ILROB 1220 Unit 2 Lecture Notes - Motivation - - - -...

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Motivation - Experiment: hand random student sheet to go in front of class and read - Individual explanations for what he does: micro, psychological - Structural/contextual explanations: o Individual (micro, psychological) o Structural/contextual (macro, sociological) - Two areas overlap greatly - Grades are an external incentive for performance; external incentives not very useful - One of biggest factors involving cheating: Peers o Peers create culture that enable decisions o If students said no I won’t let you get away with it, people wouldn’t be able to - Motivation: seeks answer to 3 questions o Initiation: Why do we engage in certain activities? o Direction: What determines whether we devote energy and enthusiasm? o Persistence: What allows us to continue in our goals? - Naïve Motivation Theory: Assumes exclusively rational economic behavior - Extrinsic motivators: punishments and rewards - Intrinsic motivators: self-concepts, values, and personal expression o Often work better - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Some needs are more important than others o Lower order needs must be satisfied first - However, “satisfaction” =/= motivation - Revision: ERG Theory o Existence: Desire for physiological and material well being o Relatedness; Desire for satisfying personal relationships o Growth: Desire for personal growth and development - Lower level need is activated when a higher level need is not satisfied o More than one need can be activated at the same time - In actuality we have motivators and hygiene factors o Motivators: presence of increases satisfaction o Hygiene factors: presence of increases dissatisfaction - One does not continue into the other; more like an x, y axis - Two types of motivation approaches: o Needs approach: identifying, categorizing how to satisfy individual needs What conditions people are in o Process Approach: considering the thought, cognitive, or other social processes that influence behavior choices What are people thinking when they are working - Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: o Central question: What determines the willingness of an individual to exert personal effort to work at tasks that contribute to organizational performance? o Managers must know three things:
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Expectancy: Can I do it? Probability assigned by worker that work effort will lead to achieved task performance . Instrumentality: Are the consequences certain? Probability assigned by worker that level of achieved task performance will lead to a work outcome Valence: Do I care? Value attached by the individual to work outcome Motivation force = E x I x V A zero in any category means motivation = 0 “Multiplier effect” Managers must maximize each equally to achieve high levels of motivation MAKE SURE TO LOOK AT SUPPLEMENTAL STUFF ONLINE Power and Politics (Guest Lecture) - Huma ns are forced to m ake d ecisions und er conditions where th ey’re not co mfortable - When doing it in a n organizational context, you’ll always h ave
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ILROB 1220 Unit 2 Lecture Notes - Motivation - - - -...

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