organizational behaviour final exam

organizational behaviour final exam - Page No.1/713 MGT502...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Page No.1/713 MGT502 Organizational Behavior All in One Solved MCQs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net 1) The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is a value statement. Such an opinion is the _____ component of an attitude. cognitive affective reactive behavioral Ref: The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is an example of the cognitive component of an attitude. 2) Leon Festinger would propose that the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by all of the following EXCEPT _____. the importance of the elements creating the dissonance. the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements. the rewards that may be involved in dissonance. the extent to which attitudes are widely held by society. Ref: According to Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements, and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance 3) If attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals will most likely _____. change their behavior change their attitudes http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.2/713 change either their attitudes or behavior do nothing Ref: When experiencing cognitive dissonance, one can change the behavior, change the attitude, or decide that the behavior is not important after all. 4) _____ describes a positive feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. enlargement satisfaction engagement involvement Ref: Job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. 5) Job _____ measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. commitment satisfaction involvement organization Ref: Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work that they do. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.3/713 6) _____ commitment refers to an employee's obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons. Affective Continuance Theoretical Normative Ref: Normative commitment refers to an employee's obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons. For example, an employee who is spearheading a new initiative might remain with an employer because he feels it would negatively impact his employer if he left. 7) _____ refers to an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work she does. Employee engagement Normative commitment Cognitive support Job enrichment Ref: Employee engagement refers to an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work she does. A recent study of nearly 8,000 business units in 36 companies found that business units whose employees had high-average levels of engagement had higher levels of customer satisfaction, were more productive, had higher profits, and had lower levels of turnover and accidents. 8) People with positive _____ believe in their inner worth and basic competence. Locus of control http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.4/713 Self-monitoring behavior Core self-evaluations Levels of enrichment Ref: People with positive core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic competence. They are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core selfevaluations. 9) Quietly continuing to do your work, even though you're dissatisfied, is an example of _____ response to dissatisfaction. exit voice loyalty neglect Ref: Loyalty is passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to "do the right thing". 10) Steve is unhappy with his job. He takes every possible vacation and sick day and sometimes shows up for work late. He is expressing his dissatisfaction with a _____ response. exit voice loyalty neglect Ref: Neglect is passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.5/713 11) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of physical ability? Stamina Strength Looks Dexterity Ref: Nine basic physical abilities are dynamic strength, trunk strength, static strength, explosive strength, extent flexibility, dynamic flexibility, body coordination, balance, and stamina. 12) The relationship between _____ and job performance is likely to be an issue of growing importance during the next decade. gender marital status age tenure Ref: The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. Workers 55 and older are currently the fastest-growing sector of the labor force. In addition, federal legislation has outlawed mandatory retirement at the age of 70. 13) According to your text, which is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate for women? Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men. Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family. Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men and are consequently absent more often. Women generally have jobs for which a temporary replacement can be hired so absences are more permissible. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.6/713 Ref: Most research on women's absenteeism rates has been conducted in North America and North American culture has historically placed home responsibilities with women. Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family. 14) _____ is the learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior. Modeling Shaping Classical conditioning Social learning Ref: We shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response. 15) An example of _____ is when an employee receives a one-week suspension from work and is fined $200 for stealing company property. penalization punishment extinction negative reinforcement Ref: Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior. 16) Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.7/713 extinction punishment negative reinforcement positive reinforcement Ref: Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior is called extinction. When a behavior is not reinforced, it tends to gradually be extinguished. 17) All of the following are TRUE about both positive and negative reinforcement EXCEPT: Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. Both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen a response. Both positive and negative reinforcement tend to weaken behavior and decrease it subsequent frequency. Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability of repetition. Ref: Positive and negative reinforcement result in learning, strengthening a response and increasing the probability of repetition, while punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency. 18) A slot machine is an example of _____ reinforcement. negative intermittent continuous fixed-ratio http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.8/713 Ref: In an intermittent schedule, not every instance of the desirable behavior is reinforced, but reinforcement is given often enough to make the behavior worth repeating. Evidence indicates that the intermittent, or varied, form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous form. 19) For a salesperson who is paid commission, reinforcement occurs on a _____ schedule. variable-ratio variable-interval fixed-interval fixed-ratio Ref: When the reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual, he or she is reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule. Salespeople on commission are examples of individuals on such a reinforcement schedule, as the reward is variable in relation to the number of successful calls the salesperson makes. 20) The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as _____. classical conditioning self-management reengineering behavior modification Ref: Behavior modification applies reinforcement concepts to individuals in organizations and has become more popularly called OB Mod. It represents the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. 21) The four management functions include all of the following EXCEPT _____. controlling planning staffing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.9/713 organizing Ref: Fayol's functions of management have been condensed down to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. 22) _____ studies behavior as it relates to concerns such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity, and performance. Psychology Kinetics Organizational behavior Ergonomics Ref: Organizational behavior is a field of study that applies knowledge about individuals, groups, and structure to make organizations work more effectively. 23) According to the text, the best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is_____. using common sense an observational approach a theoretical approach a systematic approach Ref: You can improve your predictive ability by replacing your intuitive opinions with a more systematic approach. 24) What behavioral science discipline has made the MOST significant contributions to understanding individual behavior? Sociology Social psychology Psychology Anthropology http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.10/713 Ref: Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychology's contributions have been mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis, while social psychology, sociology, anthropology, and political science have contributed to our understanding of macro concepts such as group processes and organization. 25) _____ has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries. Anthropology Psychology Social psychology Political science Ref: Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Much of our understanding of organizational culture, organizational environments, and differences between national cultures is the result of the work of anthropologists or those using their methodologies. 26) _____ means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. Globalization Workforce diversity Affirmative action Organizational culture Ref: workforce diversityaddresses differences among people within given countries. 27) The _____ assumption assumes that people who are different will want to assimilate. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.11/713 melting-pot workplace diversity amoeba homogenization Ref: The melting-pot assumption is being replaced by one that recognizes and values diversity. However, this is being replaced by a set of beliefs that recognize and value diversity. 28) Which of the following groups will NOT increase as a percentage of the workforce? Hispanic men and women black women white males Asian men and women Ref: By 2050, Hispanics will grow from 11% of the workforce to 24%. The percentage of the workforce that is black will increase from 12 to 14 percent and the percentage that is Asian will increase from 5 to 1 percent. White males, who once dominated the workforce, will become a minority. 29) A(n) _____is a situation in which an employee must define right and wrong conduct. problem ethical dilemma argument principle Ref: An ethical dilemma is a situation in which an employee must define right and wrong conduct. While what constitutes ethical behavior has never been clearly defined, in recent years, the line differentiating right from wrong has become even more blurred. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.12/713 30) Individual level independent variables include _____. technology organizational culture perception human resource policy Ref: An independent variable is the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable. Perception, individual decision making, learning, and motivation are independent variables that have been shown to affect employee behavior. 31) According to the Myers-Briggs type Indicator, people who are classified as _____ are conceptualizers. INTJs ESTJs ENTPs MBTIs Ref: The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. 32) In the book Profiles of Genius, thirteen key executives were interviewed and tested and all were found to be _____ types. This result is particularly interesting because this type represents only about five percent of the population. intuitive thinking sensing feeling sensing thinking intuitive feeling Ref: The thirteen executives, who created highly successful companies (Apple Computer, FedEx, Honda Motors, Microsoft, and Sony) were all intuitive thinking types. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.13/713 33) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others? Extroversion Openness to experience Emotional stability Agreeableness Ref: Agreeableness refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. 34) Individuals with a positive _____ like themselves, see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. narcissism propensity locus of control core self-evaluations Ref: Individuals with a positive core self-evaluations like themselves, see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Core self-evaluations are related to job satisfaction. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.14/713 35) Individuals who are high in the _____ dimension of personality manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more. Rokeach Aesthetic Machiavellianism Narcissism Ref: Individuals who are high in the Machiavellianism dimension of personality manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more. An individual who is high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. 36) According to Rokeach, _____ values refer to desirable end-states of existence. instrumental aesthetic terminal theoretical Ref: Terminal values refer to desirable end states of existence. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. The instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. 37) The most recent entrants to the workforce are _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.15/713 Veterans Nexters Boomers Xers Ref: This generation, the Nexters, is very money-oriented and desirous of the things that money can buy. They seek financial success. Like Xers, they enjoy teamwork, but they're also highly self-reliant. 38) Which of the following is NOT one of Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture? power distance language proficiency quantity of life vs. quality of life long-term orientation Ref: Hofstede identified power distance, individualism versus collectivism, quantity of life versus quality of life, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation. 39) _____ is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. Power distance Individualism Uncertainty avoidance Long-term orientation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.16/713 Ref: Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. In countries that score high on uncertainty avoidance, people have an increased level of anxiety, which manifests itself in greater nervousness, stress, and aggressiveness. 40) John Holland argues that job satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where _____. personality and occupation are in agreement an individual is highly motivated salary is high employees have an education Ref: Holland's theory is based on the notion of fit between an individual's personality characteristics and his or her occupational environment. Each of his six personality types has a congruent occupational environment. 41) _____ is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Interpretation Environmental analysis Perception Personality Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.17/713 42) Which one of the following is NOT a factor that influences perception? Target Medium Perceiver Situation The factors that shape and distort perception can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made. 43) Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we see, we engage in _____. selective perception memorization mental desensitization periodic listening Since we cannot observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception. This allows us to "speed-read" others. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.18/713 44) The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II is an example of _____. personality profiling experience satisficing The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II is an example of profiling. While most Americans look back in shame at the actions the U.S. government took against JapaneseAmericans, profiling continues in the U.S. and other countries. 45) Which is NOT one of the steps in the rational decision making model? Defining the problem Identifying the decision criteria Rating alternatives Selecting the decision that satisfices The model begins by defining the problem. Once a decision maker has defined the problem he or she needs to identify the decision criteria that will be important in solving the problem. The third step requires the decision maker to weight the previously identified criteria to give them the correct priority in the decision. The fourth step requires the decision maker to generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem. Then the decision maker must critically analyze and evaluate each one by rating each alternative on each criterion. The final step requires http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.19/713 computing the optimal decision. 46) Decision makers operate within the confines of _____ i.e., they construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. optimal decision making intuitive decision making bounded rationality synopsis Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. Individuals behave rationally within the limits of a simplified model. 47) _____ is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information. Escalation of commitment Optimizing decision making Satisficing decision making Reengineering http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.20/713 Escalation of commitment refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong. 48) In spite of the fact that short-term stock price changes are essentially random, a large proportion of investors believe that they can predict the direction that prices will move. This is an example of _____. availability bias randomness error confirmation bias representative error This is an example of randomness error. In spite of the fact that short-term stock price changes are essentially random, a large proportion of investors believe that they can predict the direction that prices will move. 49) Which of the following is NOT an organizational constraint on decision-making? Performance evaluation Reward system Personality Formal regulations Managers shape their decisions to reflect the organization's performance evaluation and reward system, to comply with the organization's formal regulations, and to meet organizationally imposed time constraints. Previous organizational decisions also act as precedents to constrain current decision. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.21/713 50) Decisions made so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number are based on _____. utilitarianism justice rights profits The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. This view tends to dominate business decision making. 51) Which of the following is NOT a key element in motivation? Environment Intensity Direction Persistence The three key elements of motivation are intensity, direction, and persistence. 52) _____ is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Social http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.22/713 Self-actualization Physiological Esteem Self-actualization is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 53) Which of the following were considered higher-order needs by Maslow? physiological, safety, and social needs safety, social, and esteem needs esteem and self-actualization needs social, esteem, and self-actualization needs Social, esteem, and self-actualization were described as higher-order needs. 54) A Theory X manager would assume employees would _____. like work seek responsibility need to be controlled exercise self direction Under Theory X, managers assume employees inherently dislike work and will avoid it; must be coerced and controlled to achieve goals, will avoid responsibilities, and will display little ambition. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.23/713 55) Two-factor theory suggests that extrinsic factors such as _____ cause dissatisfaction. advancement working conditions achievement recognition Conditions surrounding the job include factors such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security. There are hygiene factors. 56) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT _____. job situations with personal responsibility a high degree of risk overcoming obstacles feedback http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.24/713 High achievers seek situations in which they can attain personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems, in which they can receive rapid feedback on their performance so they can determine easily whether they are improving or not, and in which they can set moderately challenging goals. They dislike gambling with high odds because they get no satisfaction from happenstance success. 57) According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be _____. extremely difficult easy difficult but attainable similar to goals for other organizations According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be difficult but attainable. 58) Manager's can increase an employee's _____ through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal. equity expectancy self-efficacy reinforcement Manager's can increase an employee's self-efficacy through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.25/713 59) _____ exists when an individual perceives that the ratio of their inputs to outcomes is dissimilar to the ration of relevant others. Reinforcement Cognitive dissonance Equity tension Turnover Equity tension exists when an individual perceives that the ratio of their inputs to outcomes is dissimilar to the ration of relevant others. 60) The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual is the ____ relationship. Rewards-personal goals Performance-reward Effort-performance Rewards-effort The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.26/713 61) The _____ says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about. management by objectives plan participative decision making model job characteristics model performance feedback system The job characteristics model says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about. 62) _____ (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. Job enlargement Employee involvement Job rotation Job enrichment Job rotation (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. 63) _____ may be implemented by combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels. Job enlargement Employee involvement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.27/713 Job rotation Job enrichment Job enrichment may be implemented by combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels. 64) Susan works from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day, while other employees in her office work from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. It appears that Susan's employer offers a _____ option. department modeling job sharing telecommuting flextime 65) Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or on the telephone are natural candidates for _____. department modeling job sharing telecommuting flextime Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or on the telephone are natural candidates for telecommuting. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.28/713 66) _____ is a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization's success. MBO Employee involvement Reengineering OB Mod Employee involvement is a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization's success. 67) A _____ is a group of employees and supervisors who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions. department team cooperative group evaluation team quality circle A quality circle is a group of employees and supervisors who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions. Management retains control over the final decision regarding implementation of recommended solutions. 68) Piece-rate plans, merit based pay, bonuses, profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee stock ownership plans are all forms of _____ programs. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.29/713 ESOP gainsharing variable-pay Scanlon Piece-rate plans, merit based pay, bonuses, profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee stock ownership plans are all forms of variable-pay programs. 69) _____ is an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated. ESOP Gainsharing Variable pay Scanlon plan In gainsharing, employees receive either a predetermined or a variable percentage of an organization's profits. 70) The three most popular types of _____ are modular plans, core-plus options, and flexible spending accounts. stock options gainsharing plans variable pay programs flexible benefits http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.30/713 The three most popular types of flexible benefit plans are modular plans, core-plus options, and flexible spending accounts. 71) _____ is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. Mood Affect Emotion Personality Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. It is an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods. 72) Six universal _____ are anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise. cognitions lobes emotions moods Six universal emotions are anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise, with most other emotions subsumed under one of these six categories. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.31/713 73) _____ is a field of study that examines the extent to which emotions, whether positive or negative, serve a purpose. Evolutionary psychology Emotional anthropology Emotional intelligence None of the above Evolutionary psychology is a field of study that examines the extent to which emotions, whether positive or negative, serve a purpose. 74) _____ is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise on the low end. Positive affect Negative affect Positivity Illusory correlation Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise on the low end. 75) _____ occurs when people associate two events, when there is no real connection. Accelerated formation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.32/713 Groupthink Illusory correlation Groupshift Illusory correlation occurs when people associate two events, when there is no real connection. For example, people tend to think that nice weather improves their mood. 76) _____ refers to an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. Emotional labor Emotional Intelligence Mission Motivation Emotional labor refers to an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. 77) Jane is concerned that her company is selling products of very poor quality. However, when meeting with customers, Jane feels obligated to be positive and express confidence about the quality of the product. Jane is likely experiencing _____. displayed emotions emotional dissonance deep acting self-awareness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.33/713 Jane is likely experiencing emotional dissonance. Left unresolved, emotional dissonance can result in emotional exhaustion and burnout. 78) People who exhibit _____ know their own emotions and are good at reading others' emotions may be more effective in their jobs emotional labor emotional dissonance emotional intelligence cognitive dissonance Emotional intelligence is one's ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information. 79) _____, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is awareness of one's feelings. Self-management Self-awareness Social skill Empathy Self-awareness, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is awareness of one's feelings. 80) People in good moods use _____, or rules of thumb, to make decisions. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.34/713 self-management theories heuristics empathy People in good moods use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to make decisions. 81) The _____ stage in group development which is characterized by uncertainty. norming storming forming performing In the forming stage, groups are testing the waters and there is considerable uncertainty. 82) The _____ model is effective at describing decision-making within temporary groups, particularly those with deadlines. punctuated-equilibrium authority structure formal regulation performance evaluation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.35/713 The punctuated-equilibrium model is effective at describing decision-making within temporary groups, particularly those with deadlines. 83) ____ groups are defined by the organization's structure. Informal Formal Friendship Interest Formal groups are those defined by the organization's structure. Informal groups provide an important service by satisfying their members' social needs. 84) _____ refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role. Role perception Role identity Role expectations Role conflict Role identity refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role. 85) _____ describe how others believe you should act in a given situation. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.36/713 Norms Stereotypes Role expectations Role perceptions Role expectations describe how others believe you should act in a given situation. 86) Which is NOT a common class of norms appearing in most work groups? Performance norms Appearance Termination Arrangement Common classes of group norms are performance norms, appearance norms, social arrangement norms, and allocation of resources norms. 87) What is the relationship between size and group performance? The larger the group, the greater the individual productivity. Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance. Total productivity tends to decline in large groups. Group size is not a determinant of individual productivity. The individual productivity of each group member declines as the group size increases. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.37/713 88) Which of the following is a strategy to increase group cohesiveness? Make the group smaller. Encourage agreement with group goals. Decrease the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. Both A and B are correct. Group cohesiveness can be increased by the following: make the group smaller, encourage agreement with group goals, increase the time members spend together, increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group, stimulate competition with other groups, give rewards to the group rather than to individual members, and physically isolate the group. 89) Which is NOT a weakness of group decision-making? Group decisions are time-consuming. Groups offer increased diversity of views. Group members suffer from ambiguous responsibilities. Groups can be dominated by one or a few members. Weaknesses of group decision making include the fact that they are time consuming, there are conformity pressures in groups, the discussion can be dominated by one or a few members, and there is ambiguous responsibility. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.38/713 90) Which of the following best describes brainstorming? A strategy used to build group cohesiveness. A technique that tends to restrict independent thinking. A process for generating ideas. A strategy when group members cannot agree on a solution. Brainstorming utilizes an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. 91) Which of the following does NOT explain the current popularity of teams? Teams outperform individuals when the tasks require multiple skills. Teams enable organizations to better utilize employee talents. Teams are a means to increase employee motivation. Teams outperform individuals in all situations. Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. Teams also better utilize employee talents and are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groups. 92) _____ is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. Synergy http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.39/713 Enthusiasm Energy Initiative A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. Synergy occurs when the team exhibits a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs 93) _____ teams go farther than problem-solving teams in getting employees involved in work-related decisions and processes. Problem identification Self-managed Virtual Cross-functional Self-managed teams could not only solve problems but implement solutions and take full responsibility for outcomes. 94) Which is NOT one of the three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from faceto-face teams? The absence of nonverbal and paraverbal cues Limited social contact Increased social rapport The ability to overcome time and space constraints http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.40/713 In face-to-face conversation, people use paraverbal and nonverbal cues. These help clarify communication by providing increased meaning, but aren't available in online interactions. Virtual teams often suffer from less social rapport and less direct interaction among members. Virtual team members report less satisfaction with the group interaction process as a result. 95) Which of the following is NOT one of the key factors in creating effective teams? context composition cross-functional demographics The key components of effective teams include context, composition, work design, and process variables. 96) Which of the following skills is required for an effective team? Problem-solving skills Technical expertise Interpersonal skills All of the above To perform effectively, teams need people with technical, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.41/713 97) Which of the following statements is true concerning the climate of trust? Interpersonal trust among team members inhibits cooperation. Interpersonal trust among team members reduces the need to monitor each others behavior. Interpersonal trust at team members bonds members at the belief that others will take advice of them if given the opportunity. Interpersonal trust at team members increases members' aversion to risk. Interpersonal trust among team members facilitates cooperation, reduces the need to monitor each others' behavior, and bonds members around the belief that others on the team won't take advantage of them. 98) Teams are most effective when staffed with people who are _____. extraverted homogeneous inflexible intraverted Teams are most effective when staffed with people who are extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open. 99) _____ considers the age, sex, race, educational level, and length of service of team members. