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nov 22 - Week 14: Structures of Labor Market...

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Unformatted text preview: Week 14: Structures of Labor Market Opportunities (Cont’d) November 22, 2010 The Wage Penalty for Motherhood • Findings from recent studies… o A wage penalty for motherhood has been found in the U.S., in the U.K., and in Germany o Men’s wages are unaffected by being parents • Why would motherhood affect an employed woman’s wages? o Discussion: Dedication to kids over job Not being productive Flexibilities o 5 Explanations Mothers lose job experience Mothers trade off higher wages for “mother ­friendly” jobs Mothers are less productive at work Employers discriminate against mothers Spurious correlation • Mothers trade off higher wages for “mother ­friendly” jobs o Drawing from human capitals theory, mothers may choose jobs that require less energy or that have parent ­friendly characteristics • Mothers are less productive o Also drawing from human capital theory Tired from home Lose days from work due to obligations to children May be “storing” energy for anticipated work at home • Employers discriminate against mothers o Two possible types of discrimination “distasteful” to hire mothers statistical discrimination • So, what factors matter? o Difference in previous work experience & seniority explain 1/3 of difference in earnings o 2/3 cannot be explained by human capital, mother ­friendly jobs • Correll, Bernard & Paik: Is there a motherhood penalty? o Results: Judged less competent; less committed Allowed fewer late days Less likely promoted; or recommended for hire ...
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