ILROB 1220 Unit 1 Lecture Notes - Intro to Organizational...

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Intro to Organizational Behavior Lecture Notes - Why have Organizations? o Counter intuitive to idiom “if you want something done right…” - Organizations because o People need others to help them o In reality an organization is a market between the members of the group trading their services for those possessed by the others in the group - How much work can 1 person do? o Answer: it depends on many things: Task, person, etc Depends on how the work is organized - Divison of Labor: simple idea with immense consequences o Enabled the industrial revolution and modern society o Source of benefits: Time, expertise, technology - What labor can or can’t be divided? o Gulick tried to answer: Time (with exceptions): things that are too short Technology and customs: not enough technology/ priest “Organic” divisions: can’t be divided by nature of task Sometimes these can be superseded by advancements in technology o Focused on practicality of task itself with some attention to customs and norms o Neglected: ethics and tasks for which increasing productivity is not a goal - Division of Labor Requirem ents o Initial Planning on dividing the task o Planning or coordinating outputs o Developing a ppropriate tools, technologies and supply chains to Cost or effort associated with e ach of thes e requirem ents varies by task and the nature of division Result: task knowledge gets e m b edded within the organization - Sources of Benefits: o Time: doing one thing o Expertise: doing it well o Technology: e a sier to m ake m achines that do one thing - Consequences of the Division of Labor o The Good: Produce m ore, m ore efficiently Less training required = more people e m ployed Quality control :Identify and isolate sources of errors Transportability: if divisions are standardized you can apply o The Bad:
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No one can see the whole picture Lack of communication Monotonous  - In Summary the Division of Labor: - Greater productivity, efficiency, complexity - Significant coordination requirements o Division of Labor Lecture 2: Bureaucracy  - Organizations best organized when under pre-planned system of  bureaucracy  o Structure for coordination  o What are bureaucracies good at: Coordination  Dissemination: Top down communications Pre-planned work o What they’re bad at: Creativity, local improvisation Bottom up communication  Adaptation to unanticipated events Reaping the benefits of Division of Labor +  Bureaucracy  - Taylorism/Scientific Management  o Only one way to do it right  o Eg: Science of shoveling Went to a coal plant and asked for the two best shovelers  Taylors idea: everything in organizations may be scientifically  Result: identifying the one best way  Tried to calculate the ideal shovel size (not too big, not to small)  Calculated work was optimized when shovel was 21lbs, then 
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2010 for the course ILROB 1220 taught by Professor Goncaloj during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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ILROB 1220 Unit 1 Lecture Notes - Intro to Organizational...

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