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.42/713 Diversity training Cognitive dissonance Cohorts Organizational demographics Organizational demography considers the age, sex, race, educational level, and length of service of team members. 100) _____ illustrates a process loss as a result of using teams. Synergy Social loafing Diversity Demographics Social loafing illustrates a process loss as a result of using teams. 101) The _____ initiates a message by encoding a thought. channel sender receiver medium http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.43/713 The message is encoded by the sender and passed by way of some medium to the receiver who retranslates the message. The result is transference of meaning from one person to another. 102) The chief means of conveying messages is _____ communication. nonverbal interpersonal oral written The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication 103) The _____ communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee. wheel all-channel interpersonal circle The all-channel network is most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.44/713 104) Grapevine studies have shown that ____ percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine. 50 75 60 A survey found that 75 percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine. 105) Electronic communication includes all of the following EXCEPT: internet logs. telephone calls. videoconferencing. e-mail. Electronic communication includes electronic mail, text messaging, networking software, internet logs, andvideoconferencing. 106) _____ refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Feedback http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.45/713 Filtering Perception Channel richness Face-to-face conversation scores highest in terms of channel richness because it provides for the maximum amount of information to be transmitted during a communication episode. 107) Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. He is engaging in _____. filtering selective perception jargon feedback Filtering refers to a sender's purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. For example, when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear, he is filtering information. 108) Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication? Filtering Channel richness Selective perception http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.46/713 Language Barriers to effective communication include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions,and language. 109) Tannen's research indicates that men use talk to ___, while women use it to _____. emphasize status; create connection build relationships; get promotions establish blame; emphasize status Create networks; emphasize separateness The essence of Tannen's research is that men use talk to emphasize status, while women use it to create connection. 110) In _____ cultures, the words themselves are the primary conveyors of meaning. rich low-context symbolic semantic In low-context cultures, the words themselves are the primary conveyors of meaning. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.47/713 111) Which of the following statements is TRUE? All leaders are managers. All managers are not leaders. The formal rights associated with management provide assurance that managers can lead effectively. Non-sanctioned leadership is not as important as formal influence. 112) _____ theory states that people are born with certain characteristics that predispose them to being leaders. Trait Path-goal LPC Contingency Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.48/713 113) When organized around the Big Five, _____ is the most important trait of effective leaders. conscientiousness emotional stability courage extraversion When organized around the Big Five, extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders. 114) _____ is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. conscientiousness emotional stability courage consideration Considerstion is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings. 115) Fiedler's contingency model assumes that an individual's leadership style is _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.49/713 changeable trained situational fixed Fiedler assumes that an individual's leadership style is fixed. 116) According to Fiedler's contingency theory, if there is NOT a match of leadership style to the group situation, what should be done? Replace the manager. Change the situation to fit the leader. Both A and B. None of the above. First, you can change the leader to fit the situation. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. That could be done by restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control factors such as salary increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions. 117) Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it _____. identifies specific leadership styles focuses on the followers makes leadership contingent on the situation uses the leadership dimensions of task and relationship behaviors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.50/713 Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. 118) According to LMX theory, which of the following is NOT true of those individual's who fall into the out-group? They get less of the leader's time. They have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interaction. They are trusted. They get fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls. "Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory” The out-group members get less of the leader's time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interactions. 119) A _____ leadership style, identified by House in path-goal theory, leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. directive supportive participative achievement-oriented Path-Goal Theory” The directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.51/713 120) The leader-participation model was developed by _____. Robert House Fred Fiedler George Graen Vroom and Yetton "Decision Theory: Vroom and Yelton's Leader-Participation Model” Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a leader-participation model. 121) Leaders demonstrate _____ when they use language to influence followers' perceptions of the world, the meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future. mentoring influence framing vision Inspirational Approaches to Leadership” Leaders demonstrate framing when they use language to influence followers' perceptions of the world, the meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.52/713 122) Which of the following is NOT true of charismatic leaders? They have a vision. They have behavior that is unconventional. They are willing to take high personal risk. They are focused on their personal needs. Charismatic Leadership” Four characteristics of the charismatic leader have been identified. They have a vision, are willing to take risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive follower needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary 123) A charismatic leader's _____ is key to follower acceptance. energy vision credentials history with the organization Charismatic Leadership” A charismatic leader's vision is key to follower acceptance. A vision is a long-term goal or strategy that is based on the attainment of values. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.53/713 124) A _____ leader has five essential qualities: (1) individual capability; (2) team skills; (3) managerial competence; (4) the ability to stimulate others to high performance; and (5) a blend of personal humility and professional will. level-5 transactional charismatic transformational Charismatic Leadership” A level-5 leader has five essential qualities: (1) individual capability; (2) team skills; (3) managerial competence; (4) the ability to stimulate others to high performance; and (5) a blend of personal humility and professional will. 125) The overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with _____. lower turnover rates higher productivity higher employee satisfaction all of the above Transformational Leadership” The overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher employee satisfaction. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.54/713 126) _____ leaders know who they are, know that they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. Transformational Transactional Charismatic Authentic "What is Authentic Leadership?” Authentic leaders know who they are, know that they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly. 127) Which of the following is NOT a dimension of trust? Integrity Competence Loyalty Distance Trust” The key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust are integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, andopenness. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.55/713 128) A ______ is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee. mentor facilitator leader coach "Mentoring” A mentor is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee. The mentoring role includes coaching, counseling, and sponsorship. 129) Which of the following is true concerning online leadership? The digital age can never turn non-leaders into leaders. Effective on-line leaders need to develop the skill of deciphering the emotional components of messages. Managers whose face-to-face leadership skills are less than satisfactory will not shine online. The on-line leader has received considerable attention from organizational behavior researchers. Online Leadership” Good interpersonal skills may include the abilities to communicate warmth, emotion, trust, and leadership through written words on a computer screen and to read emotions in others' messages. Some managers, whose face-to-face leadership skills are less than satisfactory, may shine online. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.56/713 130) Which of the following is NOT a substitute for leadership? Explicit formalized goals Rigid rules and procedures Cohesive work groups Professional orientation of employees Substitutes and Neutralizers to Leadership” Organizational characteristics like explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can replace formal leadership. 131) ____ research emphasizes style; whereas research on ____ focuses on tactics for gaining compliance. Power; persuasion Communication; politics Leadership; power Politics; leadership Contrasting Leadership and Power” Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. In contrast, the research on power tends to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.57/713 132) A has ____ power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job. Referent Reward Legitimate Coercive Bases of Power” At the organizational level, A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job. Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B. 133) Avoidance of ______ is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one. knowledge dependency power independence "Dependency - Key to Power” Dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. 134) _____ is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.58/713 Consultation Rational persuasion Pressure Exchange "Power Tactics” Rational persuasion is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels. 135) Most studies confirm that the concept of _____ is central to understanding sexual harassment. Power Sex Politics Locus of control "Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace” Most studies confirm that the concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment. This seems to be true whether the harassment comes from a supervisor, a co-worker, or even an employee. 136) ______ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.59/713 Politicking Forming coalitions Playing hardball Facilitating teamwork "Politics: Power in Action” Politicking occurs when people use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. 137) Which of the following is NOT an individual factor related to political behavior? Personality traits Perceived alternatives Level of trust Expectations of success Factors Contributing to Political Behavior” An individual's personality as well as investment in the organization, perceived alternatives, and expectations of success will influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action. 138) _____ is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others form of them. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.60/713 Impression management Misdirection Defense behavior Perception management "Impression Management” The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is calledimpression management. 139) _____ are more likely to engage in impression management, molding their image to fit the situation. Individuals with an external locus of control High self-monitors Senior level managers Employees with high power distance Impression Management” High self-monitors are more likely to engage in impression management, molding their image to fit the situation. 140) Each of the following is a question your text suggests to analyze ethical questions except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.61/713 Is the action consistent with the organization's goal? Is the action legal? Does the action violate rights of other parties? Does the action conform to standards of equity and justice? The Ethics of Behaving Politically” The decision tree asks three questions. The first question to answer addresses self-interest versus organizational goals. The second question concerns the rights of other parties. The final question relates to whether or not the political activity conforms to standards of equity and justice. 141) Conflict must be _____ by the parties to it. controlled understood perceived created "A Definition of Conflict” Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists. 142) The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.62/713 cannot be avoided indicates a malfunctioning within the group is good for a group improves productivity "Transitions in Conflict Thought” The traditional view of conflict has argued that conflict must be avoided - that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group. 143) The _____ view of conflict argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. human relations interactionist traditional functional "Transitions in Conflict Thought” The interactionist view of conflict encourages group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict - enough to keep the group viable, self-critical, and creative. 144) _______ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. Explicit Task http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.63/713 Relationship Process "Transitions in Conflict Thought” Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. The friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increases personality clashes and decreases mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks. 145) During the _____ stage of the conflict process, conditions are present that create opportunities for conflict to arise. potential opposition or incompatibility cognition and personalization vision intentions "The Conflict Process” The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. This is the stage known as potential opposition or incompatibility. 146) Assertiveness is _____. the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his/her own concerns the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy everyone's concerns http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.64/713 the degree to which one party is cooperative "Stage III: Intentions” Assertiveness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. 147) Labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies _____ bargaining. integrative cost-effective distributive third-party "Bargaining Strategies” The most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is in labor-management negotiations over wages. Labor's representatives come to the bargaining table determined to get as much money as possible out of management. Since every cent more that labor negotiates increases management's costs, each party bargains aggressively and treats the other as an opponent who must be defeated. 148) _____ bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future. Integrative Cost-effective Distributive http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.65/713 Third-party "Bargaining Strategies” Integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future. 149) During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands? Preparation and planning Definition of ground rules Clarification and justification Bargaining and problem-solving "The Negotiation Process” Once you've done your planning and developed a strategy, you're ready to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself. During this definition of ground rules, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands. 150) Which of the following is correct about cultural differences in negotiation? Japanese negotiators communicate directly and use the word "no" often. In negotiations, Brazilians are likely to use physical contact. North America persuade by appealing to emotions. Arabs rely on facts and appeal to logic. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.66/713 Global Implications” While Japanese and North American negotiators were unlikely to exhibit any physical contact other than handshaking, Brazilians touched each other almost five times every half hour. 151) Work specialization is also referred to as _____. span of control division of labor unity-of-command job grouping "Work Specialization” Work specialization is also referred to as division of labor. 152) At an Alcoa aluminum tubing plant in upstate New York, production is organized into five departments: casting; press; tubing; finishing and inspecting, packing, and shipping. This is an example of _____ departmentalization. product functions geography process "Departmentalization” This is an example of process departmentalization because each department specializes in one specific phase in the production of aluminum tubing. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.67/713 153) The ____ is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization. matrix organization bureaucracy simple structure team structure "The Bureaucracy” The bureaucracy is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command. 154) The ____ violates the unity-of-command concept. simple structure bureaucracy matrix structure virtual organization "The Matrix Structure” The most obvious structural characteristic of the matrix structure is that it breaks the unity-ofcommand concept. Therefore, the matrix has a dual chain of command. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.68/713 155) The ____ is also called the network or modular organization. virtual organization team structure matrix bureaucracy "The Virtual Organization” The virtual organization is also called the network or modular organization. 156) The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. information technology vertical boundaries horizontal boundaries external boundaries "The Boundaryless Organization” Because it relies so heavily on information technology, some have turned to calling this structure the T-form (or technology-based) organization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.69/713 157) The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. mechanistic model organic model technology model boundaryless organization "Why Do Structures Differ?” The mechanistic model has extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network (mostly downward communication), and little participation by low-level members in decision making. 158) Which of the following is NOT a determinant of an organization's structure? Strategy Organization size Industry Technology "Why Do Structures Differ?” Determinants of an organization's structure include strategy, organization size, technology, and environment. 159) Changes in corporate strategy precede and lead to _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.70/713 changes in the environment better communication increased productivity changes in an organization's structure "Strategy” Structure should follow strategy. If management makes a significant change in its organization's strategy, the structure will need to be modified to accommodate and support this change. 160) Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is MOST true? There is fairly strong evidence linking decentralization and job satisfaction. There is no evidence that supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance. The evidence generally indicates that work specialization contributes to higher productivity and reduced job satisfaction. No one wants work that makes minimal intellectual demands and is routine. "Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior” There is no evidence that supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance. 161) Institutionalization is the process through which _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.71/713 individuals become a part of an organization an organization takes on a life of its own an individual is offered a life-time position an organization employs a critical mass of people "Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture” Institutionalization is when the organization takes on a life of its own, apart from its founders or any of its members. 162) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of organizational culture? Attention to detail Innovation Formalization Team orientation "What is Organizational Culture?” The characteristics that capture the essence of an organization's culture are innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability. 163) A strong culture builds all of the following EXCEPT ____. cohesiveness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.72/713 loyalty quality organizational commitment "Culture's Functions” A strong culture demonstrates high agreement among members about what the organization stands for. Such unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment. These qualities, in turn, lessen employees' propensity to leave the organization. 164) Culture is most likely to be a liability when _____. it increases consistency of behavior the environment is dynamic management is incompetent it reduces ambiguity "Culture as a Liability” Culture is most likely to be a liability when the shared values are not in agreement with those that will further the organization's effectiveness. This is most likely to occur when an organization's environment is dynamic. 165) Which of the following is NOT a way that culture is created? Founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. Founders indoctrinate and socialize employees to their way of thinking and feeling. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.73/713 Founders poll early employees to determine the appropriate cultural values. The founders' own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs. "How a Culture Begins” The process of culture-creation occurs in three ways. First, founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. Second, they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. And, finally, the founders' own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs. 166) All of the following serve to sustain a culture EXCEPT _____. selection formalization socialization top management "Keeping a Culture Alive” The selection process, performance evaluation criteria, training and career development activities, andpromotion procedures ensure that those hired fit in with the culture. 167) _____ is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture. Training Mentoring http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.74/713 Socialization Communicating "Keeping a Culture Alive” Socialization is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture. 168) Which of the following is NOT a common form by which culture is transmitted to employees? Stories Selection Rituals Language "How Employees Learn Culture” The most potent forms in which culture is transmitted to employees are stories, rituals, material symbols, and language. 169) Which of the following is NOT identified that managers can create a more ethical culture? Visibly reward ethical acts. Set aggressive performance goals. Communicate ethical expectations. Provide protective mechanisms. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.75/713 "Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture” Companies desiring to shape ethical cultures provide visible role models, communicate ethical expectations, provide ethical training, visibly reward ethical acts, and provide protective mechanisms so that employees can discuss ethical dilemmas without fear of reprimand. 170) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a spiritual organization? Focus on individual development Employee empowerment Censorship of employee expression Trust and openness "Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization” The five cultural characteristics that tend to be evident in spiritual organizations are a strong sense of purpose, focus on individual development, trust and openness, employee empowerment, and toleration of employee expression. 171) The objective of effective _____ is to match individual characteristics such as ability and experience, with the requirements of the job. job analysis selection recruitment performance appraisal http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.76/713 "Selection Practices” The objective of effective selection is to match individual characteristics such as ability and experience, with the requirements of the job. A model of the selection process includes three stages: initial selection, substantive selection, and contingent selection. 172) _____ tests assess the applicant's ability in an authentic situation. Written Background Personality Performance simulation "Substantive Selection” Performance-simulation tests assess the applicant's ability in an authentic situation. The two best-know performance-simulation tests are work samples and assessment centers. 173) Which of the following was NOT specifically suggested by your author as a general category of employee skills? Financial Basic literacy Problem solving Interpersonal http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.77/713 "Types of Training” The four general skills categories are basic literacy, technical, interpersonal, and problem solving. 174) _____ skills training includes learning how to be a better listener and how to be a more effective team player. Financial Technical Problem solving Interpersonal "Types of Training” Interpersonal skills training includes how to be a better listener, how to communicate ideas more clearly, and how to be a more effective team player. 175) ____ training includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs. Off-the-job On-the-job Performance E-training Training Methods” http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.78/713 On-the-job training includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs. 176) Performance evaluation serves a number of purposes, including determining who gets merit increases and other rewards. This is an example of which of the following functions of performance evaluation? Basis for reward allocations Provides feedback on employees Provides a criterion against which management validates selection and development programs Helps managers make human resource decisions "Purposes of Performance Evaluation” The text emphasizes performance evaluation in its role as a mechanism for providing feedback and as a determinant of reward allocation. 177) _____ evaluation provides performance feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have. Graphic rating scales BARS 360-degree Forced comparison http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.79/713 "Who Should Do the Evaluating?” 360-degree evaluation provides performance feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have. 178) John's performance evaluation rates him on a scale of to 5 for characteristics such as job knowledge and cooperation. John's company is using a _____ performance evaluation system. forced comparison written essay graphic rating scale critical incident "Methods of Performance Evaluation” John's company is using a graphic rating scale performance evaluation system. In this system, a set of performance factors, such as quality or quantity of work, depth of knowledge, attendance, and initiative is listed and rated on a scale. 179) Even the most prestigious of schools has experienced grade inflation. In 1970, the average GPA of students at Princeton was _____, while it was _____ in 2000. 3.06, 3.43 2.47, 3.22 2.99, 3.40 3.22, 3.56 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.80/713 "Methods of Performance Evaluation” Even the most prestigious of schools has experienced grade inflation. In 1970, the average GPA of students at Princeton was 2.99, while it was 3.40 in 2000. 180) Flextime, job sharing, and part-time work are examples of _____ for managing work-life conflicts. time-based strategies information-based strategies money-based strategies direct services "Work-Life Conflicts” Flextime, job sharing, and part-time work are examples of time-based strategies for managing work-life conflicts. 181) _____ are responsible for initiating and managing change within an organization. Change agents Innovators Team leaders Consultants "Forces for Change” http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.81/713 Change agents are responsible for initiating and managing change within an organization. These individuals can be managers or non-managers, either insiders or third parties. 182) Stan is trying to implement a new organizational structure at his company. A group of key employees is resisting the change. In an attempt to "buy off" the leaders, Stan is giving them a key role in the change decision. He doesn't really value their opinion, but wants their endorsement. Stan is using the change strategy of _____. education cooptation negotiation coercion "Overcoming Resistance to Change" Stan is using the change strategy of cooptation. Once people discover Stan's motives, this strategy may backfire. 183) Refreezing involves _____. movement to a new state retrograde to an old state making a new change permanent training employees for change http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.82/713 "Lewin's Three-Step Model” Refreezing involves making the new change permanent. 184) John Kotter's _____ for implementing change builds on Lewin's three-step model. action plan implicit strategy refreezing model 8-step plan "Kotter's 8-Step Plan for Implementing Change” John Kotter's 8-step plan for implementing change builds on Lewin's three-step model. 185) What of the following best describe action research? a financial analysis tool used to evaluate the areas of the organization with the greatest potential for change a change process that focuses on the forces driving change and the forces restraining change a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate all of the above http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.83/713 "Action Research” Action research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. 186) _____ is a paradigm that values human and organizational growth, collaborative processes, and a spirit of inquiry. Organizational development Change management Action research Employee wellness "Organizational Development” Organizational development is a paradigm that values human and organizational growth, collaborative processes, and a spirit of inquiry. 187) _____ uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members. Sensitivity training Process consultation Intergroup development Team building "Organizational Development” http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.84/713 Team building uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members. 188) _____ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization and build on these to improve performance. Sensitivity training Intergroup development Process consultation Appreciative inquiry "Organizational Development” Appreciative inquiry seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization and build on these to improve performance. 189) When errors are detected in _____, the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. double-loop learning single-loop learning survey feedback organizational development "Creating a Learning Organization” http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.85/713 When errors are detected in single-loop learning, the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. 190) _____ has developed a reputation as one of America's most innovative companies by developing a stream of diverse products, including guitar strings, dental floss, medical devices, and fuel cells. Procter and Gamble General Motors American Home Products W. L. Gore "Stimulating Culture of Innovation” W. L. Gore has developed a reputation as one of America's most innovative companies by developing a stream of diverse products, including guitar strings, dental floss, medical devices, and fuel cells. 191) a. b. c. d. Which of the following is not a typical written test? intelligence integrity work sample aptitude 192) These tests have proven to be particularly good predictors for jobs that require cognitive complexity: a. b. c. d. Intelligence Integrity Work sampling Aptitude http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.86/713 193) From the late 1960s and mid-1980s, use of written tests declined because they were characterized as: a. unprofessional. b. discriminatory. c. unreliable. d. invalid. 