptor and the R255I receptor were found for the unbinding of pranlukast. Conclusions: These data thus suggest that, in contrast to which has been hypothesized for nucleotides, the lack of the R255 residue doesn ’ t affect the binding of pranlukast a crucial role for R255 in binding of nucleotides to GPR17. Aromatic interactions are instead likely to play a predominant role in the recognition of pranlukast, suggesting that two different binding subsites are present on GPR17. Background Extracellular adenine and uracil nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and sugar nucleotides) are signaling molecules involved in several patho physiological phe- nomena, from short-term signaling (neurotransmission, mechanosensory transduction, secretion and vasodilata- tion) to long-term functions (proliferation, differentia- tion, survival and death, development and post-injury repair) . Conversely, cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl- LTs) are inflammatory lipid mediators derived from ara- chidonic acid through the 5-lypoxigenase (5-LO) pathway, and are implicated in bronchial asthma, stroke and cardiovascular diseases . Despite the fact that nucleotides and cysteinyl-LTs originate from totally independent metabolic pathways, several data suggest...
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