lecture10a - MECH 7221 MECH 6251/498D Liquid Rocket Engine...

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MECH 7221 Liquid Rocket Engine Systems RL-10 rocket engine • Overview of basic components in liquid rocket engine systems • Liquid propellant choices Reading: Sutton and Biblarz Chapter 6 Objective
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Thrust Chamber • Injector, combustion chamber, nozzle • Liquid propellants are metered, injected, atomized, mixed and burned to form hot gaseous reaction products, which are accelerated and ejected at high velocity • Cooling: - propellant cooled: fuel is circulated through cooling jackets - Radiation-cooled: high temperature material radiates away excess heat - Ablative-cooled: heat absorbing materials LRE Hardware and Sub-systems
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Tanks: Propellant storage Feed mechanism: force propellant from tanks to thrust chambers - pressure-fed - pump-fed Power Source: furnish energy for feed mechanism Plumbing/Piping: Transfer of liquids Structure: Transmit thrust force Control Devices: initiate and regulate propellant flow and thus thrust LRE Hardware and Sub-systems
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Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) Applications: booster enginessea level operation Core engines sea level operation in combination with boosters Sustainer engines 2 nd stage operation Upper stage engines 2 nd , 3 rd or 4 th stage engines Requirements: boosters very high thrust Core engines High thrust + high Isp Sustainer engines Medium thrust + high Isp Upper stage engines Low thrust + very high Isp For rocket systems, see: http://www.astronautix.com/
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Propellant Types/Systems Bipropellant - two separate liquid propellants: oxidizer and fuel - Stored separately and mixed in combustion chamber Monopropellant - Single substance containing oxidizing agent and combustible matter - stable at atmospheric conditions, but decompose when heated or catalyzed Cryogenic propellant - Liquefied gas at low temperature - Issues: venting and vaporization losses Gelled Propellant - Liquid with gelling additive behaving like jelly or thick paint
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Propellant Feed Systems Functions: • raising pressure of propellants • feeding propellants to one or more thrust chambers Pump-fed system Pressure-fed system
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Types of Liquid Rocket Engines
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Pressurization Options
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Pressure vs. Pump-fed Some rules/issues to consider when deciding on a pressurization mechanism: • Lack of pumps drives a higher tank pressure • Large propellant-tank volume drives the use of pumps • In general, big systems use pumps, small systems don’t. • With large system size, decreasing tank mass (lower pressure thinner wall thickness) justifies additional complexity and costs of pumps. • The larger the tank, the bigger the mass savings (inert mass fraction!)
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lecture10a - MECH 7221 MECH 6251/498D Liquid Rocket Engine...

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