194) Making an individual actually do the job as a test to see if he can do it is: a. a performance simulation test. b. valid. c. work sampling. d. all of the above. 195) The best way for an employer to find out if a potential employee can do a job is by: a. the interview process. b. a written test. c. a day in the office. d. a performance simulation test. 196) Hands-on simulations of part or the entire job is: a. an assessment center. b. an performance-simulation interview. c. job simulation assessment. d. work sample. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.87/713 197) A more elaborate set of performance simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a candidate’s managerial potential, is: a. b. c. d. 198) work sampling. assessment centers. personality tests. management development programs. Work samples are widely used in hiring a. unskilled labor. b. skilled workers. c. professional workers. d. managers. 199) Assessment centers are used specifically to evaluate what level of candidate? a. unskilled labor. b. skilled workers. c. professional workers. d. managers. 200) Randy Powell, president of Second Cup Limited, was hired to transform the company into a recognized brand-name organization which would compete directly in the consumer marketplace. Through his experience in various other companies, Randy has learned that one of the most important contributors to success is: using technical knowledge as a major force in managing a company. developing programs which emphasize company rules and regulations. implementing specifically targeted marketing plans. developing a broad based system of performance appraisal. developing good interpersonal or people skills. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.88/713 201) All of the following topics and areas of concentration generally constitute the field of OB except: international influences. interpersonal communication. group structure and process. leadership. work design. 202) Organizational behaviour is generally considered to be all of the following except: applying scientific findings to practical organizational problems. an applied field. a field of study. studying what people do in an organization. an intuitive analysis of human behaviour. 203) It has become evident that Canadians seem to be expecting more from business and how business leaders conduct themselves and their organizations. All of the following statements are beliefs of Canadians regarding the interrelationship between corporations and society except: Corporations should be profitable at any cost. Profitable corporations should not lay off workers. Corporations need to be accountable to a number of different stakeholders. Corporations should play a larger role in society. Corporations should assume a greater leadership role in various community activities. 204) In a recent Financial Post survey regarding workplace expectations, 75 percent of the public deemed that the most important aspect of their jobs was: higher salaries. more work time. job satisfaction. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.89/713 better fringe benefits. increased union organization. 205) Canadian workers are adapting to a new workplace characterized by the need for training and further skill development. Adaptability mechanisms are many and complex. The recession which affected Canadian industry appears to be in various stages of flux. Many managers have come to realize that one of the most important requirements for maintaining flexibility and adaptability is: providing specific and clear rules for conduct. a careful balance of managing expectations between employers and employees. placing less emphasis on training and development. placing less emphasis on job satisfaction. reducing costly human resource programs. 206) A program that asks managers to reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured if they were starting to develop the company from the beginning is called: re-engineering. MBO. TQM. diversity training. empowerment. 207) One approach that might have merit in improving company effectiveness is to combine some forces which could improve productivity, job satisfaction and ultimate profitability. Some of these forces include: empowering employees, TQM and re-engineering. new rules and regulations to govern employee behaviour. major emphasis on efficiency and profitability only. hiring more managers to supervise technological development. downsizing, layoffs and restructuring. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.90/713 208) One phenomenon that assists companies in becoming globally connected to increase business opportunities is: computerization and telecommunications through the Internet. buying and installing new and more powerful computers. devising new systems of import and export regulations. reducing the emphasis on creating a comprehensive business plan. developing broadly based marketing plans. 209) Whereas _________ focuses on differences between people from different countries, __________ addresses differences among people within given countries. workforce diversity; globalization globalization; workforce diversity culture; diversity culturization; workforce diversity globalization; culturization 210) If modern day managers do not positively address and manage workforce diversity, all of the following may become negative outcomes for an organization except: more difficult communication. increased creativity and innovation. more interpersonal conflicts. potential for higher employee turnover. less effective consequences of decision making. 211) By managing people well, companies such as Imperial Oil, Royal Bank, Bank of Montreal and others have recognized that all of the following elements contribute to success except: developing recognizable corporate responsibility. developing a "profit-at-any-cost" environment. building long term investment value. achieving sound financial performance. growing awareness for developing a team approach. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.91/713 212) Managing well is obviously an important factor in organizational success. We know that the best companies to work for have low turnover and generally more satisfied employees. In this type of setting, all of the following have been expressed by employees as reasons for choosing to stay with a company for long periods of time except: exciting and challenging work chance to change careers within the same company chance for challenging overseas assignments focus solely on salary promise of promotion from within 213) If we know how a person perceives a situation and what is important to him/her, then behaviour is generally: controllable. predetermined. uncontrollable. unpredictable. predictable. 214) Which behavioural science discipline has made the most significant contribution to understanding individual behaviour? sociology social psychology psychology anthropology political science 215) The OB subject of "perception" has been most influenced by which behavioural science discipline? political science psychology http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.92/713 social psychology anthropology sociology 216) The OB subject of "bureaucracy" has been most influenced by which behavioural science discipline? social psychology anthropology sociology political science psychology 217) OB's current state of investigation and study is best described as: All of OB is based on universal truths proposed by academics, researchers and practitioners. Political forces have a tendency to influence the study of OB and, hence, skew resulting conclusions. There is little disagreement among OB researchers and scholars as to the current state. OB is practically based on situational or contingency conditions driven by leadership style. Cause-effect principles, which tend to apply to all situations, have been isolated. 218) You are working as an assistant to an OB specialist doing research on a project to determine relationships between certain variables and cause-effect situations. The specialist is attempting to determine when people are motivated by pay or salary and when they are motivated by recognition, support and encouragement. By examining the connection between rewards and incentives and motivation under various conditions, the specialist appears to be using which of the following approaches in research? open-systems approach contingency approach human resources approach observational approach scientific management approach 219) A model is a(n): http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.93/713 abstraction of reality. response that is affected by an independent variable. independent variable. response that is affected by a dependent variable. dependent variable. 220) The best example of an efficient organization or employee is: an instructor who teaches larger classes than his or her fellow colleagues. operating a hospital at the lowest possible cost while achieving higher output. a telemarketer who makes the required number of calls by the end of the day. a sales person who acquires the most clients of anyone in the company. being the most pleasant real estate broker in Toronto. 221) Which of the following could be a positive impact of absenteeism? disruption of workflow delay of decision making decrease in efficiency and effectiveness reduction in quality of output reduction of poor employee performance 222) Ruth needs to examine the process of employee turnover in her company and the resultant effects and costs being realized by the company. Upon careful examination of the financial records in her own department, Ruth noted that the following factor stood out as a major cost: design and development of new evaluation forms. recruitment, selection and training of new employees. resistance to new employees by the HR department. orientation programs for new employees. resentment of new employees by existing employees. 223) The general attitude toward one's job and the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive is known as: turnover. total quality management. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.94/713 job satisfaction. job security. management by objectives. 224) Individual-level independent variables include: technology. organizational culture. human resource policy. group behaviour. perception. 225) The structure of an OB model includes three basic levels of analysis: individual, group, and organization systems. Issues that influence all three levels in various ways and thus affect behavioural dynamics are: change and stress. organizational culture and commitment. power and politics. work design and technology. values and attitudes. 226) The group level analysis in an OB model includes all of the following independent variables except: leadership. group decision making. work teams. organizational culture. group structure. 227) According to the OB model, all of the following are characteristics of human output except: conflict. satisfaction. turnover. productivity. absence. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.95/713 228) Some of OB's challenges and opportunities include all of the following except: reinforcing the importance of traditional methods of management. offering specific insights to improve interpersonal and people skills. helping us learn to cope in a continuously changing world. facilitating the improvement of quality and employee productivity. acknowledging individual differences and value of workforce diversity. 229) One of the major frameworks that every individual will need to develop and accommodate throughout their working lives is: always work for others since this reduces stress. recognize that a contingency approach is of minimum value. a continuous process of learning and skill building. rely on traditional values since they have worked in the past. entrepreneurism is the only hope of survival in the future. 230) Maureen Kempston Darkes is the first woman to head General Motors Canada. Maureen is very much aware of the many challenges that she faces on both a day-to-day and long-range basis. However, she has a firm belief that her employees can contribute to improving company operations. Her colleagues in the industry view her as: one who wishes to rigidly maintain the status quo at the company. a manager who is focusing solely on the company and her employees. a leader who recognizes that labour conflict is not a major concern to her. a manager who wishes to remove most of the control systems within General Motors. a team player who strives for less hierarchical ways to communicate. 231) In addition to physical location and size, many other factors affect how organizations are structured and how they operate. All of the following statements are characteristic of organizations except: They can be located in either the public or private sector. They can be unionized or value the benefit of being non-unionized. They can be publicly traded or privately held. They can operate in the for-profit or non-profit sectors. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.96/713 Managers within the organization always own shares in the firm. 232) The external focus of the competing values framework refers to all of the following except: environmental conditions. marketplace. production processes. government regulations. technological changes. 233) The flexibility-control dimension of the competing values framework refers to: competing demands to balance traditional operations with future needs. developing structures that maximize predominantly traditional operations. focusing all attentions internally to maintain established operating systems. maximizing the internal focus of an organization for maximum productivity. maximizing the external focus of an organization for maximum productivity. 234) When we consider leadership in an organization, we typically refer to: the person or persons who oversee the activities of others. the person or persons developing specific work patterns. the person or persons responsible for setting the overall vision. the individual who acts solely as the figurehead for the organization. the individual who deals with the political issues of organizational function. 235) Managers generally need to develop an approach that will facilitate their effectiveness while achieving the organization's goals. On the control dimension of the competing values framework, managers must: set clear goals regarding productivity expectations. develop mentoring and facilitating skills. serve as innovators and brokers. develop skills which will maintain flexibility and discretion. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.97/713 inspire employees toward high performance behaviour. 236) The competing values framework identifies a series of roles for which managers and employees facing a changing workplace must develop new skills. The monitor role includes which of the following: skills? goal setting and management of conflict. evaluating and responding to routine information. negotiating agreement and commitment. team building and developing subordinates. managing change and delegating effectively. 237) The competing values framework: is used by organizations to identify individuals best suited for promotion by examining the emphasis they place on various managerial activities. is the best approach to use for understanding the complexity of managerial roles in a rapidly changing social and technological environment. helps determine what managers do by categorizing different, but interrelated, sets of behaviours attributable to the responsibilities of a manager. is one approach used to facilitate development of skills required by successful managers in organizations facing new and complex challenges. is used by learning organizations to assist them in their acquisition, dissemination and application of knowledge for continued success. 238) Henry Mintzberg concluded that managers are primarily concerned with a variety of functional roles which can be grouped into the following categories: traditional, communication, networking. technical, human, conceptual. planning, organizing, leading. interpersonal, informational, decisional. commanding, coordinating, controlling. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.98/713 239) According to Luthans and his associates, which activity is not part of human resource management? staffing disciplining socializing managing conflict motivating 240) Which of the following statements is false regarding the study conducted by Luthans and his associates? A successful manager was defined in terms of how quickly he or she moved up within the organization. The aspect which distinguishes the average manager from the effective manager from the successful manager is the amount of time and effort devoted to the various managerial activities. Social and political skills are not as important as performance when one examines the speed of managerial promotion within organizations. All managers, regardless of the organizations within which they work, generally engage in similar managerial activities. The effectiveness of managers was defined in terms of quantity and quality of their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their subordinates. 241) All of the following statements are true about learning except: Learning involves change which can be either positive or negative from an organizational perspective. The change in behaviour resulting from learning is usually temporary or reflexive in nature. Changes in behaviour indicate that learning has taken place, and learning is a change in behaviour. Learning requires some form of experience which can be acquired either directly or indirectly. Behavioural changes that result from learning must be relatively permanent. 242) Three common theories have been offered to explain the process by which individuals acquire their patterns of behaviour: classical conditioning, operant http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.99/713 conditioning and social-learning. Which of the following statements is false when examining these theories? Any situation in which it is either explicitly stated or implicitly suggested that reinforcements are contingent on some action on your part involves the use of operant conditioning. As part of classical conditioning, learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned and an unconditioned stimulus. Most behaviour, particularly the complex behaviour of individuals in organizations is emitted rather than elicited; it is voluntary rather than reflexive. Operant conditioning is passive in nature as it is elicited in response to a specific, identifiable event and as such, can explain simple reflexive behaviours. Social-learning theory, although an extension of operant conditioning, also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception. 243) The classical conditioning theory of learning grew out of experiments performed by Ivan Pavlov. the work and research of Henri Fayol. experiments performed by B. F. Skinner. experiments and studies of Robert Katz. studies conducted by Luthans and associates. 244) of Comfort foods that bring back memories of a certain time and place is an example situational conditioning. operant conditioning. sensory conditioning. associated conditioning. classical conditioning. 245) Operant conditioning argues that behaviour is reflexive in nature. behaviour is not learned. behaviour is a function of its consequences. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.100/713 the tendency to repeat a behaviour is very strong. observational learning is predominant in creating behaviour. 246) When a response is followed by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant, it is called: manipulation. positive reinforcement. negative reinforcement. extinction. elimination. 247) Suspending an employee who shows up for work drunk is an example of: extinction. negative reinforcement. punishment. poor management practice. a conditioned response. 248) Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behaviour is called: negative reinforcement. positive reinforcement. classical conditioning. extinction. punishment. 249) All of the following statements are true regarding both positive and negative reinforcement except: Both result in learning. Both strengthen desired response and increase probability of repetition. Both tend to weaken behaviour and decrease its subsequent frequency. Both strengthen job performance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.101/713 Both affect behaviour and interaction with the boss. 250) In a case where an employee is frequently late for work and every time he/she is not tardy, the manager compliments him/her for being on time, the manager is using: continuous schedule reinforcement. negative reinforcement. intermittent schedule reinforcement. repetitious schedule reinforcement. fixed-interval reinforcement. 251) According to research, the ___________ form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the ___________ form. repetitious; intermittent intermittent; continuous varied; repetitious continuous; intermittent continuous; varied 252) Examples of how managers can use learning theory include all the following except: using lotteries which follow a variable-ratio schedule to reduce absenteeism. disciplining employees for undesirable behaviours. using various techniques to reinforce management's authority. developing effective employee training programs. rewarding attendance and good health through implementation of well-pay programs. 253) Which of the following statements does not describe the effect of discipline on employee behaviour? It tells employees what not to do. It tells employees what to do in the future. It produces fast results in the short run. It leads to employee frustration and fear of management. It increases absenteeism and turnover. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.102/713 254) Which of the following behaviours would undermine a manager's use of discipline? Responding with disciplinary action as soon as possible after noticing the violation. Using due process by providing an opportunity for the employee to explain his or her position. Providing a warning before initiating disciplinary action. Demonstrating fairness and consistency by treating every employee exactly alike. Allowing the employee to determine what he or she will do to ensure the violation will not be repeated. 255) Which of the following is false regarding the knowledge development approach to organizational learning? Organizations learn through feedback based on previous successes and failures. Organizations learn by collecting, interpreting and acting upon information. Organizations transfer knowledge to one another by sharing knowledge, impressions and beliefs. Organizations tend to look for entirely new processes and procedures to carry out their work. Organizations are better prepared to face new challenges for which they have no prior experience. 256) Which learning theory would best serve as a guide to assist organizations in improving the effectiveness of their training programs? competing values framework classical conditioning operant conditioning social learning reinforcement theory 257) Examples of on-the-job training include all of the following except: job rotation. apprenticeship. simulation exercises. coaching. mentoring. 258) Examples of off-the-job training include all of the following except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.103/713 classroom lectures. apprenticeship. simulation exercises. vestibule training. use of videos. 259) Interpersonal and problem solving skills may best be learned through: simulation exercises. classroom lectures. videos. vestibule training. apprenticeship. 260) A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment is called: interpretation. environmental analysis. perception. outlook. environmental impact. 261) The focus of a person's attention appears to be influenced by all of the following except: the person's interests. the person's past experiences. the person's motives. the target itself. the person's attitudes. 262) The theory that has been proposed to develop explanations of how we judge people differently, depending upon the meaning we assign to a given behaviour, is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.104/713 attribution theory. judgmental theory. situational theory. behavioural theory. equity theory. 263) Which of the following is not true about attribution theory? It attempts to attribute causes to specific behaviours. The cause of behaviour may be internal. The cause of behaviour may be external. Behaviour can be attributed to one's heredity. Different situations may cause different behaviours. 264) Janice is late for work each day by about ten minutes. This behaviour exhibits: consensus. similarity. reliability. consistency. validity. 265) The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others is known as: fundamental attribution error. self-serving bias. selective perception. consistency. attribution theory. 266) The tendency of an individual to attribute his own successes to internal factors while placing the blame for failures on external factors is known as: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.105/713 fundamental attribution error. self-serving bias. consistency. selective perception. selective judgment. 267) of: To blame your boss for not giving you a raise you felt you deserved is an example fundamental attribution error. attribution theory. self-fulfilling prophecy. self-serving bias. selective perception. 268) Shortcuts in judging others include all of the following except: stereotyping. halo effect. projection. self-serving bias contrast effects. 269) When we draw a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability or appearance: we have misjudged the person. personal bias is in effect. we are prejudiced. the halo effect is operating. we are projecting. 270) One of the shortcuts used to judge others involves evaluating a person based on how he/she compares to other individuals recently encountered. This shortcut is known as: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.106/713 selective perception. prejudice. projection. contrast effects. halo effect. 271) People who engage in __________ tend to perceive others according to what they themselves are like, rather than according to what the person being observed is really like. projection contrast effects the halo effect stereotyping selective perception 272) When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he/she belongs, we are using the shortcut called: grouping. stereotyping. categorizing. assimilating. the halo effect. 273) A trait that is not inherited is: muscle composition and reflexes. energy level. cultural norms. psychological makeup. gender. 274) An individual's personality is determined by all the following except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.107/713 genetics. environment. perceptual process. situational factors. heredity. 275) Factors that are considered environmental influences on our personality include all the following except: birth order. heredity. culture. family norms. Protestant work ethic. 276) "Bob is easy-going at home, but at work he becomes very tense and anxious." This statement attributes Bob's personality more to which of the following: heredity. environment. situation. locus of control. internalization. 277) All of the following personality attributes have potential for predicting behaviour in organizations except: Machiavellianism. type A personality. locus of control. conscientiousness. propensity for risk taking. 278) Individuals who rate high in externality: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.108/713 are less satisfied with their jobs. have lower absenteeism rates. are less alienated from the work setting. are more involved on their jobs. perceive they have significant control. 279) Characteristics of individuals high in Machiavellianism include which of the following? maintains emotional distance, highly authoritative, believes in swift discipline impulsive, emotionally involved, has strong ethical beliefs pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, believes ends can justify means focus most of their time on people issues develops a realistic and empathetic approach to dealing with employees 280) People with high self-esteem: are less likely to take unpopular stands than low SEs. tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs. tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than low SEs. tend to be more concerned with pleasing others than low SEs. generally have lower expectations of success than low SEs. 281) How would you describe an individual who is capable of presenting striking contradictions between who they are in public and who they are privately? high self-esteem low self-esteem high self-monitoring low self-monitoring high risk-taking 282) A risk avoider tends to make decisions: quickly and with little information. quickly and with substantial information. slowly and with little information. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.109/713 slowly and with substantial information. only if it is absolutely necessary. 283) Which occupation has the highest risk-taking propensity? an accountant performing auditing activities a stock trader in a brokerage firm a computer technologist a marketing representative a clerk in a department store 284) An individual who is aggressively involved in a chronic incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time is a(n): Type A. Type B. Type AB. extrovert. self-monitor. 285) All of the following are characteristics of Type A personality except: They operate under moderate to high levels of stress. They are generally faster workers. They feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. They strive to achieve two or more goals at once. They can easily pursue leisure activities without feeling guilty. 286) A Type B personality would be most likely to exhibit all of the following characteristics except: being easy going. enjoying leisure and quiet time. eating meals slowly. concentrating on only one task at a time. concentrating on several tasks at a time. 287) Holland's theory argues that job satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.110/713 personality and occupation are in agreement. an individual is highly motivated. salary is high. employees have an education. personality and occupation are not in agreement. 288) A sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime is generally referred to as (a): job. career. career anchor. management. life-long learning. 289) Modern opinions regarding organizational responsibility for career development seem to indicate that: organizations have an obligation to provide individuals with life-long employment. organizations should have formalized employer-directed career planning programs. career development should be paternalistic. organizations should be supportive as individuals proceed with their own career development. organizations should provide networking contacts for their employees. 290) Power distance is generally defined as the degree to which: people in a society accept that power in organizations is distributed equally. people in a society accept that values in organizations are distributed unequally. a society accepts that power in organizations is a central attribute. a society accepts that culture in organizations is relatively stable. people in a society accept that power in organizations is distributed unequally. 291) All of the following statements are correct regarding the importance of values except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.111/713 Values facilitate the understanding of attitudes and motivation. Values influence our perceptions. Values can cloud objectivity and rationality. Values generally have no effect on job satisfaction. Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour. 292) The long-term versus short-term orientation dimension suggests that people with long-term orientation value _____________ whereas individuals with short-term orientation emphasize _____________. respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations; thrift and persistence thrift and persistence; respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations relationships and welfare for others; assertiveness and competition thrift and persistence; sensitivity and concern for the welfare for others thrift and persistence; assertiveness and competition 293) The boomers, one of the broad age groups described by Adams, generally reflect to some extent all of the following stereotypes typical of this generation except: rejection of authority. skepticism regarding motives of big business and government. need for personal autonomy and self-fulfillment. strong concern for the environment. strong desire for equality in the workplace. 294) Values are: synonymous with attitudes. flexible and adaptable. based solely on perception. fairly stable over time. consistent among occupational groups. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.112/713 295) It would appear from observation and research that the values of Canadians have changed substantially in the last ten years. Air Canada determined that all of the following are characteristic of Canadians except: Canadians have become more nationalistic and more confident. Canadians have become more confident and less nationalistic. they are human, caring and humble, while also seeking respect. there is currently more emphasis on the individual than the collective. there is a strong social conscience among Canadians. 296) The personality of Canadians as compared to Americans is generally reflected by all of the following characteristics except: more emphasis on politeness and following rules. more pragmatic and less ideological. valuing individuality and freedom. valuing peace, order and equality. demonstrating more shyness and courteousness. 297) According to Hofstede, which of the following countries scored high on the power distance dimension? United States Germany Japan Russia Netherlands 298) The socialization process and practices that occur during childhood will generally extend into the workplace. This is reflected in the differences between the values and work ethic of Japanese and American employees. American children have been taught early in their formative years to: be team players. work within the group. conform. