Endocrine system .docx - Endocrine System 1 a regulatory...

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Endocrine System 1. a regulatory substance produced in organisms and transported in tissue fluids such as blood to stimulate specific cells into action. 2. Target specificity is the ability of a ligand to bind to a receptor on a specific target cell. HORMONES BY ORGAN: Thyroid : Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine, made in the thyroid from iodine, which is essential. Target is most cells in the body. Affect basal metabolic rate and protein synthesis. Parathyroid : Parathyroid hormone. Which is produced in the parathyroid. Target is osteoblasts, which produce RANKL, which causes osteoclasts to break down bone. Thymus : Thymosin. Made in the thymus. Targets T cells, stimulating their development. Adrenal : Produces Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Adrenal Androgens. Aldosterone targets kidney, regulating salt and water levels. Cortisol, targets all cells, stimulating glucose production. Testosterone is an androgen, affecting lady hair in puberty and early male sex organ development. Pancreas : Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, which targets all cells to regulate blood glucose levels, as well as fat storage, protein anabolism, and stuff. Ovaries : produce progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone interacts with cells lining the uterine wall, causing the lining to thicken, during ovulation. Estrogen is instrumental in breast development, as well as fat distribution in women and development of reproductive organs. Testes : Testosterone is made in the testes, when the hypothalamus tells the pituitary gland to tell the testes to make it. Interacts with Sertoli cells to prevent differentiation of sperm. Pituitary : Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. Its target is all cells and stimulates growth. The pituitary gland also produces a number of other hormones. Pineal : Produces melatonin, which regulates the body's circadian rhythm. Targets the brain. Hypothalamus : The hypothalamus produces anti-diuretic hormone, which regulates the bodies water supplies. Its target is the kidneys. It also produces other hormones. Heart : Produces Atrial Natriuretic Factor. It increases extracellular fluid volume by making the kidneys secrete sodium. So, its target is the kidneys. There is also BNP and CNP. Stomach : Gastrin is released by G cells, targeting the parietal cells and inducing them to secrete hydrochloric acid. Kidney : Vitamin D, which targets intestinal cells, stimulating the uptake of Ca from food. Also Erythropoietin, which stimulates bone marrow cells to begin producing more RBC’s
Small intestine : Cholecystokinin, which stimulates pancreatic cells to secrete bile and pancreatic enzymes. Biochem, Secretion, and Transport 3 types of Hormones : Amines- simple molecules, proteins and peptides- made from chains of amino acids, steroids- derived from cholesterol Hormone Solubility : Amino Acid hormones include peptide and protein hormones which are water soluble. Steroid and thyroid hormones are lipid soluble.

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