Lecture2 - Introduction and classification of space propulsion systems Objectives Types of propulsion systems Historical perspective Classification

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Introduction and classification of space propulsion systems • Types of propulsion systems • Historical perspective • Classification of different rockets types Objectives Reading assignment: The road to space by Gruntman Sutton and Biblarz Chapter 1 & 2
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Introduction PROPULSION – Changing the motion of a body Reaction force due to momentum of ejected matter Rocket is a device that provides thrust to a vehicle by accelerating some matter (the propellant) and exhausting it from the rocket. Most significant different between rocket and air-breathing engines is the rocket carries all its own propellant. Newton’s third law of motions
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Rocket History Three historical figures ( Tsiolkovsky, Goddard, Oberth)
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Rocket History
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Types of Rockets 1. cold gas thrusters 2. chemical thrusters monopropellant; bipropellant; liquid or solid propellant; hybrid 3. Nuclear 4. Solar thermal 5. Electric • A rocket carries with it all the propellant mass which is accelerated to produce thrust. It includes means for heating propellant and accelerating it into an exhaust. *Each of these overall classifications can be subdivided further. This course will focus mainly on chemical rocket propulsion , which includes liquid, solid and hybrid chemical propulsion systems. • One way to classify rocket propulsion systems is in terms of the energy source that exchanges energy with the propellant. In this classification system, we can classify rocket propulsion as:
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Ref: J.M. Seitzman Types of Rockets Basic Elements of a Rocket System
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Cold Gas Thruster • The cold gas thruster uses the pre-stored energy of a compressed gas (He or N 2 ) to develop thrust via a simple blown-down system. U. Queensland, Hyshot flight program • Simple, reliable and cheap • Low thrust • Low performance • No need for a heat addition system • Non-toxic • Used primarily for attitude control and minor orbital maneuvers. Propellant = energy source (storage pressure) Feed system = piping from storage to nozzle Accelerator: nozzle (thermal to kinetic energy)
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Cold Gas Thrusters • No Combustion • Thrust provided by expansion of gas through Nozzle • Low Isp • Simple Mechanism used on early satellites for simplicity • Attitude control + maneuvering Actuator Valve for Gas Flow Pressure Regulator Gas Storage Tank Gas Exhaust Nozzle The balloon model: A big tank of gas, a valve, and a nozzle.
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Types of Chemical Rockets Propellant type Monopropellant Bipropellant Solid •H y b r i d • Energy from chemical decomposition or reaction generates thermal energy used to expand the gas. Usual choice for high thrust rockets, e.g. launch, orbit change, aircraft propulsion. Propellant = energy source (chemical) storage = liquid (cryogenic) tanks or case Feed system: liquid pumps and piping Energy conversion: chemical to thermal energy (combustion) Accelerator: nozzle
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Monopropellant Type Propellant contains both oxidizer and fuel species An unstable chemical that will decompose exothermically in the presence of a catalyst.
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2010 for the course MECH 351 taught by Professor Chekhov during the Fall '10 term at Concordia Canada.

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Lecture2 - Introduction and classification of space propulsion systems Objectives Types of propulsion systems Historical perspective Classification

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