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.113/713 question and analyze. recount facts. 299) Honeywell Limited, through the efforts of its management, instituted a learning for life program and encourages its diverse workforce to work together effectively. Their diversity training programs have helped people become more committed to the organization. All of the following are results that have been achieved through these programs except: Employee pride and self-esteem improved dramatically. Productivity increased by 40 percent. Inventory was reduced by 60 percent. Bottom line results were significant. Overall company growth remained flat. 300) Jon is a middle-level manager at Apex Corporation which manufactures electronic switches for the telecommunications industry. Jon has been in his position for about three years and has been heard on several accounts expressing the fact that he likes his job. Jon is expressing his: attitude about work. values about work. perceptions about work. frustration by making a positive comment. Jon is really not expressing anything significant. 301) Job satisfaction is best described as: a behaviour. a value. an attitude. a perception. a personality trait 302) Job involvement is best defined as a worker's: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.114/713 general attitude toward his or her job. loyalty to the organization. identification with the job. need to participate in organizational social activities. identification with a particular organization 303) Changing a worker's attitude is not an easy task. To get a worker to change their attitude requires a variety of approaches which can include all of the following except: presenting strong evidence to support your reasons for wanting an attitude change. clearly telling the individual what is expected. presenting arguments which fit each individual being targeted for change. appealing to the individual's fears, frustrations and other emotions. using a positive and tactful tone when using oral persuasion. 304) Which of the following is not considered to be characteristic of organizational commitment? psychological identification with one's job acceptance of goals and values of the organization willingness to help the organization achieve its goals desire to remain within the organization a more enduring response to the organization as a whole than job satisfaction. 305) Employees are most likely to respond to change efforts made by someone who: is liked, credible and convincing. has an impressive title. is considerably older than the workers. is new to the organization. can develop effective regulations. 306) Cognitive dissonance may be viewed as a(n) http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.115/713 way to change organizational direction. force encouraging organizational policy changes. external pressure to organizational values. external pressure to change one's attitude. internal pressure to change one's attitude. 307) As managers increasingly face diversity concerns in the workplace, it becomes incumbent upon them to develop ways and means to deal with these concerns and the related problems. One of the difficulties of dealing with diversity issues is: determining how to accommodate the needs of diverse employees. developing adequate rules and regulations to govern work. determining how to best simplify the various affiliations of individuals. attempting to develop programs which will assimilate diversity. determining how to accommodate the needs of the organization 308) Jobs require a tremendous amount of initiative and activity which sees the worker as interacting with a wider variety of job elements. All of the following are examples of some of those job elements except: following company policy and regulations. meeting performance and productivity standards. interacting with co-workers and management. performing community service activities. often living with less than ideal working conditions. 309) The following are all determinants of job satisfaction except: equitable rewards. level of education supportive colleagues. supportive working conditions. mentally challenging work 310) Not all individuals seek money as the single most important factor in a job. Many people willingly accept less money for all of the following reasons except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.116/713 to have greater discretion over management practices. to work in a less demanding job. to work in a preferred location. to have greater discretion in the hours they work. to have greater discretion in the work they do. 311) Despite the fact that the majority of Canadians express overall satisfaction with their jobs, all of the following are factors that companies and managers might examine with a view toward improvement except: communication of information to employees developing increased collegial support implementation of fair and reasonable reward systems better rules and regulations for employee behaviour devising ways and means to make work more challenging. 312) Research indicates that satisfaction may not lie in the job but in an employee's: personality. values. attitude. health. stress level. 313) Management is beginning to realize that an individual's disposition toward life, which seems to hold over time and carries over into his or her disposition toward work, is embodied in the individual's: value system. genetic makeup. attitudes. level of stress. general well-being. 314) Managers are advised that manipulating job characteristics, working conditions, rewards and job fit may have little effect on job satisfaction. Instead managers should focus on: employee selection to screen out individuals who appear to be negative. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.117/713 employee selection to screen out individuals who seem to be management material. employee selection to screen out individuals who have extensive work experience. testing all employees for specific value characteristics. selecting employees who have a clear ideology of how rewards should be allocated. 315) Employee dissatisfaction can be expressed in a variety of ways which include all of the following except: conforming to company values. stealing company property. insubordination. complaining. shirking part of their responsibilities. 316) Attending union meetings as a response to dissatisfaction would be what type of response? exit voice value clarification neglect loyalty 317) Quietly continuing to do your work, even though you're dissatisfied, is what type of response to dissatisfaction? exit voice loyalty neglect uncertainty avoidance 318) Evidence suggests that cross-cultural training makes an extremely positive impact upon the organization and the individuals employed there. Cross-cultural training fosters all of the following except: higher performance. improved relationships. focus on preservation of traditional values. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.118/713 ability to adjust more rapidly to a new culture. reduction of expatriate failure rates. 319) A variety of training techniques designed to prepare individuals for foreign work assignments include all of the following except: documentary programs. print material on the country's demographics. role-playing exercises. traditional classroom training. simulated social settings. 320) Motivation is best defined as: high performance. efficient behaviour. a willingness to exert high levels of effort. being told to exert high levels of effort. a company's cultural norm. 321) All of the following are assumptions of Theory X except: Employees will avoid assuming responsibilities. Employees are lazy and generally dislike work. Employees will seek formal direction whenever possible. People will exercise self-direction if committed to objectives. Individuals tend to consider security as the most important factor. 322) A Theory Y employee would: dislike work. need to be controlled. avoid responsibility. exercise self-direction. display little ambition. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.119/713 323) Maslow's hierarchy has five levels of needs. Which of the following is not one of those levels? safety needs social needs motivational needs self-actualization needs physiological needs 324) Which step in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory deals with achieving one's potential? self-actualization esteem safety social physiological 325) According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating? When it is substantially satisfied. It never stops motivating. When one returns to a lower-level need. When a higher level need comes into focus. When too many other needs come into focus. Reference: Page 60 326) Which one of the following statements about Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is not true? The five levels of needs are arranged in hierarchical order. Physiological needs are the lowest level. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.120/713 The lower order need must be fully satisfied before the next higher need becomes dominant. The need hierarchy concept has not been well supported by research. Managers recognize that motivation can be highly effective when centered on specific needs. 327) Which of the following is not true about the motivation-hygiene theory? Working conditions are characterized as hygiene factors. Intrinsic factors are motivators. Jobs become satisfying when dissatisfying characteristics are removed. Responsibility is a satisfier. Extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. 328) Which of the following would be classified by Herzberg as a hygiene factor? growth company policy self satisfaction achievement responsibility 329) Which of the following is not a criticism of the motivation-hygiene theory? No overall measure of satisfaction is utilized. The research methodology does not examine productivity. The theory is inconsistent with previous research. One's attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure. Procedures used are limited by methodology. 330) Desire for relationships with those who are significant to us such as family members, supervisors and friends, are examples of Alderfer's: existence needs. relatedness needs. growth needs. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.121/713 esteem needs. social needs. 331) Which one of the following statements is not characteristic of ERG theory? It proposes three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. The theory involves a frustration-regression dimension. More than one level of needs may serve as motivators at the same time. Existence needs must be satisfied before relatedness needs become important. ERG theory seems to represent a more valid version of the needs hierarchy. 332) Who proposed that achievement, affiliation and power are three important needs which help explain motivation in workplace situations? McClelland Alderfer Herzberg Maslow McGregor 333) The desire for influence and control over others is an example of McClelland's need for: achievement. affiliation. power. esteem. socialization. 334) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer jobs which offer all of the following except: personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. a high degree of risk. an intermediate degree of risk. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.122/713 rapid feedback so they can determine if their performance is improving. an equal chance of success or failure. 335) The best managers are: high in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation. high in their need for power and high in their need for affiliation. low in their need for power and low in their need for affiliation. high in their need for power and high in their need for achievement. low in their need for power and high in their need for achievement. 336) Which of the following is inconsistent with goal-setting theory? Specificity of goals increases motivation. Goals that are certain to be accomplished increase motivation. Challenging goals or difficult goals can increase performance. Participation in setting goals increases the chances for those goals to be accepted. Self-generated feedback is a more powerful motivator than externally-generated feedback. 337) Your personal evaluation of your ability to perform is termed: goal setting. equity. self-efficacy. distributive justice. goal commitment. 338) The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance is the: rewards-personal goals relationship. performance-reward relationship. effort-performance relationship. rewards-effort relationship. performance-goal setting relationship. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.123/713 339) Expectancy theory is an example of a: hierarchical model needs-based model contingency model cognitive evaluation model goal-setting theory 340) In equity theory, individuals assess the: cost-benefit ratio. efficiency-effectiveness trade-off. quantity-quality trade-off. outcome-input ratio. goal setting-reward ratio. 341) Which of the following is not a referent comparison an employee can use in equity theory? self-inside self-goal other-outside self-outside other-inside 342) When people perceive an imbalance in their outcome-input ratio relative to others: an illegal situation is assumed. they expect to be promoted. tension is created. turnover is inevitable. goal-setting needs to be renewed. 343) If a salaried worker is underpaid, equity theory would predict that: quantity will increase. quality will increase. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.124/713 quantity and/or quality will decrease. there will be no effect. goal-setting will need to be modified. 344) If a piece-rate employee is overpaid, equity theory would predict that: quality will increase. quantity will increase. quality will decrease. there will be no effect. performance goals would need to be changed. 345) There are several types of justice. Which one is the term for "fairness of the process"? interpersonal justice distributive justice equity procedural justice social justice 346) Which employee would be least likely to be motivated by organizational rewards? one with a low need for affiliation one with a high need for achievement one with a low need for achievement one with a high need for power one with high need for power and achievement 347) Which of the following is suggested by cognitive evaluation theory? It would make sense to make an individual's pay noncontingent on performance. Employees are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Extrinsic rewards increase intrinsic rewards. Needs are divided into higher-order and lower-order categories. It would make sense to make an individual's pay contingent on performance. 348) Most current motivation theories were developed in the United States by Americans and have a strong emphasis on: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.125/713 individualism and quantity of life. teamwork and quality of life. teamwork and quantity of life. risk minimization and consensus. teamwork and goal setting. 349) Basic literacy training must often be provided by employers because about _______ of Canadians between the ages of 16 and 65 don't have reading skills that match the demands of tomorrow's workplace. 10 percent 15 percent 22 percent 35 percent 42 percent 350) Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are: easy to attain. approved by management. tangible, verifiable, measurable. easy to create and develop. general in nature. 351) For the individual employee, MBO provides: specific personal performance objectives. increased monetary compensation. communication between co-workers. a means to an end. a way to keep the company accountable. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.126/713 352) Since MBO works in an organization from the "top down" as well as from the "bottom up," then if all individuals achieve their goals: employees are more likely to be compensated for their efforts. their unit's goals will be attained and the organization's overall objectives become a reality. the individuals are less likely to be recognized for their work. the organization's objectives will suffer. operating units function individually without input from other units. 353) An example of an MBO objective is: decrease absenteeism. increase quality of products by September 1, 2000. improve service to all customers. cut departmental costs by 10 percent within 2 months. gain additional marketshare 354) Feedback on an employee's performance leads to: lower performance. higher performance. lower performance in the case of negative feedback. higher performance in the case of positive feedback. little change in performance. 355) The major benefit of having employees participate in goal setting is: that it provides the company with greater financial stability. the possibility that more desirable customers will be attracted. that it appears to induce employees to accomplish more difficult goals and tasks. that it provides more time for management to pursue other activities. it takes less time to implement this type of system. 356) Employee recognition can: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.127/713 be a potent motivator. assist with goal setting. always bring additional salary. help with MBO program implementation. lead to unrealistic expectations. 357) Which of the following is true about employee recognition programs? The best ones recognize individual accomplishments only. The best ones recognize group accomplishments only. The best ones recognize individual and group accomplishments. The best ones use single sources. The best ones recognize organizational accomplishment. 358) An employee survey in a variety of work settings discovered employees want more: money. vacation. recognition. discretionary time. goal setting. 359) When management was asked for the reasons why employees left for jobs with other companies, responses included all of the following except: lack of goal setting. lack of recognition. low compensation. limited authority. personality problems. 360) Which of the following are forms of variable-pay programs? piece-rate, wage incentive plans, bonuses http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.128/713 profit-sharing, bonuses, extended vacations wage incentive plans, flextime, piece-rate retirement benefits, extended vacations, wage incentive plans benefit plans, bonuses, profit-sharing 361) While the process of individual, team and company-wide incentive plans are similar, one factor stands out as being the most important in keeping these plans successful. This factor is: linking rewards to participative goal setting. linking performance to appropriate goal setting. providing adequate employee recognition. linking employee recognition to organizational goals. linking rewards to appropriate levels of performance. 362) A formula-based group incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is to be allocated is called: profit-sharing. gainsharing. variable pay. a piece-rate plan. an ESOP. 363) Gainsharing differs from profit-sharing in that: it rewards specific behaviours that are more influenced by external factors. employees receive incentive rewards only when a company is profitable. it focuses on productivity gains rather than profits. it rewards specific behaviours that are less influenced by internal factors. it focuses on profits rather than productivity gains. 364) Programs that distribute compensation by an established formula designed around a company's profitability are known as: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.129/713 gainsharing programs. variable pay programs. skill-based programs. profit-sharing plans. performance-based programs. 365) A major characteristic of profit-sharing programs is that they: encourage employees to focus on the future. take into account factors such as customer service. focus on past financial results. are heavily oriented toward employee development. are based on participative goal setting. 366) Performance-based compensation is probably most compatible with: Theory Y. expectancy theory. MBO. participative management. Maslow's hierarchy. 367) Organizations trying to build a strong team will want to incorporate group-based performance incentives. Employees can be encouraged to make an extra effort to help their team succeed by: linking performance to goal setting. implementing successful contingency planning. linking rewards to company profitability. increasing employee development and training. linking rewards to team performance. 368) From management's point of view, the appeal of skill-based plans is their: flexibility. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.130/713 low cost. motivation. ease of administration. protection of territory. 369) Skill-based pay plans are compatible with all of the following except: ERG theory. the achievement need. reinforcement theory. motivation of professionals. equity theory. 370) The purpose of stretch targets is not only to allow employees to stretch their abilities, but to: change the organization's competitive position by altering business processes. develop new and more dynamic compensation strategies. redesign managerial function to improve policy setting. develop rigid and highly specific long-term goals. 371) Options in flexible benefit programs might include all of the following except: extended disability. college tuition reimbursement. extended vacation time. participative management. pension plans. 372) Which of the following is not true about motivating professionals? They are motivated by money. They are motivated by challenging jobs. They are loyal to their profession rather than their employer. They value support. They want others to think their work is important. 373) High dissatisfaction is probably inevitable for low-skilled service workers unless: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.131/713 job scheduling is improved. pay and benefits are significantly increased. the dress code is generally relaxed. there is opportunity for participative management. there is greater opportunity for cross training. 374) In recent years, corporate boards have moved towards giving their executives less fixed salary, and: they are emphasizing compensation and more rewards linked to performance. they have developed assessment systems which consider other factors of performance. they have emphasized that research is most important. they are emphasizing compensation based on short-term profitability. they have increased benefit plans instead. 375) Individuals who are highly motivated and very much committed to their jobs, tasks, ideas and even nonwork-related activities can perform in a highly effective manner to achieve satisfaction and intended outcomes. In such a situation, all of the following are characteristics of such groups except: challenge is a highly focused effort the reward is not a central issue support from friends and peers is very important little or no supervision is required willingness to put in long hours of effort 376) All of the following are methods of performance evaluation except: critical incidents. written essays. interviews. graphic rating scales. multi-person comparisons. 377) When an appraiser rates a subordinate on a scale that lists job behaviours hierarchically, it is called: behaviourally anchored rating scales. critical incident. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.132/713 graphic rating scale. multiperson comparison. individual ranking 378) __________ requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as top one-fifth or second one-fifth. Individual ranking Group order ranking Paired comparison Critical incident Single criterion 379) Through the use of multiperson comparisons, employees are evaluated based on: items along a continuum. a set of performance factors. group, individual, or paired ranking. graphic rating scales. 360 degree evaluation. 380) Which one of the following characteristics is not part of the definition of a group? interdependent two or more members organizationally assigned goals come together to achieve particular objectives interacting 381) The stages of group development are: idea generation, implementation, termination. idea generation, implementation, termination. initiation, evolution, maturation, decline. forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning. initiating, storming, norming, performing, adjourning. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.133/713 382) In the second stage of group development: close relationships are developed. the group demonstrates cohesiveness. intragroup conflict often occurs. the job task is performed. group objectives are clearly formulated. 383) After which stage of a group's development has the group formed a common set of expectations of member behaviours? norming storming forming performing planning 384) In certain instances, high levels of conflict within a group can be beneficial to high group performance. This is true as long as: organizational goals and focus are clear. management is committed to controlling group behaviour. appropriate rewards are in place for group members. unions are supportive of group organization. conflict is directed towards the task and not individuals. 385) According to the punctuated-equilibrium model, all of the following are true about groups except: The first meeting sets the group's direction. A transition takes place at the end of the first phase which occurs exactly when the group has used up one third of its allotted time. The first phase of group activity is one of inertia. The group's last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.134/713 The transition initiates major changes. 386) The work group has a distinct set of resources determined by its membership. All of the following are examples except: intelligence of the members. motivation of the members. external structure. internal structure defining member roles. internal structure defining member norms. 387) The more formal regulations that the organization imposes on its employees: the more dissatisfied the employees will be. the more productive the work group members will be. the more the behaviour of the work group members will be consistent and predictable. the less productive the work group members will be. the less satisfied employees will be with their work groups. 388) Millie is a fashion designer who, at the best of times, is under a great deal of pressure to design and produce samples of her work. Although she has several groups of highly skilled individuals to assist in shortening the time interval between design and production, Millie recognizes that limited resources will: encourage greater group creativity. define new standards for efficiency. increase long term profitability have a significant bearing on her groups' productivity. create a reputation of a strong business sense. 389) All of the following are conditions and situations that can significantly enhance a group's performance except: an individual's intellectual and task-relevant ability. size of the group. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.135/713 type of tasks being performed. level of conflict within the group. formal organizational structure. 390) of: Formal leadership, roles, group norms, group status and group size are examples structural variables. role definitions. status symbols. perceptions of reality. organizational structure. 391) The understanding of one's responsibilities and duties is called: role identity. role perception. role expectation. role conflict. role performance. 392) Which one of the following is not true about role expectations? Role stereotypes are derived from expectations. Behaviour can be determined from expectations. The psychological contract aids in identifying mutual role expectations by employee and employer. It is one's own view of how one should behave or act. It is how others believe one should act in a given situation. 393) The psychological contract is typically characterized as: "powerful determiner of behaviour in organizations." "let the employee be aware." significant expectations from management about employees. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.136/713 significant expectations from employees about management. the psychological contract has no significant meaning in organizations. 394) Roles performed by group members to maintain good relationships within the group are referred to as: norms. task-oriented roles maintenance roles. individual roles. role expectations. 395) Acceptable standards of behaviour that are shared by the group's members are: group norms. group rules. ideas. opinions. psychological contracts. 396) Norms that dictate with whom group members eat lunch, friendships on and off the job, and social games are norms dealing with: appearance factors. social arrangements. ethical issues. group activity. performance factors. 397) "What do you think would be the best approach to this, Jack?" is an example of which task-oriented role? initiating harmonizing encouraging http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.137/713 seeking information providing information 398) From the study conducted by Solomon Asch, we can conclude that: individuals usually desire to be visibly different from the group. individuals usually resist conformity. there are group norms that press us toward conformity. normal individuals can assume new roles rapidly. individuals usually don't care about group identity. 399) Professional employees and entrepreneurs usually consider which of the following to be a status criteria? personal income degree of autonomy that comes with job assignment size of budgets and staff supervised years of seniority and job experience growth rate of their companies 400) If you use a group for taking action, what size should be most effective? 3 6 7 12 15 401) Tendency for employees to exert less effort when working in a group than when working individually is termed: status equity. conformity. compromising. social loafing. role conflict. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.138/713 402) When predicting turnover in a work group made up of nine females and one male, we'd predict that: the male would be most inclined to leave the group. a female would be more inclined to leave the group than the male. there is no indication as to who would leave the group. the individual who had been in the group the longest would be most inclined to leave the group. the individual who had been in the group the shortest would be most inclined to leave the group. 403) If a group comes under attack from external sources, most research supports the proposition that the: group will break up. group's internal conflict will increase. group's members will shift responsibility for the group onto one another. group's cohesiveness will increase. group may have a tendency to the forming stage. 404) An action of two or more substances that results in an effect that is different from the individual summation of the substances is known as: brainstorming. synergy. efficiency. nominal grouping. cohorts. 405) Three types of interdependence are: imposed, voluntary, and constrained. systematic, random, and grouped. pooled, sequential, and reciprocal. random, sequential, and constrained. imposed, sequential, and reciprocal. 406) The simplest and least costly method for managing intergroup relations it to: establish a clearly defined hierarchy of decision making. establish in advance formalized rules and procedures to govern group behaviour. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.139/713 develop and define liaison roles for communication between interdependent groups. develop task forces representing a variety of departments. develop long standing specialized teams. 407) The most frequently used selection practice when hiring new individuals is: the interview. a written test. a performance simulation test. work sampling. the use of an assessment center. 408) by: The best way for an employer to find out if a potential employee can do a job is the interview process. a written test. a "hands-on" day in the office. a performance simulation test. the interview process and a written test. 409) Traditionally, organizations have been designed around the: individual. large group. work teams. small group. work and management teams. 410) While business firms have traditionally been organized around ________, athletic groups have long recognized the importance of ________. individuals; teamwork teams; individuals work groups; individuals groups; teamwork management; individuals http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.140/713 411) All of the following helps explain the current popularity of teams except: Teams typically outperform individuals when tasks require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. Teams are a way to better utilize employee talents. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events. Teams can quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband. Teams expertly focus on individual performance. 412) Teams are characterized by which of the following? individual and mutual accountability; performing "real work" together individual work products which have been identified by a team leader meetings run efficiently by a strong and closely focused leader effectiveness measured indirectly by its influence on others discussion and decision making resulting in delegation of work activities 413) A process where subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors is: participative management. work councils. quality circles. representative participation. comprehensive involvement. 414) The goal of representative participation is: for workers to own the firms they work for. to help workers' self-esteem. to provide greater distinction between workers and management. to redistribute power within the organization. to help workers with self-esteem and increase confidence. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.141/713 415) You are a member of a work team whose goal is to improve the efficiency of the production process. Your team is best described as: cross-functional. problem-solving. self-managed. goal-oriented. production-oriented. 