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A&P ch 1-4 - Ch 1 An Introduction to the Human Body...

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Ch 1: An Introduction to the Human Body Molecules build into cells tissues organs systems organisms 11 Systems of the body 1. Integumentary System a. Components : skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands b. Functions : protect the body, help regulate body temperature, eliminate some waste, helps make vitamin D, and detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold 2. Skeletal System a. Components : bones, joints, and cartilages b. Functions : Supports and protects the body, provides a surface area for muscle attachment, aids body movement, houses cells that produce blood cells, and store minerals and lipids 3. Muscular System a. Components : muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue b. Functions : produce body movement, such as walking, stabilizes body position (posture), and generates heat 4. Nervous System a. Components : brain spinal cord, nerves, eyes, and ears b. Functions : generate action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities, detect changes in the body’s internal and external environments 5. Endocrine System a. Components : hormone producing cells, hormone-producing glands such as pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes b. Functions : release hormones 6. Cardiovascular System a. Components : blood, heart, and blood vessels b. Functions : the heart pumps blood through blood vessels, blood carries O 2 and nutrients to cells and C 2 O and waste away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids, blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels 7. Digestive System a. Components : mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, and anus. Accessory organs that assist in digestion such as salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. b. Functions : Achieve physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorb nutrients, eliminate solid waste 8. Urinary System a. Components : kidneys, uteters, urinary bladder, and urethra b. Functions : produces, stores, and eliminates urine, eliminates waste and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, helps regulate production of red blood cells 9. Lymphatic System and Immunity
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