Unformatted text preview: What is quality? MGMT 460 Operations Management (OM) V - Quality Management - I Answers Answers based on a survey Perfection Consistency Speed of delivery Doing it right the first time Total customer service and satisfaction Delighting or pleasing the customers Waste elimination Provide a good and usable product Compliance with policies and procedures Quality Management Terminology
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1 Input Output Control
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 feedback Q. Control Control Q. Assurance Q. Systems Q. Management Q. Plan Q. Planning Q. Policy Q. Function Deployment Q. costs
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 • • • • • • • • Zero Defects Defects Total Quality Mgmt. Six Sigma World Class Customer satisfaction Customer delight Customer focus Green / Black belt 2 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 W. Edward Deming 1900-93 1900- Joseph Juran, 1904 - 2008 What is Six Sigma?
Highly disciplined process that helps us focus on developing and delivering near- perfect products and services. near- Key concepts:
Critical to quality: attributes most important to the customer. Defect: failing to deliver what the customer wants. Process capability: what your process can deliver. Variation: w hat customer sees and feels. Stable operations: ensuring consistent, predictable processes. Design for six sigma: Designing to meet customer needs and process capability. P A C
P: Plan, D: Do, C: Check, A: Act
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 Kaoru Ishikawa Ishikawa 1915 - 1989
D Methodology: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 4 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 Pareto Chart Analytical Tools
Flowchart Run chart Pareto chart Check sheet Cause & effect diagram Opportunity flow diagram Control chart Exhibit 8.6 in the chapter
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 What is it? It is a histogram. Many times we also plot a cumulative line. Analysis of medication problems Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 Category Category Freq. % of total Cum % Wrong dose 100 50 50 Wrong time 70 35 85 Wrong medicine 15 7.5 92.5 Wrong patient 8 4 96.5 Med. discontinued 4 2 98.5 Missed dose 3 1.5 100 Grand Total 200 100% 100% Medication Problems 5 6 5 ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 6 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 ChV-QualityManagementI-Sp10 1 Pareto Chart 100% What is its use? To apply the 80/20 rule of Juran which states that 80% of the problems are the result of 20% of the causes. Check Sheets Control Chart A B C D //// //// // /// //// / //// //// What is it? Statistical tool, showing whether a process is in control or not. not. What is its use? Taking samples of a process and detect possibility of process being out of control.
Types of defects
Y % of defects found 50% UCL CL LCL
X ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 7 ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 8 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 Cause and Effect Diagram
What is it? It’s It’s a diagram that demonstrates the relationship between an effect and the categories of their causes. This diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It sorts ideas into useful categories. Also known as Ishikawa diagram / fishbone diagram. When to Use? When identifying possible causes for a problem. Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts.
Clearly identify and define the problem, symptom, or effect for which the causes must be identified. Place the problem or symptom being explored at the right, enclosed in a box. Draw the central spine as a thick line pointing to it from the left. Brainstorm to identify the "major categories" of possible causes (not less than 2 and normally not more than 6 or 7)?
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 9 10 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 Cold Pizza Delivery ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 11 ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 12 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 ChV-QualityManagementI-Sp10 2 History
• Quality determined by craftsmen • Scientific Management, Taylor 1875 1920s
• Quality dept. established in Bell Labs Control chart Shewhart (Bell Labs) Acceptance sampling sampling Dodge & Romig Design of Experiments – Fisher History .. continued
• First book on Quality - Shewhart • Shewhart lectures at U. of London. • Design of experiments used by British / Germans. 19011901-1910
• • • • • Assembly line, Henry Ford First standards lab in Great Briton AT&T begins inspection and testing Q. Control at a brewery “t” distr. By Gosset • 1940s
• • • • • • • US war dept. guide for control charts. Bell Labs sampling plans (later US MIL-STD). MILTraining courses in SQC. ASQC formed ……. Industrial Quality control published. JUSE formed, Deming visits Japan. Taguchi’s experimental design studies. • • 1910s
• WWI - supplier certification program by British • Technical Inspection Association England (IQA)
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 13 ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 14 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 History .. continued
• • • • • • • • Ishikawa diagrams, CUSUM control chart Books by Grant & Duncan, Feigenbaum, Juran Work by Box and Wilson Deming prize established by JUSE Quality control circle - Ishikawa, TQC Zero defect, Consumer Product Safety Act Courses in Q.C. in IE programs IQC Quality Quality Progress, J. Quality Technology History .. continued
• • • • • • Deming recognized in the USA Quality control software, Quality Audits Six sigma at Motorola / GE ISO 9000 standards Baldrige Award Quality slogans slogans 1960s …... 1990s
• Standards/ awards refinement, harmonization • ISO standard on Environmental Management 1970s
• British Quality Association, Lab Accreditation • TQM movement, Quality Costs • BS -5750
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 21st Century?
ChV‐QualityManagementI‐Sp10 16 MGMT 36100 MGMT 36100 ChV-QualityManagementI-Sp10 3 ...
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