416) Work groups of employees and supervisors that meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions is a form of participative management called: department teams. cooperative groups. evaluation teams. quality circles. goal-oriented teams. 417) Self-managed work teams are generally: people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. meet weekly to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. are from different work areas, but they are about the same hierarchical level, and they work together to accomplish tasks. made up of people from different levels of the organization. employees who take on responsibilities for other employees unable to make decisions 418) ____________ teams are employees from about the same hierarchical level, but they are from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. Self-managed Problem-solving Work Cross-functional Re-engineering http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.142/713 419) ____________ teams are an effective way to allow people from diverse areas within an organization to exchange information, develop new ideas and solve problems, and coordinate complex projects. Self-managed Problem-solving Cross-functional Multifaceted Quality circle 420) Which of the following is not useful in building trust? Keeping your feelings to yourself. Demonstrating that you're working for others' interests as well as your own. Showing consistency in the basic values that guide your decision making. Demonstrating competence. Maintaining confidences to demonstrate trustworthiness. 421) You find that in a team situation you are often the one who is good at initiating ideas or concepts. Your role is called: reporter. explorer. upholder. creator. assessor. 422) People who hold strong convictions about the way things should be done and fight the team's battles with outsiders while supporting internal team members are: controllers. producers. maintainers. assessors. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.143/713 upholders. 423) In order to reinforce team effort and commitment, managers should consider the use of: fixed hourly wages. group incentives. individual performance evaluations. individual piece rate plans. flexible benefits. 424) Successful teams translate their ___________ into specific, measurable, and realistic performance goals. roles common purpose norms skills knowledge 425) _____________ is a characteristic of high performance teams where members believe in the integrity, character, and ability of each other. Trust Loyalty Openness Reliability Worthiness 426) _____________ is reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations. Loyalty Competence Openness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.144/713 Consistency Integrity 427) Studies show that members of cohesive teams have: lower satisfaction. higher attrition. lower absenteeism. negative performance related norms. no diversity training. 428) __________ is detrimental to group cohesiveness. Diversity Education Teamwork Trust Accountability 429) All of the following are advantages of diversity except: increased flexibility. increased creativity. multiple perspectives. increased cohesiveness. greater openness to new ideas 430) Groupthink results in: higher quality decisions. more risky decisions. less critical analysis. unpopular decision choices. openness to ideas and innovation. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.145/713 431) When managing a diverse team, it is important to keep in mind that: the lack of a common perspective means that more time is spent on discussing issues. diverse groups are generally less creative. communication should be easier because the group is diverse. the group may be less open to new ideas because of its diversity. it will be easier to reach agreement on specific actions. 432) Your work team has been together for quite a long time, and you feel that they have become less efficient than they once were. In order to reinvigorate the team you might: suggest that some team members retire. disband the team. offer a refresher or advanced training. offer individual incentives. reinforce the "perfect" process they have developed. 433) Which of the following is not a reason for a mature team's deterioration? the internal team process no longer works. productivity measures remain constant communication has become unclear. conflicts have increases performance has dropped 434) To perform well as team members, individuals must be able do all of the following except: communicate openly and honestly. confront differences. sublimate personal goals. keep a sharp focus on personal needs. resolve conflicts. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.146/713 435) Your company is considering implementing work teams in your Mexico facility. You should find this relatively easy because those employees will have strong _______________ values. social collectivist creative individualistic leadership 436) When developing new programs or improving credibility of existing programs aimed at assisting individuals to become team members, all of the following need to be considered except: rewards. training. individual goal setting. performance evaluation. selection. 437) High performing teams have been found to have all of the following except: people with different types of skills. commitment to a common purpose. individual as well as team accountability. clear focus on individual needs. high mutual trust. 438) Positive aspects of teams include all of the following except: higher levels of productivity higher levels of groupthink. common commitment to goals. improved communication. increased employee motivation. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.147/713 439) Various factors influence acceptance and success of teams. All of the following are such factors except: a market that is unwilling to pay a premium for innovation. attitudes which value continual learning. employees who enjoy complex tasks. a strong basis of mutual trust between management and employees. the benefit of combining multiple and diverse skills. 440) Which of the following is not a function of communication? emotional expression information motivation interaction control 441) Clarification to employees about what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance if it is subpar are examples of which function of communication? information control motivation emotional expression leadership 442) The function of communication that facilitates fulfillment of social needs is: emotional expression. information. control. motivation. interaction http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.148/713 443) The four conditions that affect encoded messages are: ability, language, timing, and feedback skill, attitudes, values and leadership capabilities knowledge, aptitude, timing, and feedback skill, attitudes, knowledge, and social-cultural system ability, language, receiver, and channel 444) by: As depicted in the communication process model, the source initiates a message making contact with the receiver. choosing a channel of communication. encoding a thought. giving feedback to the sender. making judgments on intent. 445) John writes a memo to his employees. Putting his thoughts onto paper is an example of: encoding. decoding. feedback. channeling. sourcing. 446) Communication that flows from one level of an organization to a lower level is: organizational communication. nonspecific communication. downward communication. directional communication. informal communication. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.149/713 447) _____________ is used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. Upward communication Interpersonal communication Occupational communication Directional communication Technical communication 448) In a formal organization, which type of network would be found in direct-line authority relations with no deviations? vertical directional chain all-channel horizontal 449) The communication network in which there are no restrictions and all members are equal is: nondirectional. wheel. all-channel. chain. horizontal. 450) Rumours would most likely flourish in situations where there is: planned and well communicated change. anxiety and ambiguity. an unimportant issue. strong leadership. mutual trust http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.150/713 451) All of the following are suggestions for reducing the negative consequences of rumours except: announce timeframes for making important decisions. explain decisions and behaviours that may seem inconsistent or secretive. openly discuss worst-case scenarios. ignore the situation--ninety percent of the time the problem goes away. explain both positive and negative aspects of future plans. 452) of: Facial expressions, physical distance, and looking at your watch are all examples kinesics. nonverbal communication. informal networks. verbal communication. formal communication. 453) The academic study of body motions is: motionality. biomechanics. physiology. kinesics. physiotherapy. 454) Which of the following statements is not characteristic of nonverbal communication? It includes meanings transmitted through facial expressions. It is insignificant and should be ignored in the process of explaining and predicting behaviour. It does not make use of oral processes, speech, or formal language. Less is known about it than is known about verbal communication. It tends to complicate the verbal communication process. 455) Undue stress regarding oral and/or written communication is known as: noncommunication. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.151/713 communication apprehension. communication breakdown. communication absence. channel blockage. 456) When a person manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver, he is: using selective perception. filtering information. communicating favourably. using vertical communication. using horizontal communication. 457) The more levels a message must go through to reach the bottom of the organizational hierarchy, the more likely that: subordinates will be discontented. the power of managers will be diluted. written memos will be used. filtering will occur. there will be a greater need for team development. 458) Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication? filtering channel richness selective perception language defensiveness Barriers to effective communication include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions and language. 459) Receivers in the communication process can project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them. This is called: language. filtering. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.152/713 selective perception. emotions. communication apprehension. 460) Behaviours which are associated with effective listening skills include all of the following except: paraphrasing. avoiding distracting gestures. interrupting the speaker. exhibiting appropriate facial expressions. making eye contact. 461) A recent study found eight factors related to the effectiveness of employee communications. Not included in this list is: commitment to two-way communication. matching actions and words. shared responsibility for employee communication. shaping the message for the audience. avoidance of sharing bad news. 462) Open book management emphasizes: shared information. emphasis on policy and procedure. individual accounting practices. managerial practices organizational structuring 463) Tannen's research indicates that men use talk to ___________, while women use it to __________. emphasize status; create connections build relationships; get promotions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.153/713 establish blame; emphasize status create networks; emphasize separateness create networks; create connections 464) Which of the following is true regarding the difference between genders when they communicate? Women apologize less. Women cast themselves in a superior light. Women avoid directness and prefer subtlety. Women appear more confident than men. Men use talk to emphasize dependence. 465) In dealing with cross-cultural communication, putting oneself in the recipient's shoes is a method termed: sympathy. semantics. symbolic interaction. empathy. hypothesis testing. 466) Managers generally dislike providing performance feedback to employees. Which of the following is not a reason for this reluctance? Managers are uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with their employees. Managers fear possible confrontations with employees when presenting negative feedback. Employees tend to have an inflated assessment of their own performance, making good news "just not good enough." Managers fear that the human resources department will reject their evaluations, forcing them to modify their ratings. Employees may challenge the evaluation by criticizing the manager or redirecting the blame to someone else. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.154/713 467) The model that classifies an individual's tendencies to facilitate or hinder interpersonal communication along the dimensions of exposure and feedback is the: managerial grid. Thomas-Killman Instrument. Johari Window. Herzberg Two Factor Theory. communication process model. 468) Which of the following is a popular model used by training specialists to assess and categorize communication styles? Vroom-Yetton model personality-communication model situational leadership theory Johari Window feedback loop 469) Advocates of the Johari Window encourage: a climate of openness. cautious communication. elimination of jargon. open book management. a competitive environment 470) How individuals within organizations make decisions and the quality of their final choice is largely influenced by their: attitudes. personality. job satisfaction. experience. perceptions. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.155/713 471) A disparity between some desired state and the actual condition is defined as a(n): decision. criterion. attribution. problem. judgment. 472) Factors that an individual views as important to solving a problem are considered in which step in the rational decision-making model? problem definition ranking the criteria rating the alternatives identifying decision criteria selecting best alternative 473) Which of the following is Step Three of the rational decision-making model? allocate weights to the criteria develop the alternatives identify the decision criteria evaluate the alternatives select the best alternative 474) Rationality assumes: education. maturity. consistency. experience. high intelligence. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.156/713 475) Most decisions in the real world don't seem to follow a logical or rational process. Which of the following is probably not likely to happen when managers are faced with tough decisions needing to be made in a short period of time? They are content to find acceptable or reasonable solutions. Most decisions seem to be made by judgment rather than by logical process. Choices and alternatives seem to be confined to the short term. Optimization is the central focus in arriving at a well-balanced decision. There is a general lack of creativity in developing solutions. 476) Searching for a solution that is both satisfactory and sufficient is called: suboptimizing. optimizing. satisficing. simplifying. seeking an implicit favourite. 477) When decision-makers construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity, they are operating within the confines of: optimal decision-making. intuitive decision-making. bounded rationality. synectics. organizational structure. 478) The satisficing decision-maker is best characterized as: using the decision confirmation process. following bounded rationality. searching for consistency. seeking a "good enough" solution. one who seeks optimization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.157/713 479) Which of the following conditions would probably not lead to intuitive decisionmaking? when time is unlimited when facts don't clearly point the way to go when a high level of uncertainty exists when variables are less scientifically predictable when there is little precedent to draw upon 480) If a decision-maker faces a conflict between selecting a problem that is important to the organization and one that is important to a decision-maker: organizational interest is top priority. self-interest tends to win out. neither wins. the winner is unpredictable. he will make a satisficing decision. 481) When the selective use of perspective alters the way an individual might view a situation in formulating a decision is referred to as: bounded rationality. heuristics. risk aversion. perception. framing. 482) The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available, but may not be accurate is called: representative heuristic. availability heuristic. escalation of commitment. heuristical fallacy. bounded discretion. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.158/713 483) When an individual believes that they can beat the odds of achieving a satisfactory result even when the known failure rate is high is known as: representative heuristic. availability heuristic. escalation of commitment. ignoring the base rate. risk aversion. 484) An increased commitment to a previous decision despite negative information is termed: escalation of commitment. optimizing decision-making. satisficing decision-making. re-engineering. ignoring the base rate. 485) Business students, lower level managers, and top executives tend to score highest in which style of decision-making? analytical directive conceptual behavioural intuitive 486) CEOs and upper-level management have a tendency to focus on long-range decision-making and concentrate on finding creative solutions to problems. This style of decision-making is called: analytical. directive. conceptual. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.159/713 behavioural. intuitive. 487) All of the following are examples of organizational constraints on decisionmakers except: previous organizational decisions which act as precedents. decision styles and different ways to approach a problem. organization's performance evaluation and reward systems. organization's formal rules, policies and regulations. imposed time constraints and deadlines. 488) Routine decisions made by lower-level workers who rely on considerable guidance on rules and regulations are known as: nonprogrammed decisions. historical precedents. alpha decisions. system-imposed time constraints. programmed decisions. 489) John is a middle manager who has just been given a proposal to complete by the end of the week. This means that some of John's work activities will need to be altered and some of his personal life will have to be "put on hold." This is an example of which type of organizational constraint? deadlines nonprogrammed rational-economic programmed historical precedents 490) All of the following are major advantages that groups offer over individuals in decision-making except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.160/713 more knowledge. higher quality decision. increased diversity of views. less time consuming. more complete information. 491) Which of the following correctly describes the phenomenon where a group member will allow her true feelings to be suppressed in order to be accepted by the group? groupthink grouptank groupshift compromise rationalization 492) When group discussion leads to a significant change in the positions of group members toward a more extreme position, the group has experienced: groupshift. ambiguity. flexibility. compromise. rationalization. 493) All of the following are explanations for the phenomenon of groupshift except: Discussion creates familiarization among members. Our society values risk. The group leader usually gets the credit or blame for the group action. The group diffuses responsibility. The group tends to become more bold and daring 494) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.161/713 face-to-face interacting groups brainstorming Delphi technique nominal group technique electronic meetings 495) Vroom and Yetton's five leadership styles differ in degree of: normative characteristics. task structure. routineness. subordinate participation. task definition. 496) Using analogies and inverted rationale to make the strange familiar and the familiar strange is called: direct-instruction attribute listing lateral thinking synectics horizontal thinking 497) Utilitarianism is when decisions are made to provide the: least good for the least number greatest good for the greatest number. greatest good for the decision-makers. greatest good for the least privileged. greatest good for the best performers. 498) Managers are being increasingly criticized for their actions and decisions when they utilize the utilitarian method of decision-making. Which of the following is not a utilitarian decision? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.162/713 laying off large number of employees moving production operations to other countries using impartial means to equitably distribute benefits and costs selling products with questionable effects on health raising prices to increase profitability 499) Many companies are developing corporate ethics through a variety of methods and procedures. Which of the following would not foster corporate ethics? specific examples of situations where there is no right or wrong answer relying on people to be guided by their conscience structuring a favourable culture where people will recognize the role of ethics having management issue specific regulations to be followed by employees substituting rules and regulations for understood and acceptable values 500) Leaders can be described in all of the following ways except: They work from high-risk positions. They have a personal and active attitude toward goals. They relate to people by the role they play in a sequence of events. They are concerned with ideas. They relate to people in intuitive and empathic ways. 501) The theory that some people have specific characteristics needed to be leaders while others do not is called: behavioural. contingency. trait. path-goal. situational. 502) Leadership research indicates that trait theories: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.163/713 have not been adequately researched. account for the needs of followers. are the most popular leadership theories. fail to clarify the relative importance of various traits. address management principles in a holistic manner. 503) Some research seems to indicate that individuals who are highly flexible in adjusting their behaviour in response to different situations possess the characteristic of: high self-monitors. low self-monitors. guaranteed success. dominance. dominance and power. 504) If trait research had been successful, we would ______________, whereas if behavioural studies were correct, we would ___________. teach people certain traits; teach people certain behaviours select the right person for the job; train leaders change jobs to suit people; change people to suit jobs hire only women; hire either men or women teach people managerial principles; teach people certain behaviours 505) The two dimensions of leader behaviour explained in the Ohio State studies are: coercion and motivation. motivation and charisma. employee-oriented and production-oriented. initiating structure and consideration. power and influence. 506) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader shares mutual trust and respect for his/her employees is referred to as: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.164/713 employee-oriented behaviour. task-oriented behaviour. concern for production. initiating structure. consideration. 507) A leader high in initiating structure would be characterized as doing which of the following? focusing on performance evaluation helping subordinates with personal problems treating all subordinates as equal assigning group members to particular tasks having concern for subordinates' status and satisfaction 508) Leaders who emphasize interpersonal relations are described in the University of Michigan studies as: initiating consideration. employee-oriented. country club leaders. contingency-oriented. relationship-oriented. 509) If a leader's main concern is accomplishing his/her group's tasks, the University of Michigan studies labels this leader: achievement-oriented. employee-oriented. single-minded. production-oriented. goal-oriented. 510) The graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership style by Blake and Mouton is known as the : http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.165/713 least preferred co-worker scale. leader-participation model. autocratic-democratic continuum. Managerial Grid. path-goal model. 511) According to Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid, which of the five positions is labelled the "country club" leadership style? 1,1 1,9 9,1 9,9 5,5 512) Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid has all of the following management styles except: country club. authority-obedience. impoverished. democratic. team 513) In the University of Michigan studies, low group productivity and lower job satisfaction were associated with: production-oriented leaders. technical-oriented leaders. employee-oriented leaders. humanistic leaders. goal-setting leaders. 514) The leadership behaviours identified by the path-goal theory are: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.166/713 participative, directive achievement-oriented, humanistic supportive, achievement-oriented participative, goal-oriented, supportive supportive, directive, participative, achievement-oriented 515) According to the path-goal theory, a leader who consults with employees and uses their suggestions before making a decision is referred to as: supportive participative institutional charismatic directive 516) Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis that has evolved out of path-goal theory? Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous. Subordinates with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style. Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when subordinates are performing structured tasks. Directive leadership will lead to higher employee satisfaction when there is substantive conflict within a work group. Achievement-oriented leadership will increase expectations that effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguous. 517) The path-goal theory of leadership tells us that leaders will be perceived most favourably by their subordinates and succeed in exerting most influence over them when their behaviours closely match all of the following except: the perceptions that the leader is being helpful. the needs of the organization and shareholders. the perceived ability to lead and manage successfully. the needs of their subordinates. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.167/713 the characteristics of work requirements. 518) Sometimes leadership may not be important. _____________ make(s) it impossible for leader behaviour to make any difference to subordinate outcomes. Externalities Neutralizers Situational variables Participation Task structure 519) All of the following are characteristic of the "people" dimension except: directive. employee-oriented. consideration. supportive. relationship-oriented. 520) Which of the following is not true of a charismatic leader? They have a vision and the ability to articulate the vision. They are sensitive to member needs. They are perceived as managers of the status quo. They have behaviour that is out of the ordinary. They are sensitive to the environment. 521) The type of leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements are: transactional leaders. charismatic leaders. transformational leaders. employee-oriented leaders. process-oriented leaders. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.168/713 522) The type of leaders who believe that they are empowering their employees by giving up their responsibility for leading are: transcendent leaders. transformational leaders. transactional leaders. laissez-faire leaders. situational leaders. 523) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a transformational leader? encourages innovative approaches to old problems inspires exertion of extra effort for goal achievement uses a management-by-objectives approach tends to use humour strategies provides opportunities for learning 524) In a recent survey of senior leaders, the key trait required of CEO's for the year 2000 was: a strong sense of vision. integrity. intelligence. global abilities. shareholder equity 525) Leaders of teams find themselves in a role of: director. coach. follower. high power. autocrat. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.169/713 526) All of the following are differences in the inherent leadership styles between women and men except: Women attempt to enhance followers' self-worth. Men are more likely to use a directive command and control style. Men share power and information. Women tend to lead through inclusion and rely on interpersonal skills to influence others. Men rely on formal authority for their position. 527) Which of the following qualities is not necessary for a person to be an effective follower? ability to work without close supervision hold higher performance standards than required critical thinkers whose knowledge can be trusted aspirations of management or leadership positions commitment to a purpose outside of themselves 528) It is generally considered that leadership is important to an organization's success. All of the following are actions that leaders take to make an organization successful except: motivate employees to higher levels of productivity control deviations from a standard make rapid and firm decisions anticipate change and vigorously exploit opportunities practice charismatic standards 529) Currently the two most popular approaches to leadership are contingency models and the study of: leadership neutralizers. traits. charisma. leadership substitutes. education and experience. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.170/713 530) Which of the following is not implied in the definition of power? dependency discretion control persuasion potential 531) The most important aspect of power is that it: is necessary for goal achievement. is the major focus of leadership. is counterproductive. tends to corrupt people. is a function of dependency. 532) Which of the following focuses on the downward influence on one's subordinates? information communication leadership prestige power 533) Bases of power refers to: power characteristics. whether the power position has a good foundation. what the powerholder has that gives him or her power. the elements of power. leadership characteristics. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.171/713 534) The power base of an airline hijacker is: coercive. persuasive. position. knowledge. referent. 535) The control of material rewards is known as: influence power. persuasive power. positive reinforcement power. coercive power. reward power. 536) The statement "That person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him angry" describes someone with what type of power? referent reward legitimate coercive illegitimate 537) Expert power refers to influence that derives from: politics. special skills or knowledge. educational institutions. position. status. 538) A power whose base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits is termed: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.172/713 political. coercive. expert. referent. legitimate. 539) In which instance will dependency not be created? having something that somebody wants uncertainty of selling one's product possession of specialized knowledge empowering and sharing power a resource that has no viable substitute 540) In order to identify the power a department has within an organization, a new employee should probably try to answer which of the following questions? What proportion of the organization's top level managers came up through the department? Has the department's budget allocation been increasing relative to other departments? Is the department represented on important interdepartmental teams and committees? How does the promotion rate for people in the department compare to other units? A new employee should ask all of the above questions. 541) Power tactics explain: how to influence others in an organization. the things that motivate people to seek power. how to organize power functions. how to translate power bases into specific actions. how to use power for organizational benefit. 542) If a manager threatens to withhold an employee's promotion, which power tactic is being used? bargaining assertiveness sanctions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.173/713 higher authority reason 543) Joe comes to you with a request for funds for a project. He reminds you that company policy supports his position. He is using the tactic of: reason. coalition. bargaining. assertiveness. higher authority. 544) When managers seek benefits from a superior, they tend to use: friendliness. assertiveness. coercion. persuasion. bargaining 545) When employees are granted total decision-making power for both job content and job context, they have which type of employee power? task setting self-management no discretion participatory mission defining 546) When workers can determine how the job gets done, but have no discretion in determining which jobs get done, is known as which type of employee power? task setting self-management no discretion participatory mission defining http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.174/713 547) Which of the following is true about coalition formation in organizations? seek to minimize their size precedes use of individual power more likely to form when tasks are nonroutine encompass as many interests as possible more likely when there is little interdependence 548) Most studies confirm that the concept of ___________ is central to understanding sexual harassment. power sex politics locus of control common sense 549) Political behaviour is: outside one's specified job requirements. part of each job requirement. seen only in large organizations. counterproductive to individual goals. not related to power. 550) Illegitimate political behaviour includes activities such as: bypassing chain of command. complaining to your supervisor. groups of employees simultaneously calling in sick. obstructing organizational policies through inaction. developing contacts outside the organization. 551) When dealing with office politics, the phrase "apple polishing" could be termed an "effective management" strategy if thought of in what way? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.175/713 demonstrating loyalty facilitating teamwork encouraging change and innovation developing working relationships career minded 552) "Improving efficiency" in "effective management labels" is matched with which of the following "political labels"? blaming others overachieving whistle-blowing kissing up covering your rear 553) An individual most likely to engage in political behaviour would have all of the following except: a high need for power. a high need to manipulate. a low need for security. an internal locus of control. high self-monitoring. 554) Which one of the following factors is most likely to contribute to political behaviour? authoritarian personalities employees' high need for power organizational culture age of the organization management's high need for power http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.176/713 555) "I've got two tickets to the game tonight that I can't use. Take them. Consider it a thank you for taking the time to talk with me." This is an example of which impression management behaviour? favour flattery accounts conformity association 556) Which of the following is false concerning impression management techniques? Applicants using impression management techniques did better in interviews. Applicants using a controlling style during an interview were rated higher. Impression management techniques tend to be used more in highly uncertain, ambiguous situations. Applicants using a submissive style were preferred because this demonstrated respect. Applicants use self-enhancement and self-promotion to reflect confidence. 557) Hospital physicians referring to patients by their room number or disease are using which defensive behaviour? buffing depersonalization misrepresenting stalling playing safe 558) Individuals who rigorously document activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness are using which defensive behaviour? buffing justifying playing safe escalation of commitment overconforming http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.177/713 559) In the short run, defensiveness affects the organization by: delaying decisions. decreasing interpersonal tensions. increasing risk-taking. facilitating change efforts. forcing strategic planning. 560) Conflict exists only if: group members are homogeneous. it is perceived by the parties involved. group members are diverse. there are differences of opinion. there is disagreement with established company policy. 561) A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about is called: negotiation. power. consideration. conflict. politics. 562) Conflict is functional if it: supports managerial objectives. is satisfying to group members. causes group members to argue. results in absenteeism and turnover. improves group performance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.178/713 563) The first stage of the conflict process is called: cognition and personalization. behaviour. potential opposition. outcomes. intentions. 564) Research confirms that participation and conflict are: positively correlated. counterproductive. negatively correlated. always present together. not correlated. 565) Structural conflict can include all of the following variables except: degree of specialization. leadership styles. universal goal acceptance. jurisdictional clarity. tenure. 566) The conflict-handling intention that combines assertiveness and cooperation is: collaborating. competing. avoiding. accommodating. compromising. 567) The conflict-handling intention that represents the midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.179/713 collaborating. competing. avoiding. accommodating. compromising. 568) According to the conflict process, cooperativeness is the degree to which: there is an absence of conflict. one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. both parties work toward a common goal. one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns. the organization satisfies its own goals. 569) A method that requires the conflicting parties to confront the basic causes of their conflict in search of a win-win solution is called: avoiding. collaborating. compromising. accommodating. competing. 570) When the behaviour of the parties is aimed at solving the problem and clarifying the differences, the intention is referred to as: collaborating. compromising. avoiding. competing. accommodating. 571) When one party is willing to be self-sacrificing in order that the relationship can be maintained., which conflict-handling intention will be used? competing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.180/713 accommodating collaborating compromising avoiding 572) What is conflict management? achieving desired conflict level eliminating all conflict stimulating conflict avoiding conflict dysfunctional conflict 573) Which of the following is not a conflict resolution technique? expansion of resources problem solving smoothing communication altering the structural variable 574) Altering the human variable, as one conflict resolution technique, involves: face-to-face meeting of the conflicting parties. expansion of the resource base. setting the stage to supposes conflict. using ambiguous threatening messages. using behavioural change techniques to alter attitudes. 575) Destructive consequences of conflict upon a group or organization's performance include all of the following except: a threat to group survival. a retardation of communication. achievement of organizational goals. reduction in group effectiveness. infighting between group members. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.181/713 576) A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them is: negotiation. conflict management. economics. supply side economics. resource allocation. 577) The bargaining strategy that operates under zero-sum conditions is called: win-win. unethical. integrative. distributive. win-lose. 578) Labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies: integrative bargaining. cost-effective bargaining. distributive bargaining. third-party bargaining. organizational bargaining. 579) The point below which either negotiating party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favourable settlement is called the: resistance point. refusal point. non-negotiating point. negative point. target point. 580) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intra-organizational behaviour? positive negotiation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.182/713 distributive bargaining integrative bargaining equal bargaining organizational bargaining 581) Which of the following is not a step in the negotiation process? definition of ground rules bargaining and problem solving clarification and justification closure and implementation evaluation of process 582) Preparation and planning is one step in the negotiation process. This step involves: developing procedures necessary for implementation. actual give-and-take in trying to reach an agreement. anticipating your opponent's position. educating and informing each other on the issues. determining what time constraints, if any, will apply. 583) The clarification and justification step in the negotiation process involves: hammering out specifics in a formal contract. assessing what you think are the other party's goals actual give-and-take in trying to reach an agreement providing documentation to help support your position. specific procedures to follow in an impasse. 584) Studies of gender differences in negotiation show: men are better negotiators. women are better negotiators. it depends on the situation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.183/713 women are more confident. no difference exists. 585) In third-party negotiations, a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions is known as a(n): mediator. arbitrator. conciliator. consultant. counsellor. 586) In third-party negotiations, a third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent is known as a(n): mediator. arbitrator. consultant. conciliator. liaison. 587) Which of the following is not an example of how stimulating conflict can provide benefits for the organization? Conflict is a means through which to bring about radical change. Conflict facilitates group cohesiveness. Conflict improves group and organizational effectiveness. Conflict brings about a much higher level of tension which might be constructive. Moderate levels of conflict will prevent an organization from stagnating. 588) Which of the following supports the idea that conflict is dysfunctional? Conflict brings a higher, more constructive level of tension. Conflict helps effective managers build teamwork. Conflict facilitates group cohesiveness. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.184/713 Conflict improves group effectiveness. Conflict improves organizational effectiveness. 589) Organizational structure is made up of key elements. Which of the following is not one of these elements? decentralization co-ordination span of control chain of command centralization 590) Which of the following is one of the six key elements a manager needs to consider when designing an organization's structure? job design feminine organization virtual organization eliminating chain of command work specialization 591) For much of the first half of this century, managers viewed which of the following as an unending source of increased productivity? formalization work specialization delegation centralization departmentalization 592) Human diseconomies from specialization can include all of the following except: low turnover. low productivity. boredom. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.185/713 increased absenteeism. fatigue. 593) One of the most popular ways to group activities is by: process. product. geography. customer. functions. 594) Sun Petroleum Products departmentalizes by fuels, lubricants, and waxes and chemicals. This is an example of departmentalization by: functions. process. customer. product. job design. 595) When jobs are grouped together by functions it is known as: departmentalization. work specialization. centralization. formalization. job structuring. 596) Which type of departmentalization achieves economies of scale by placing people with common skills and orientations into common units? functional process product geographic http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.186/713 technical 597) Which of the following trends is gaining momentum in the 1990s? using only one type of departmentalization using less departmentalization using more customer departmentalization geographic departmentalization process departmentalization 598) The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed: chain of command. authority. power. unity of command. power and authority structure. 599) Which principle states that a person should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible? span of control unity of command authority power chain of command 600) What is span of control? pushing decisions down to lower-level employees concentrating decision-making on one specific point in the organization centralization number of subordinates a manager can effectively direct empowering lower-level employees 601) Centralization refers to: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.187/713 the geographic dispersion of an organization. the development and maintenance of power in an organization. the degree to which decision-making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. the decision-making process. team decision-making. 602) In an organization that has high centralization: the corporate headquarters is located centrally to branch offices. all top level officials are located within the same geographic area. top managers make all the decisions--lower-level managers merely carry out directions. decision discretion is widely dispersed throughout the organization. problems can be quickly and efficiently solved. 603) The degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized is referred to as: routineness. formalization. job classification. job variation. centralization. 604) In a highly formalized organization, job behaviours are relatively: flexible. nonprogrammed. discretionary. programmed. non-existent. 605) Employee discretion is inversely related to: complexity. standardization. centralization. technology. decentralization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.188/713 606) Which of the following structures is characterized by centralization, high formalization, extensive departmentalization, and a limited information network? technology model organic model job satisfaction model job structure model mechanistic model 607) Which organization is characterized by very formal rules, centralized authority, and narrow spans of control? simple matrix boundaryless bureaucracy virtual 608) The matrix structure combines which two forms of departmentalization? simple and functional functional and product product and organic organic and mechanistic virtual and team 609) The strength of the matrix structure is its: ability to facilitate co-ordination. low economies of scale. adherence to chain of command. increased formalization. advantage of unity of command. 610) Which of the following problems is most likely to occur in a matrix structure? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.189/713 employees receiving conflicting directives decreased employee motivation loss of economies of scale decreased coordination efforts decreased response to environmental change 611) Which structure breaks down departmental barriers and decentralizes decisionmaking to the level of the work team? virtual team boundaryless feminine modular 612) Which type of organization outsources major business functions? boundaryless feminine innovative virtual modular 613) The innovation strategy is characterized by: avoiding unnecessary costs. a mixture of loose with tight properties. low specialization and low formalization. tight controls over current activity. looser controls for new undertakings. 614) Which dimension of an organization's environment refers to the degree to which it can support growth? capacity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.190/713 volatility complexity structure technology 615) Which dimension of an organization's environment refers to the degree of instability? capacity volatility complexity structure capability 616) Each of the following is an advantage of being a small company competing with larger companies except: Niche markets have taken away some of the advantages of larger companies. Large size may restrict creativity. Technology favours the small firms. Small firms can be more cost efficient. Strategic alliances provide opportunity to share developmental costs. 617) Which of the following seek(s) to identify task characteristics of jobs, ways in which these characteristics are combined to form different jobs, and their relationship to employee motivation, satisfaction and performance? re-engineering task characteristic theories process value analysis theory of distinctive competencies skills and competencies theory 618) Task characteristics theories seek to identify all of the following except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.191/713 how the task characteristics of jobs are combined to form different jobs. the relationship of task characteristics to motivation. which task characteristics are reviewed first when forming different jobs. the relationship of task characteristics to satisfaction and performance. task characteristics of jobs. 619) The job characteristics model describes jobs in terms of all of the following except: employee personality. task identity. feedback. skill variety. autonomy. 620) Task significance is the degree to which the: job provides substantial freedom and discretion. job requires completion of a whole piece of work. job requires a variety of different activities. job has a substantial impact on other individuals. employee receives information concerning performance. 621) In terms of the job characteristics model, nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit exemplifies: high task identity. low task identity. high skill variety. high task significance. low task significance. 622) The predictive index suggesting the motivation potential in a job is called the: task autonomy score. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.192/713 JCM score. motivating potential score. growth-need score. job complexity score. 623) Which of the following statements is not true? People who work on jobs with high-core job dimensions are generally more motivated. People who work on jobs with high-core job dimensions are generally more productive. People who work on jobs with high-core job dimensions are generally less satisfied. Job dimensions operate though the psychological state in influencing personal outcome variables rather than influencing them directly. People who work on jobs with high-core job dimensions are generally more satisfied. 624) Which of the following is consistent with the social information processing model? People respond to their jobs as they perceive them. Co-workers have little influence on an employee's perception of a particular job. Job characteristics impact behavioural outcomes. Managers have little to do with the way an employee views his/her job. Employee responsibility impacts job structure. 625) Which of the following is not an option a manager has if she wishes to redesign or change the make-up of employee jobs? job enlargement job rotation job enrichment job specification team-based design 626) Josie works on a production line at an automobile manufacturing plant installing right front fenders. She is concerned because now she has been assigned to do several different jobs while each auto is at her station. Josie is experiencing: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.193/713 team-based work. job specification. job enrichment. job enlargement. cross-training. 627) What is a vertical expansion of jobs? job enlargement job rotation job enrichment promotion cross-training 628) All of the following are conditions which should be met to ensure the success of a work group except: Group members should be homogeneous to reduce potential for conflict. Group membership should be moderately diverse in terms of talents and perspectives. Members should possess interpersonal as well as task skills. The group must be sufficiently large to perform the work. Individual members must have the necessary expertise to do their work. 629) Which is a philosophy of management that is driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes? technology TQM re-engineering process value analysis MBO 630) All of the following have been noted as failures of TQM except: Sometimes firms were not actually performing TQM; they were just calling it that. Employees were not provided with the adequate training necessary. Management introduced TQM in a piecemeal fashion rather than as a coherent strategy. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.194/713 Managers did not appreciate the complexity of changes involved. Potential for an increase in earnings and profits does not exist. 631) Which of the following refers to the process whereby management rethinks and redesigns those processes by which the organization creates value and does work, thus ridding itself of antiquated operations? TQM technology review re-engineering MBO technology advancement 632) Which of the following is not an example of distinctive competencies in the reengineering process? core processes more knowledgeable personnel superior technical support comprehensive service lower prices 633) Determination to what degree each organizational process adds value to the organization's distinctive competencies is referred to as: competitive assessment. re-engineering. process value analysis. TQM. motivating potential score. 634) The re-engineering process requires reorganization around horizontal processes. Which of the following is not part of this process? use of cross-functional teams use of self-managed teams eliminating levels of middle management focusing on process rather than function increasing levels of upper management http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.195/713 635) While both TQM and re-engineering place an emphasis on satisfying the customer and the processes involved, they differ in how this is achieved. Which of the following is not part of the TQM process? TQM seeks to make incremental improvements. TQM seeks to improve something that is basically okay. TQM is initially driven by top management. TQM relies on bottom-up, participative decision-making. TQM relies on employee participation in the implementation stages. 636) The re-engineering process is characterized by a series of beliefs and actions. Which of the following is not part of the re-engineering process? discarding irrelevant practices and starting over again. realizing significantly large increases in performance. process is autocratic and non-democratic. employee discretion about how the process will be handled. driven by top management. 637) Integrating computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing to produce low-volume products at mass-production costs is accomplished through: employee productivity systems. process value analysis. re-engineering efforts. TQM systems. flexible manufacturing systems. 638) Flexible manufacturing systems are: repealing the laws of economies of scale. attempts to control materials usage. closely related to TQM. a result of worker obsolescence. attempts to control work flow. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.196/713 639) Job redesign in Canadian companies is largely modified or resisted by the various unions who are part of these companies. Some unions, however, have been influenced by their membership at least to begin looking at the context of their own jobs. Which of the following is definitely supported by unions? value opportunity for skill development basic wages determined through collective bargaining desire to do more interesting work share benefits of work redesign focus on quality improvement 640) It is generally agreed that flexible work arrangements have significant benefits for both employees and the companies involved. All of the following have been reported as benefits except: reduced stress and anxiety. "willingness to go the extra mile." interference with child and/or elder care. reduced turnover. increased productivity. 641) It has been proposed that in situations where the work process requires significant start-up and shutdown periods, an organization may improve its productivity by implementing: modern technology. compressed workweeks. participative management. employee incentives. flextime. 642) A work scheduling option that increases employee discretion is: compressed workweeks. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.197/713 flextime. a 4-40 program. job rotation. shorter workweeks. 643) The major drawback to flextime is that: the workplace tends to be unorganized. employees try to arrive late and leave early. it is not applicable to every job. productivity tends to be lower. increased absenteeism. 644) The practice of allowing 2 or more people to split a 40-hour-a-week job is termed: job rotation. job sharing. job enlargement. job enrichment. team-based design. 645) When a manager located in Vancouver reports to an executive in Toronto regarding work being done in Calgary, this is an example of: job sharing. telecommuting. job enriching. job friendly. satellite communication. 646) The origin of culture as an independent variable affecting an employee's attitude and behaviour can be traced back fifty years ago to the notion of: industrialization. institutionalization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.198/713 organization. capitalization. business ethics. 647) Which of the following is not true about institutionalization? It operates to produce common understandings about fundamentally meaningful behaviour. An organization becomes valued for itself, not merely for the goods or services it produces. It becomes obsolete when its original goals are no longer relevant. It acts in the same manner as organizational culture. It takes on a permanence and identity of its own separate from the people within it. 648) A common perception held by the organization's members, or a system of shared meaning is referred to the organizational chart. organizational culture. a ritual. formalization. a belief system. 649) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization is termed: team orientation. attention to detail. outcome orientation. people orientation. risk-taking. 650) The key characteristic of organizational culture which assesses the degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintenance of the status quo as opposed to growth is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.199/713 team orientation. aggressiveness. stability. outcome orientation. attention to detail. 651) Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by departmental designations and geographical separation are often called: mixed cultures. strong cultures. dominant cultures. subcultures. mini bureaucracies. 652) The dominant culture is: the sum of the subcultures. the culture of the industry leader. synonymous with the organization's culture. the degree of sharedness. management's perception about the organization. 653) Observing the physical surroundings, characterizing the style of the people and examining the degree of formalization of rules and regulations are all ways to: get a job at an organization. change the culture of an organization. "read" the culture of an organization. reduce barriers to change. increase barriers to change. 654) Which of the following terms is not part of the definition of a strong culture? highly influential http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.200/713 intensely held values widely shared values high structural values core values 655) A strong culture will have the greatest impact on which dependent variable? satisfaction productivity absence goal achievement turnover 656) A strong organizational culture increases behavioural consistency and therefore can act as a substitute for: institutionalization. formalization. socialization. leadership. followership. 657) Which of the following is not a function of culture? conveys a sense of organizational identity facilitates commitment to something larger than individual self-interest improves the organization's ability to hire competent employees creates distinctions between organizations guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviour of employees 658) In the 1990s, the role of culture in influencing employee behaviour seems to: have no effect. have minimum value. be increasingly important. be decreasing in importance. be disappearing. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.201/713 659) As organizations have widened spans of control, flattened structures, introduced teams, reduced formalization and empowered employees, the ________ provided by a strong culture ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction. rules and regulations shared meaning material symbols language hiring practices 660) Culture is a liability in all of the following except when: shared values will not further the organization's effectiveness. hiring diverse employees. it creates a barrier to a merger. it increases the acceptable range of values and styles. makes an acquisition decision difficult. 661) Consistency of behaviour is an asset to an organization when it faces: a dynamic environment. an unknown environment. a stable environment. massive changes. major organizational restructuring. 662) The ultimate source of an organization's culture is: top management. the selection process. the country in which it operates. its founders. the business planning process. 663) The force(s) that play a part in sustaining a culture include all of the following except: promotion procedures. stakeholder equity. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.202/713 career development activities. performance evaluation criteria. actions of senior executives. 664) The selection process helps candidates learn about the organization; and if they perceive a conflict between their values and those of the organization, they should: wait until they are hired to change the organization. express their concerns at the time of the interview. enlighten the organization as to appropriate changes. self-select themselves out of the applicant pool. inform the organization about its incongruent value system. 665) The stage of the socialization process which encompasses all the learning that has occurred prior to a new member joining the organization is called: prearrival. job training. orientation. metamorphosis. encounter. 666) Which of the following is not a part of the socialization process? all the learning that occurs before joining the organization seeing what the organization is really like relatively long-lasting changes that take place recognizing that reality and expectations may diverge making new employees change their previously held personal value systems 667) If there is a basic conflict between the individual's expectations and the organization's expectations, the employee is most likely to be disillusioned and quit during which stage? anxiety prearrival http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.203/713 adjustment metamorphosis encounter 668) According to the socialization model, the stage when a new employee adjusts to his/her work group's values and norms is called: commitment. metamorphosis. acceptance. encounter. resolution. 669) Outcomes of the socialization process include: adaptation, adjustment, commitment. productivity, commitment, turnover. turnover, reality check, consensus. orientation, productivity, commitment. orientation, adaptation, adjustment. 670) In which entry socialization option would role models be deliberately withheld? collective informal variable serial random 671) Which of the following is an example of divestiture socialization? military boot camp mentoring programs fraternity pledges probationary periods http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.204/713 orientation seminars 672) Which of the following would probably not contribute to the establishment of a culture? use of employee councils through which employees can voice their concerns having employees serve on the hiring committee to evaluate and recommend potential employees monthly newsletters providing financial information about the company paying little attention to hiring criteria since individuals can be appropriately trained free herbal teas and hot organic vegetarian meals subsidized by the company 673) Which of the following is not one of the four most potent ways to learn about an organization's culture? employee handbook stories rituals material symbols language 674) By learning the language of an organization and the units within organizations, members: attest to their acceptance of culture. are assured that they will be retained. become brainwashed. reject organizational culture. conform to managerial directives and values. 675) The major benefit to creating a family-friendly workplace is that it: reduces absenteeism. appeals to both men and women. improves employee morale and productivity facilitates recruitment and retention of first-class workers. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.205/713 reduces the amount of overtime necessary. 676) Which of the following is not a force for change in organizations today? dynamic environment demands for efficiency societal diversity changing technology societal infrastructure 677) Phrases such as "more responsive to employees," "more team oriented," and "leaner, more productive" are all examples of which force for change? technology world politics nature of the workplace social trends stakeholder values 678) Second-order change is all of the following except: radical. linear. multidimensional. multilevel. discontinuous 679) When an individual wishes to change structure, he or she has the option of: changing people's expectations. changing people's behaviour. altering authority relationships. altering physical layout arrangements. modifying the way work is processed. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.206/713 680) All of the following are methods which can be used to change structure except: modification of compensation systems. redefining job descriptions. combining departmental responsibilities. redesigning jobs and work schedules. altering physical layout arrangements. 681) Managerial and employee attitudes and behaviours can be changed through processes of: automation and computerization. systems and process analyses. development of a vision statement. development of new job descriptions. communication and problem solving. 682) In its simplest sense, organizational culture: determines what computer systems are to be employed. determines the best customers to be selected for the company. represents the mindset of managers and employees. represents the basis on which physical facilities are changed. represents and focuses upon the shareholders. 683) Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity is called: refreezing. teamwork. planned change. mobilization. unfreezing. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.207/713 684) To move from the status quo requires all of the following except: overcoming conformity. increasing the driving forces. reducing resistance. increasing the restraining forces. increasing attractiveness of alternatives. 685) All of the following statements are characteristic of an effective change process except: "Let's paint the big picture for everyone in the company." "Everyone must contribute freely to discussions and problem solving." "Make certain that we use our mistakes to solve problems and learn new approaches." "Let's develop a clear set of rules and regulations to control everyone's behaviour." "There will be a little something extra on your year-end salary." 686) You have heard that the department is going to reorganize. You are opposed to the reorganization because you fear you may lose your job. Your reason for resistance is: security. habit. economic factors. limited focus of change. cynicism. 687) Individuals resist change for all of the following reasons except: habit. economic factors. fear of the unknown. threat to expertise. cynicism. 688) All of the following are sources of organizational resistance to change except: structural inertia. selective information processing. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.208/713 limited focus of change. threat to established power relationships. threat to established resource allocations. 689) Which of the following is a source of organizational resistance to change? cynicism habit group inertia economic factors security 690) If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in name only in an attempt to gain their support, it is called: co-optation. participation. manipulation. coercion. facilitation. 691) Which of the following is not a tactic for dealing with resistance to change? cooperation coercion education negotiation support 692) When your manager suggests negotiation as a method to reduce resistance to change, he means: establishment of a collective bargaining committee on each side of the issue. the exchange of something valuable for agreement to reduce resistance to change. the use of threats or force to obtain compliance. the use of co-optation to obtain compliance. manipulation of facts to make the situation appear more attractive. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.209/713 693) Exchanging something of value for a lessening of resistance to change is best defined by which of the following tactics? coercion negotiation participation manipulation co-optation 694) The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called: power. co-optation. manipulation. coercion. authority. 695) Which of the following is not true with regard to the politics of change? The impetus for change is likely to come from individuals who are new to an organization. Change is a threat to status and position. The impetus for change is more likely to come from long-term managers within an organization. Change implies political activity. Radical change is too threatening. 696) Which of the following is not true about stress? It is associated with demands. It is caused by uncertainty regarding an outcome. It can be an opportunity. When stress occurs, it should be reduced. It is caused by not being able to do what is desired. 697) Which of the following is not a factor related to organizational stress? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.210/713 technological uncertainty task demands role demands organizational structure interpersonal demands 698) There are several potential sources of stress. When pressures are created by other employees causing a lack of social support, the factor of stress involved is: interpersonal demands. organizational leadership. role demands. organizational structure. task demands. 699) All of the following statements pertaining to stress are true except: Stress can improve employee performance. Stress is additive in nature. People react differently to stress situations. Individual factors do not affect stress in the workplace. Stress can be caused by job design and working conditions. 700) Which of the following was not identified as an individual variable moderating the relationship between potential stressors and experienced stress? achievement need locus of control perception job experience social support 701) Which of the following is most likely to be associated with high stress? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.211/713 considerable job experience external locus of control workaholic personality impatience and competitiveness internal locus of control 702) A person who strives for perfection, is very competitive, and typically seeks to accomplish more in a shorter period of time than others, is said to have: a type B personality. a type A personality. high performance evaluations. an absence of stressors. a higher risk for heart disease. 703) Which of the following is not a time management principle? make daily lists of activities to be accomplished do the tasks you enjoy before those you dislike schedule activities according to priorities schedule demanding tasks for the periods of time when you are most alert prioritize activities by importance and urgency 704) If somebody is described as having a “Type A” personality, which of the following behaviors would you be least likely to witness? a. doing things rapidly (eating, walking, speaking) b. impatience c. preoccupation with measuring things d. ‘laid-back’ interpersonal style e. a tendency to attempt to do two or more things at the same time. 705) Attitudes: a. are excellent predictors of behaviour. b. can be changed through information but are very difficult to change through experience. c. are evaluative statements or judgments concerning people, objects, events or ideas; job satisfaction is one example of an attitude. d. are never influenced by cognitive dissonance. e. depend heavily on organizational design. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.212/713 706) Although often criticized for various reasons, Frederick Herzberg’s ‘motivationhygiene’ model of work motivation has been influential in management circles. What does his model claim? a. that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are simply the opposite ends of the same continuum. b. that hygiene factors are completely irrelevant to motivation. c. that all the sub-components of the hygiene factors are equally important sub-components of motivational factors. d. that dealing with hygiene factors will, at best, reduce dissatisfaction while the satisfiers that actually motivate people are for the most part attributes of the work itself. e. that employees are motivated by extrinsic rewards. 707) Expectancy theory explains work motivation in terms of: a. the valence (or value) of an outcome and the subjective probabilities that effort will lead to that outcome. b. the balance between inputs and outcomes for the individual and his/her frame of comparison. c. Maslow’s hierarchy. d. Alderfer’s ERG model. e. an irrational, subconscious processes. 708) Which of the following is not part of the group development process? a. forming b. storming c. performing d. reforming 709) It is advantageous for groups to have effective norms. Which of the following is the least plausible argument for the importance of norms? a. Norms facilitate group survival. b. Norms increase the predictability of group members’ behavior. c. Norms reduce the likelihood of interpersonal embarrassment among group members. d. Norms articulate what is distinctive about the group’s identity. e. Norms make it unnecessary for the group to develop distinctive roles for its members. 710) Which of the following statements about group size is (or are) true? a. Small groups are generally quicker at completing tasks than large groups. b. Large groups are generally better at problem-solving than are small groups when the problems involved are complex. c. ‘Social loafing’ is more likely to occur in larger groups. d. Groups with an odd number of members are generally preferable to groups with an even number of members. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.213/713 e. All of ‘a’-‘d’ are true. 711) Which of the following is (or are) characteristics of effective teams? a. a clear sense of purpose b. a norm of ‘civilized disagreement’ to deal with inevitable conflicts with the team c. informality d. decisions based on honest expressions of differences with a commitment to support the ultimate decision of the team e. all of ‘a’ –‘d’ are characteristic of effective teams. 712) Which of the following mechanisms for coordinating the work of different groups generally requires the greatest commitment of organizational resources? a. rules and procedures b. hierarchy of authority c. liaison roles d. task forces e. integrating departments 713) The basic communication model includes several stages, including ‘encoding’ a message, ‘transmitting’ a message, ‘receiving’ the message, and ‘decoding’ the message. What is missing from this list that is needed to assure accurate communication? a. the transmission stage b. the technology dimension c. the receiver’s ‘readiness’ to hear d. the feedback loop e. the formal network 714) Normative models of decision-making emphasize the importance of rational processes and objectivity. Research on how decision-making takes place has suggested that purely rational processes are impossible or impractical, and that people respond to this problem of “bounded rationality” by: a. going along with the group b. making random or arbitrary decisions c. applying a decision standard the researchers refer to as “satisficing”. d. abandoning reason for intuition e. getting stalled out … as some would put it, ‘paralysis by analysis.’ 715) Sometimes the choice exists as to whether to assign a particular decision to an individual or to a group. Although groups have many advantages, they also have certain negative attributes. Which of the following are legitimate concerns about group decisionmaking? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.214/713 a. They are time consuming which means potential delay and the productive of several people being tied up. b. Conformity pressures can mute the advantages of multiple points of view. c. It is not uncommon for a group to be dominated by one or a few members. d. Group decisions provide an ambiguous sense of responsibility – people can avoid responsibility and sometimes caution is not used. e. All of ‘a’-‘d’ are legitimate concerns about what can often happen in groups 716) Leadership is widely thought to be an important element in organizational effectiveness. Which of the following approaches to leadership was developed first? a. behavioural (‘one best way’) theories b. contingency (‘it depends on _____’) theories c. trait (‘the great man/woman’) theories d. structural (‘formal authority’) theories e. none of ‘a’-‘d’ came appreciably before the others 717) Leaders who influence others with consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma are referred to as: a. ‘new-age’ leaders b. ‘transactional’ leaders c. ‘transformational’ leaders d. ‘laissez-faire’ leaders e. ‘formal’ leaders 718) If a person has the right by virtue of his or her formal position to expect you to comply with his/her work-related requests, this person has _______ power over you. a. coercive b. reward c. legitimate d. expert e. referent 719) Which of the following is associated with the ‘organic’ model of organizational design (as opposed to the ‘mechanistic’ model)? a. high specialization b. high emphasis on chain of command c. centralization d. formalization e. none of ‘a’-‘d’; all of them are more associated with the ‘mechanistic’ model 720) Concerning organizational cultures, a. a strong culture is a more productive environment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.215/713 b. a weak culture is a more productive environment c. the specific culture that contributes to positive effectiveness is well known d. the stronger the culture, the more influential it is on employee behavior 721) Shared organizational values are a. unconscious, affective desires or wants that guide society's behavior b. influenced by international values c. different for the various components of a diverse work force d. a myth 722) Which of the following best explains why an employee behaves as s/he does? a. The environment is the most important consideration in understanding individual employee behavior. b. Both the environment and individual differences are important considerations in understanding individual employee behavior. c. Neither the environment nor individual differences are important considerations in understanding individual employee behavior. d. Employee personality and attitudes are primarily dictated by the environment. 723) Motivation is important to managers because a. it is a significant contributor to high performance b. it does not explain the differences in intensity of behavior c. it explains the differences in attitude and personality d. not all employees know how to use it effectively http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.216/713 724) Considering extrinsic rewards, a. money modifies behavior irrespective of the perceptions and preferences of the person being rewarded b. recognition is a powerful motivating reward for everyone c. upper management compensation is a strong incentive for lower-level employees to work harder d. benefits are usually based on longevity, not performance 725) In order from lowest to highest, what are Maslow's five classes of needs? a. Social–esteem–physiological–safety–self-actualization b. Physiological–safety–social–self-actualization–esteem c. Physiological–safety–social–esteem–self-actualization d. Self-actualization–esteem–safety–social–physiological 726) a. temporal A lack of clarity concerning what will happen is referred to as b. predisposition c. uncertainty d. negation 727) Employees with relatively weak higher-order needs are _______ concerned with variety and autonomy. a. less b. more c. very d. extremely http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.217/713 728) Which of the following is a strategy of job design that increases job depth by meeting employees‘ needs for psychological growth? a. Job rotation b. Job enrichment c. Job enlargement d. Job enrichment and job enlargement 729) a. Control What is the key word in understanding organization structure? b. Change c. Process d. Delegation 730) Organization structures a. affect group behavior more than individual behavior b. change rapidly to meet environmental and market changes c. contribute positively to organizational performance d. can be defined simply as activities that occur regularly 731) Groups created by managerial decision in order to accomplish stated goals of the organization are called a. formal groups b. informal groups c. task groups d. interest groups http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.218/713 732) Continued membership in a group will usually require a. supporting the group leader b. conforming to group norms c. encouraging cohesiveness in the group d. developing a status system 733) Which of the following is true of managers in relationship to conflict? a. Managers generally encourage low levels of conflict because it improves performance, up to a certain point. b. Managers generally ignore conflict. c. Managers attempt to eliminate conflict because the organization rewards them for keeping conflict out of their area of responsibility. d. Managers show no consistent attitude toward conflict. 734) It appears that a. successful leaders tend to be more intelligent than followers b. there is no link between intelligence of the leader and success c. intelligence is the most important "ability" trait in leaders d. persons with creativity make the best leaders 735) Concerning leadership concepts, a. leader roles are unnecessary in organizations like Gore-Tex, where a self-leadership approach is used b. it is likely that a particular set of leader characteristics and behaviors do suit specific situations and groups http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.219/713 c. it is likely that the need for leaders will decline in the 21st century due to more decentralized structures d. the military model of leadership will become more popular in the 21st century 736) The definition of communication implies that a. communication is mostly verbal b. communication is mostly written c. most communication is in a vertical direction d. understanding must occur to have communication 737) a. upward The LEAST-used communication channel in an organization is usually b. downward c. diagonal d. horizontal 738) Specific procedures developed for repetitive and routine problems are a. autocratic decisions b. programmed decisions c. easy decisions d. non-programmed decisions 739) An important potential environmental source of change is a. a new competitive product b. dissatisfied employee attitudes c. employee grievances http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.220/713 d. a wildcat strike 740) How many determinants of human behavior in an organization are studied in Organizational Behavior(OB)? Select correct option: 1 2 3 4 741) After which stage of group development the group formed a common set of expectations of member behaviors? Select correct option: Norming Storming Maturation Forming 742) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? Select correct option: Specific performance objectives Page 71 Precise job descriptions Clear direction and purpose Higher salaries MBO’s appeal lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. 743) In the following steps in decision making, which would come first? Select correct option: Generate alternatives Rating of alternative Make a choice Implement the decision Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by: Select correct option: Stephen Covey http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.221/713 Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 744) Research suggests that which of the following increases with increase in tenure? Select correct option: Absenteeism Job Productivity Turnover Dissatisfaction 745) The Big Five Model of Personality contains all of the following dimensions EXCEPT: Select correct option: Extroversion Introversion Emotional stability Agreeableness 746) Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure? Select correct option: Job satisfaction Productivity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.222/713 Absenteeism Raises and promotion 747) Ahmed believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has been used in this case? Select correct option: The halo effect The contrast effect Projection Stereotyping 748) _____________ refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other. Select correct option: Formal organization Informal organization Business organization Government organization 749) Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for ___________. Select correct option: Sociologists Anthropologists Social psychologists Operations analysts 750) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? Select correct option: Finished goods Services Dividends Capital 751) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.223/713 Culture shock page 14 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. 752) In Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, the individual's sense of belonging and love is classified in which of the following needs? Select correct option: Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Safety Needs Social Needs 753) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best describes these values? Select correct option: Terminal values Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values 754) Sana is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Sana most likely using? Select correct option: Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 755) Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for___________. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.224/713 Sociologists Anthropologists Social psychologists Operations analysts 756) Maslow's Need theory was widely recognized by practicing managers during: Select correct option: 1950s and 1960s 1960s and 1970s 1970s and 1980s 1980s and 1990s 757) Barriers to Social perception includes all EXCEPT: Select correct option: Halo effect Stereotyping Projection Selective Perception 758) Which of the following is an environmental force that shapes personality? Select correct option: Gender Height Brain size Experience 759) Which of the following theory is proposed by Clayton Alderfer? Select correct option: Theory X and Theory Y Hierarchy of Needs ERG Theory Theory Z 760) Suspending an employee for dishonest behavior is an example of which method of shaping behavior? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.225/713 Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment Positive reinforcement 761) Asad, one of your newest employees, is an extravert. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be true? Select correct option: Asad will probably attend the company picnic Asad will be suited to a managerial or sales position Asad will probably have a large number of relationships Asad will perform well on specialized, detail-oriented tasks 762) Job satisfaction is best described as __________. Select correct option: A result A value An attitude A discipline 763) If personality characteristics were completely dictated by ______, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. Select correct option: Job satisfaction Heredity Environment Situations 764) Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into ___ positions. Select correct option: Unskilled Traditionally female Socially-oriented Professional http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.226/713 765) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best describes these values? Select correct option: Terminal values Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values 766) Alia has just presented her paper and has done a really good job. Why should you not want to present your own paper directly after she does? Select correct option: To avoid the stereotyping effect To avoid the halo effect To avoid the contrast effect To avoid the projection effect 767) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Job situations with personal responsibility A high degree of risk Overcoming obstacles Personal empowerment 768) ______________ refers to manager's mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Select correct option: Human Skill Managerial Skill Conceptual Skill Technical Skill 769) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? Select correct option: Specific personal performance objectives Precise job descriptions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.227/713 Explicit task objectives Clear direction and purpose 770) The study which enables us to learn about human beings, their activities and societies is known as Select correct option: Political Science Sociology Anthropology Organizational Behavio 771) What sort of actions is most likely to be attributed to external causes? Select correct option: Actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus and high consistency Actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus and low consistency Actions that have high distinctiveness, low consensus and low consistency Actions that have low distinctiveness, low consistency and high consensus 772) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Select correct option: Deviant Workplace Behavior Emotional Labor Interpersonal Skills Social Skills 773) Mr. Zulfiqar, Manager in ABC Company, always assume that employees don't like to work and avoid working whenever possible, So he uses to threaten employees to achieve their goals. Which theory is he applying? Select correct option: Theory Z Theory Y Theory X Goal Setting Theory 774) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.228/713 Select correct option: An employee is late because of a flat tire An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job An employee was promoted because he was hard working 775) What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance? Select correct option: The contrast effect Personal bias The halo effect Projection 776) Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions? Select correct option: Planning Staffing Organizing Leading 777) Sadaf has a low absenteeism rate. She takes responsibility for his health and has good health habits. She is likely to have a(an): Select correct option: Internal locus of control External locus of control Core locus of control High emotional stability level 778) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? Select correct option: Reward-satisfaction relationship Satisfaction-performance relationship Rewards-personal goals relationship Effort-satisfaction relationship http://www.citeman.com/434‐expectancy‐theory/ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.229/713 779) Which of the following option shows the quality of continuing steadily despite of problems or difficulties? Select correct option: Persistence Intensity Direction Meditation http://www.encyclo.co.uk/define/persistence 780) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Select correct option: Self-awareness Self-management Commitment Empathy 781) Characteristics such as age, gender and marital status are known as_______________ Select correct option: Psychographic characteristics Biographical characteristics Geographical characteristics Behavioral characteristics 782) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? Select correct option: Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated Ref: An emotion generated in response to a person, object or event….. http://en.mimi.hu/marketingweb/attitudes.html 783) Achievements, Honesty, Fairness and Concern for other are related with _________Values http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.230/713 Select correct option: Personal Work Instrumental Terminal 784) The smell of fresh cake baking makes Saima’s mouth water is an example of which one of the following learning theory? Select correct option: Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory 785) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Select correct option: Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Feedback Defining the goal 786) What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize? Select correct option: Tangible, verifiable and measurable Achievable, controllable and profitable Challenging, emotional and constructive Hierarchical, attainable and effective Ref: Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. It is not a new idea. It originated more than 50 years ago. 787) As a manager, one of Ali’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Ali performing, when he does this? Select correct option: Leadership role Monitor role http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.231/713 Figurehead role Spokesperson role 788) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best describes these values? Select correct option: Terminal values Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values 789) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Select correct option: Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 790) Which of the following is NOT one of Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture? Select correct option: Power distance Future orientation Uncertainty avoidance Flexibility versus rigidity 791) Biological Characteristics included the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Marital Status Gender Color REF: • Age • Gender • Marital status • Length of service, etc. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.232/713 792) What is the term used for the situation where employees are allowed to pick and choose from among a menu of benefit options? Select correct option: Flexible pay Benefit menu options Flexible benefits Benefit participation Ref: Flexible benefits schemes enable employers to allow staff to select the benefits that suit them… http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/benefits/flex_bens.html 793) Mr. Fahad believes that the participation of employees in all aspects of company decision making is essential, Which management philosophy is he following? Select correct option: ERG Theory Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Ref: Alderfer’s ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. Alderfer reduces the number of needs from five to three and states that needs at more than one level can be motivators at any time. 794) Which of the following would not be considered an organization? Select correct option: Hospital Charity centers Red cross Dairy farmers in Punjab 795) Which of the following statements is true? Select correct option: Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers Older employees generally have lower productivity than younger workers http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.233/713 Ref: In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence. However, they have higher rates of unavoidable absence, probably due to their poorer health associated with aging and longer recovery periods when injured. 796) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Select correct option: Self-awareness Self-management Commitment Empathy 797) Which one of the following is NOT included in the 4-Ps of Continuous Improvement: Select correct option: Product Place People Processes 798) Eden Corp has installed a new email system, but many staff members do not know of its features. Upper management decides to allocate a small portion of the company’s budget to solving this problem. A team that uses rational decision making to arrive at a solution should be aware that this case deviates from the assumptions of the rational decision making model in what way? Select correct option: There are cost constraints page 53 The problem is not clearly defined The options available to the team are not known There are constraints on the options available 799) The more consistent a behavior, the more the observer is inclined to ___. Select correct option: Attribute it to interpretation Attribute it to internal causes page 49 Attribute it to consensus Attribute it to external causes 800) If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory states that the behavior shows ___. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.234/713 Select correct option: Consensus Similarity Reliability Consistency Ref: Consensus occurs if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way 801) What is the relationship between what one perceives and objective reality? Select correct option: They are the same They cannot be the same They are rarely if ever the same They can be substantially different 802) Protecting the interests of deprived and less powerful is known as__________ Select correct option: Obligation Right Justice Duty 803) _______________ creates problem for employees when their job requires to display emotions incompatible with their actual feelings Select correct option: Depression Emotional Labor Stress Anxiety Ref: Emotional labor creates dilemmas for employees when their job requires them to exhibit emotions incongruous with their actual feelings 804) Top executives, lower-level managers and business students tends to score highest in which of the following decision-making styles http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.235/713 Select correct option: Conceptual Analytical Behavioral Ethical Ref: Business students, lower-level managers, and top executives tend to score highest in the analytic style. 805) Mr. Rahman discusses job related problems with supervisor and attempts to improve conditions actively. It is an example of which of the following ways through which employees express dissatisfaction?Select correct option: Neglect Loyalty Exit Voice 806) Barriers to Social perception includes all EXCEPT Select correct option: Halo effect Stereotyping Projection Selective Perception 807) Which of the following values would be most likely to be considered a terminal value by Rockeach Select correct option: Ambition Self-control Broad-mindedness Sense of accomplishment Ref: Terminal values. • Preferences concerning the ends to be achieved. 808) Mohsin has already presented two excellent reports. The report he has just presented is clearly not as good as the first two reports, yet he is given the same high grade as before. What shortcut has been used in this case? The contrast effect The halo effect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.236/713 Stereotyping Projection 809) The degree, to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________. Select correct option: Job satisfaction Job involvement Job stability Job enrichment Ref: Job involvement • A workable definition: the measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self-worth. 810) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Select correct option: Culture shock page 14 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. 811) : Which one of the following words is the best synonym for “ability”, as the term is used in organizational behavior? Select correct option: Motivation Capacity Experience Wisdom http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.237/713 812) According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, highest performance is reached when goals are set to which level? Select correct option: Impossible but inspirational Difficult but attainable Only marginally challenging Easy and attainable 813) If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows: Select correct option: Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency 814) What is the last step in the Rational Decision-Making Model? Select correct option: Developing alternatives Collecting relevant data Weighing the decision criteria Computing the optimal decision 815) Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you were late back from lunch, he assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were out and you had to walk up 10 flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of ___. Select correct option: Self-serving bias Selective perception Fundamental attribution error page 49 Inconsistency 816) Which of the following is NOT a factor in the individual perceiver? Select correct option: Attitude http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.238/713 Motive Location Perception Ref: The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations 817) People with which type of personality trait commonly make poor decisions because they make them too fast? Select correct option: Type As Type Bs Self-monitors Extroverts 818) _________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment. Select correct option: Psychology Sociology Corporate strategy Political science 819) Rizwan is low on conscientiousness. This would lead you to suspect that which of the following statements is most likely to be true about Rizwan? Select correct option: He will be easily distracted He will find comfort in the familiar He will be comfortable with solitude He will be nervous, depressed, and insecure 820) Which of the following is an example of an attitude? Select correct option: Satisfaction of a person with a job well done The opinion that it is never acceptable to steal Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing The avoidance of a restaurant where one once received bad service http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.239/713 821) Which of the following is an environmental force that shapes personality? Select correct option: Gender Height Brain size Experience 822) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of _____________study. Select correct option: Organizational Intuitive Theoretical Systematic 823) _____________ refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other. Select correct option: Formal organization Informal organization Business organization Government organization 824) Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. Where do the factors that operate to shape their dissimilar perceptions reside? Select correct option: The perceivers The target The context The situation 825) What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different situations? Select correct option: Continuity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.240/713 Integrity Stability Distinctiveness 826) Which of the following is NOT one of the most common types of teams? Select correct option: Problem-solving Interdepartmental Self-managed Cross functional 827) People who consistently believe they control their own destinies have a/an ___________. Select correct option: Type A personality High self esteem Internal locus of control External locus of control 828) Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor? Select correct option: Hierarchy of needs theory Theories X and Y Two-factor theory Expectancy theory 829) The primary change agents in an organization are: Select correct option: Employees Managers Leaders Stakeholders http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=‐ hz3u0oXAWAC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=leaders+are+primary+change+agents+in+an+organi zation&source=bl&ots=xAe_sg8DGb&sig=uufwqhAxKr7z47sCj5A5_OznaZ0&hl=en&ei=ozc‐ TOPvDs_IccibkKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBzgK#v=onep age&q=leaders%20are%20primary%20change%20agents%20in%20an%20organization&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.241/713 830) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Select correct option: Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 831) Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other is called ___________ Select correct option: Verbal comprehension Non verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Memory 832) The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth is known as ________: Select correct option: Job Satisfaction Job Enrichment Job Specification Job Involvement page 29 833) A high score in which dimension of the Big Five model predicts good job performance for all occupational groups? Select correct option: Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience 834) Which of the following factors make it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible? Select correct option: Temporariness Corporate excess Advances in corporate strategy Globalization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.242/713 835) Which of the following countries ranks highest in long-term orientation? Select correct option: Afghanistan Bangladesh Russia China 836) Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into ___ positions. Select correct option: Unskilled Traditionally female Socially-oriented Professional 837) Which of the following term is used to describe broad range of feelings that people experience? Select correct option: Mood Affect Emotion Emotional Intelligence 838) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of physical ability? Stamina Strength Looks Dexterity 839) An individual's personality is determined by: Heredity Environment Situational factors All of the above http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.243/713 840) Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called: Extinction Punishment Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement 841) When an organization takes on a life of its own, we can say that it has: a. acquired a culture. b. developed subcultures. c. become institutionalized. d. become immortal. 842) Institutionalization is when: a. people become indoctrinated into an organization’s culture. b. an organization becomes valued for itself. c. when rules and bureaucracy becomes a dominant culture. d. an organization employs over 1,000 people. 843) Which of the following is not true about institutionalization? a. It operates to produce common understandings about appropriate behavior. b. Acceptable modes of behavior become largely self-evident to its members. c. It means the organization has acquired immortality. d. The organization’s mission becomes stable. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.244/713 844) _____is a shared system of meaning held by the organization’s members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. a. Institutionalization b. Organizational culture c. Socialization d. Formalization 845) Which of the following is not a characteristic of organizational culture? a. attention to detail b. innovation c. formality orientation d. team orientation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.245/713 846) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization is termed: a. humanistic work practices. b. sense of community. c. team orientation. d. people orientation. 847) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which people are competitive rather than easygoing is termed: a. assertiveness. b. competitiveness. c. aggressiveness. d. risk taking. 848) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision is termed: a. accuracy orientation. b. precision. c. attention to detail. d. stability. 849) The key characteristic of organizational culture which assesses the degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth is: a. permanence. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.246/713 b. aggressiveness orientation. c. stability. d. competitiveness. 850) In contrasting organizational culture with job satisfaction, the former _____while the latter _____. a. is written; is implied b. is implied; describes c. evaluates; describes d. describes; evaluates 851) _____expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. a. Dominant culture b. Subculture c. Socialization d. Cultural reality 852) The macro view of culture that gives an organization its distinct personality is its: a. dominant culture. b. subculture. c. strong culture. d. national culture. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.247/713 853) Cultures within an organization, typically defined by departmental designations are often called: a. microcultures. b. subcultures. c. divisional cultures. d. microcosms. 854) Which does not define a subculture? a. cultures within an organization b. typically defined by department organizations c. cultural values that are shared only within the organization d. usually defined by geographical separation 855) The dominant culture is: a. the sum of the subcultures. b. defined by the leader. c. synonymous with the organization’s culture. d. the same as strong culture. 856) The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization are: a. foundational values. b. core values. c. shared values. d. institutionalized. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.248/713 857) Which of the following terms is not part of the definition of a strong culture? a. great influence on members’ behavior b. low behavioral controls c. widely shared values d. intensely held values 858) A culture where the core values are intensely held and widely shared is termed a: a. dominant culture. b. subculture. c. strong culture. d. formal culture. 859) A specific result of a strong culture should be: a. lower employee turnover. b. lower employee satisfaction. c. higher employee turnover. d. higher absenteeism. 860) The unanimity of a strong culture builds all of the following except: a. cohesiveness. b. loyalty. c. quality. d. organizational commitment. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.249/713 861) According to your text, a strong culture can act as a substitute for: a. institutionalization. b. formalization c. socialization. d. organizational rules. 862) a. b. c. d. High formalization in an organization creates all of the following except: predictability. cohesiveness. orderliness. consistency. 863) The research indicates that national culture has a _____ on employees than does their organization’s culture. a. greater impact b. lesser impact c. similar impact d. marginal impact 864) Which one of the following is not a function of culture cited in your text? a. conveys a sense of organizational identity b. controls employee behavior c. affects the organization’s ability to hire capable employees d. has a boundary-defining role 865) Culture performs all the following functions except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.250/713 a. displays the dominance of some organizations. b. enhances social system stability. c. conveys a sense of identity for organization members. d. facilitates commitment to something larger than individual self-interest. 866) As organizations have widened spans of control, flattened structures, introduced teams, reduced formalization, and empowered employees, the _____ provided by a strong culture ensures that everyone is pointed in the same direction. a. rules and regulations b. shared meaning c. rituals d. socialization 867) Culture is most likely to be a liability when: a. it increases consistency of behavior. b. the environment is dynamic. c. management is ineffectual. d. it reduces ambiguity. 868) Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces: a. a dynamic environment. b. an unknown environment. c. a stable environment. d. massive changes. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.251/713 869) Culture may be a liability because it is a barrier to: a. change. b. diversity. c. mergers and acquisitions. d. all of the above 870) a. b. c. d. 871) In recent years, _____ has become the primary concern in acquisitions and mergers. cultural compatibility cultural synergy organizational compatibility none of the above The ultimate source of an organization’s culture is: a. top management. b. the environment. c. the country in which the organization operates. d. its founders. 872) a. b. c. d. 873) Culture creation occurs in all of the following ways except: founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. founders indoctrinate and socialize employee to their way of thinking and feeling. founders develop their vision covertly. founders’ behavior acts as a role model. All of the following serve to sustain a culture except: a. selection. b. institutionalization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.252/713 c. socialization. d. top management. 874) The selection process helps sustain the organization’s culture by: a. establishing and enforcing norms. b. ensuring a proper match of personal and organizational values. c. socializing the applicant. d. identifying individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform the jobs. 875) The selection process helps candidates learn about the organization and if they perceive a conflict between their values and those of the organization, they should: a. work to change the organization. b. express their concerns. c. inform the organization of appropriate changes. d. self-select out of the applicant pool. 876) Top management has a major impact on the organization’s culture by: a. establishing norms that filter down through the organization. b. ensuring a proper match of personal and organizational values. c. socializing the applicant. d. providing the metamorphosis framework 877) The process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture is called: a. indoctrination. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.253/713 b. orientation. c. socialization. d. institutionalization. 878) The Marine boot camp, where Marines “prove” their commitment is an example of: a. indoctrination. b. orientation. c. socialization. d. institutionalization. 879) The socialization stage that encompasses the learning before a new member joins the organization is: a. prearrival. b. encounter. c. metamorphosis. d. ritual. 880) Which of the following is not a stage of the socialization process? a. prearrival b. encounter c. metamorphosis d. ritual 881) _____ is the process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture. a. Training http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.254/713 b. Indoctrination c. Socialization d. Orientation 882) The correct order for the stages of the socialization process is: a. prearrival, metamorphosis, encounter. b. prearrival, encounter, ritual. c. prearrival, ritual, encounter. d. prearrival, encounter, metamorphosis. 883) The employee compares her expectations to organizational reality in which stage of socialization? a. prearrival b. encounter c. metamorphosis d. ritual 884) If there is a basic conflict between the individual’s expectations and the organization’s expectations, the employee is most likely to be disillusioned and quit during which stage? a. prearrival b. ritual http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.255/713 c. encounter d. metamorphosis 885) Employee attitudes and behavior change during the _____ stage of socialization. a. establishment b. transformation c. encounter d. metamorphosis 886) The time when a new employee sees what the organization is really like and realizes that expectations and reality may diverge is called: a. encounter stage. b. exploration stage. c. establishment stage. d. metamorphosis stage. 887) The employee has become comfortable by the end of the: a. encounter stage. b. exploration stage. c. establishment stage. d. metamorphosis stage. 888) Which of the following is not a form listed in the book by which culture is transmitted to employees? a. stories b. metamorphosis http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.256/713 c. ritual d. language 889) Which one of the following terms is not consistent with the definition of a ritual? a. material symbols b. sequence of activities c. repetition d. key values 890) _____ typically contain(s) a narrative of events about the organization’s founders, rule breaking, or reactions to past mistakes. a. b. c. d. Stories Material symbols Rituals Language 891) According to your text, one of the most potent ways that employees learn culture is through: a. material symbols. b. role models. c. colleagues. d. mentors. 892) _____ are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization, what goals are important, which people are important, and which are expendable. a. Stories b. Rituals c. Material symbols d. Formal procedures http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.257/713 893) All of the following are examples of rituals except: a. college faculty seeking tenure. b. annual award meeting. c. fraternity initiation. d. the placement of offices within corporate headquarters. 894) All of the following are examples of material symbols except: a. top executives’ use of the company jet. b. a swimming pool for the employees to use. c. an annual award meeting. d. different types of cars for executives. 895) a. b. c. d. 896) a. b. c. d. 897) a. b. c. d. An organizational culture most likely to shape high ethical standards is one that: is high in risk tolerance. is low-to-moderate in aggressiveness. focuses on means as well as outcomes. all of the above To create a more ethical culture, management should do all of the following except: Be a visible role model. Hush up unethical acts. Provide ethical training. Communicate ethical expectations. Which of the following is not a variable evident in customer-responsive cultures? Outgoing and friendly employees. Standardization of responses to customer needs. Good listening skills. Organizational citizenship behavior. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.258/713 898) Once a customer-responsive culture hires service-oriented employees, the organization must: a. b. c. d. 899) a. b. c. d. 900) a. b. c. d. Clarify their roles. Conduct formal orientation sessions. Allow role ambiguity. All of the above The place to start in building a customer-responsive culture is: Hire service-contact people who have appropriate personality and attitudes. Conduct orientation and socialization of employees. Reduce rules and regulations. Empower employees with the discretion to make day-to-day decisions. Organizations that promote a spiritual culture: Have organized religious practices. Adopt a corporate religion. Recognize that people have both a mind and a spirit. All of the above Critics of the spirituality movement in organizations focus on what issue(s)? a. b. c. d. Legitimacy Economics. All the above.. None of the above. 901) _____ defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. a. Organizational structure b. Work specialization c. Departmentalization d. Organizational behavior http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.259/713 902) Organizational structure has six key elements. Which of the following is not one of these elements? a. centralization b. departmentalization c. span of authority d. formalization 903) Work specialization is the same as: a. departmentalization. b. division of labor. c. decentralization. d. job grouping. 904) The degree to which tasks are subdivided into separate jobs is termed: a. departmentalization. b. decentralization. c. work specialization. d. structure. 905) In the late 1940s, most manufacturing jobs in industrialized countries were being done with high: a. departmentalization. b. decentralization. c. work specialization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.260/713 d. structuralization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.261/713 906) For much of the first half of the 20th century, managers viewed _____ as an unending source of increased productivity. a. departmentalization b. formalization c. work specialization d. automation 907) Which one of the following components of organizational structure specifically defines where decisions are made? a. complexity/simplicity b. formalization/informalization c. centralization/decentralization d. specialization/enlargement 908) The basis by which jobs are grouped together is termed: a. departmentalization. b. bureaucracy. c. specialization. d. centralization. 909) Grouping jobs on the basis of function, product, geography, process, or customer is a form of: a. departmentalization. b. specialization. c. centralization. d. bureaucracy. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.262/713 910) One of the most popular ways to group activities is by: a. product. b. function. c. geography. d. process. 911) Proctor & Gamble departmentalizes by Tide, Pampers, Charmin, and Pringles. This is an example of departmentalization by: a. function. b. process. c. geography. d. product. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.263/713 912) A plant manager who organizes the plant by separating engineering, accounting, manufacturing, personnel, and purchasing into departments is practicing _____ departmentalization. a. target customer b. product c. functional d. geographic 913) _____ departmentalization achieves economies of scale by placing people with common skills and orientations into common units. a. Functional b. Process c. Product d. Geographic 914) At an Alcoa aluminum tubing plant in New York, production is organized into five departments: casting; press; tubing; finishing; and inspecting; packing; and shipping. This is a. functional departmentalization. b. process departmentalization. c. product departmentalization. d. none of the above. 915) The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed: a. chain of command. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.264/713 b. authority. c. span of control. d. unity of command. 916) The right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed: a. chain of command. b. authority. c. power. d. unity of command. 917) The _____ principle helps preserve the concept of an unbroken line of authority. a. span of control b. chain of command c. unity of command d. centralization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.265/713 918) The _____ principle states that a person should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible. a. span of control b. chain of command c. unity of command d. authority 919) The _____ refers to the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. a. span of control b. unity of command c. chain of command d. decentralization principle 920) Which of the following is a drawback of a narrow span of control? a. It reduces effectiveness. b. It is more efficient. c. It encourages overly tight supervision and discourages employee autonomy. d. It empowers employees. 921) Which of the following is not a drawback of a narrow span of control? a. b. c. d. It is expensive. It makes vertical communication in the organization more complex. Supervisors may loose control of their employees. It encourages overly tight supervision. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.266/713 922) The trend in recent years has been toward: a. b. c. d. narrower spans of control. wider spans of control. a span of control of four. an ideal span of control of six to eight. 923) If you have a narrow span of control, you have a(n) _____ organization. a. b. c. d. efficient short tall matrix 924) _____ are consistent with recent efforts by companies to reduce costs, cut overhead, speed up decision making, increase flexibility, get closer to customers, and empower employees. a. b. c. d. Wider spans of control Narrower spans of control Matrix structures Simple structures 925) The best definition for centralization is: a. b. c. d. decision making is pushed down to lower level employees. decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. decision making depends on the situation. decision making is done in each department and then sent to the president for the final decision. 926) In an organization that has high centralization: a. the corporate headquarters is located centrally to branch offices. b. all top level officials are located within the same geographic area. c. top managers make all the decisions and lower level managers merely carry out directions. d. action can be taken more quickly to solve problems. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.267/713 927) The more that lower-level personnel provide input or are actually given the discretion to make decisions, the more _____ there is. a. centralization b. decentralization c. work specialization d. departmentalization 928) If a job is highly formalized, it would not include which of the following? a. clearly defined procedures on work processes b. explicit job description c. high employee job discretion d. a large number of organizational rules 929) Explicit job descriptions, lots of rules, and clearly defined procedures concerning work processes are consistent with: a. high formalization. b. high specialization. c. high centralization. d. bureaucracy. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.268/713 930) Employee discretion is inversely related to: a. complexity. b. standardization. c. specialization. d. departmentalization. 931) Which of the following is not a common organizational design? a. b. c. d. simple structure bureaucracy centralized structure matrix structure 932) The _____ is characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization. a. bureaucracy b. matrix organization c. simple structure d. team structure 933) Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure? a. high centralization b. high horizontal differentiation c. high employee discretion d. standardization 934) The ____ is a flat organization. a. bureaucracy http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.269/713 b. centralized structure c. matrix structure d. none of the above 935) Simple structures are characterized by: a. shared authority. b. a narrow span of control. c. standardization. d. a low degree of departmentalization. 936) a. b. c. d. This is most widely practiced in small businesses. simple structure standardization centralized structure span of control 937) The bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following except: a. highly routine operating tasks. b. formalized rules and regulations. c. tasks that are grouped into functional departments. d. decentralized decision making. 938) The key underlying all bureaucracies is: a. flexibility. b. standardization. c. dual lines of authority. d. wide span of control. 939) The ____ is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.270/713 a. b. c. d. simple structure bureaucracy centralized structure matrix structure The strength of the simple structure lies in its: a. b. c. d. efficiency. simplicity. centralization. span of control. 940) Which of the following is not a weakness of the simple structure? a. b. c. d. It is risky. information overload There is little unity of command. slower decision making http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.271/713 941) The structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization is the: a. organizational structure. b. bureaucracy. c. matrix structure. d. virtual organization. 942) The matrix structure combines which two forms of departmentalization? a. process and functional b. functional and product c. product and process d. none of the above 943) The _____ violates the unity of command concept. a. simple structure b. virtual structure c. matrix structure d. team structure 944) Which one of the following problems is most likely to occur in a matrix structure? a. decreased response to environmental change b. decreased employee motivation c. loss of economies of scale d. employees receiving conflicting directives http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.272/713 945) The strength of the matrix structure is its: a. ability to facilitate coordination. b. economies of scale. c. adherence to chain of command. d. standardization. 946) The major disadvantage of the matrix structure is: a. the confusion it creates. b. its propensity to foster power struggles. c. the stress it places on individuals. d. all of the above 947) The primary characteristics of the _____ structure are that it breaks down departmental barriers and decentralizes decision making to the level of the work team. a. virtual b. team c. boundaryless d. organizational 948) In larger organizations, the team structure complements what is typically a: a. b. c. d. virtual organization. bureaucracy. formal structure. boundaryless organization. 949) A small, core organization that outsources major business functions is the _____ organization. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.273/713 a. team b. virtual c. boundaryless d. matrix http://www.docstoc.com/docs/7886857/Organization-Structure 950) The ____ is also called the network or modular organization. a. b. c. d. virtual organization team structure pyramid boundaryless organization 951) The prototype of the virtual structure is today’s: a. b. c. d. appliance manufacturers. movie-making organizations. fast-food restaurants. software companies. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/7886857/Organization‐Structure 952) The major advantage of the virtual organization is its: a. control. b. predictability. c. flexibility. d.empowerment. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.274/713 953) The _____ organization stands in sharp contrast to the typical bureaucracy that has many vertical levels of management and where control is sought through ownership. a. virtual b. team c. limitless d. matrix 954) The boundaryless organization relies heavily on: a. b. c. d. information technology. functional and product departmentalization. the simple structure. none of the above. 955) An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams is the: a. virtual organization. b. boundaryless organization. c. matrix organization. d. team structure. 956) The one common technological thread that makes the boundaryless organization possible is: a. reengineering. b. MBA’s. c. networked computers. d. mainframes. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.275/713 957) The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. a. mechanistic model b. organic model c. traditional model d. bureaucracy organization 958) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a mechanistic structure? a. extensive departmentalization b. high formalization c. limited information network d. flexibility 959) If there is low formalization, a comprehensive information network, and high participation in decision making, one would expect a(n): a. simple structure. b. mechanistic structure. c. organic structure. d. stable structure. 960) All of the following are characteristics of the organic model except: a. cross-functional teams. b. cross-departmentalization. c. cross-hierarchical teams. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.276/713 d. high participation. 961) Which of the following is not a determinant of an organization’s structure? a. b. c. d. strategy organization size innovation technology 962) Changes in corporate strategy precede and lead to: a. changes in the environment. b. better communication. c. increased productivity. d. changes in an organization’s structure. 963) A strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services is a(n) _____ strategy. a. innovation b. enhancement c. progressive d. organic 964) The innovation strategy is characterized by: a. unorthodox structures. b. a mixture of loose with tight properties. c. low specialization and low formalization. d. high technology 965) _____ refers to how an organization transfers its inputs into outputs. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.277/713 a. b. c. d. Production Technology Operations Process http://www.docstoc.com/docs/20916902/Chapter‐14‐‐‐FOUNDATIONS‐OF‐ORGANIZATION‐STRUCTURE 966) Which of the following is not part of the organization’s environment? a. b. c. d. public pressure groups customers technology competitors 967) The _____ of an environment refers to the degree to which it can support growth. a. capacity b. qualifications c. potential d. capability 968) _____ refers to the degree of instability of an environment. a. Instability b. Volatility c. Irregularity d. Unpredictability 969) Three key dimensions to any organization’s environment have been found. Which of the following is not one of these key dimensions? a. volatility b. capability c. complexity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.278/713 d. capacity 970) The _____ of an environment refers to the degree of heterogeneity and concentration among environmental elements. a. density b. simplicity c. complexity d. intricacy 971) Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is most true? a. There is fairly strong evidence linking decentralization and job satisfaction. b. It is probably safe to say that no evidence supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance. c. The evidence generally indicates that work specialization contributes to lower employee productivity. d. No one wants work that makes minimal intellectual demands and is routine. 972) There is research evidence to suggest that: a. employees with high self-esteem are more satisfied with decentralized organizations. b. a manager’s job satisfaction increases along with the number of employees he or she supervises c. centralized organizations tend to have more satisfied employees. d. a manager’s job satisfaction is inversely related to the number of employees he or she supervises 973) When an organization takes on a life of its own, we can say that it has: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.279/713 a. acquired a culture. b. developed subcultures. c. become institutionalized. d. become immortal. 974) Institutionalization is when: a. people become indoctrinated into an organization’s culture. b. an organization becomes valued for itself. c. when rules and bureaucracy becomes a dominant culture. d. an organization employs over 1,000 people. 975) Which of the following is not true about institutionalization? a. It operates to produce common understandings about appropriate behavior. b. Acceptable modes of behavior become largely self-evident to its members. c. It means the organization has acquired immortality. d. The organization’s mission becomes stable. 976) _____is a shared system of meaning held by the organization’s members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. a. Institutionalization b. Organizational culture c. Socialization d. Formalization 977) Which of the following is not a characteristic of organizational culture? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.280/713 a. attention to detail b. innovation c. formality orientation d. team orientation 978) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization is termed: a. humanistic work practices. b. sense of community. c. team orientation. d. people orientation. 979) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which people are competitive rather than easygoing is termed: a. assertiveness. b. competitiveness. c. aggressiveness. d. risk taking. 980) The key characteristic of organizational culture which addresses the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision is termed: a. accuracy orientation. b. precision. c. attention to detail. d. stability http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.281/713 981) The key characteristic of organizational culture which assesses the degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth is: a. permanence. b. aggressiveness orientation. c. stability. d. competitiveness. 982) In contrasting organizational culture with job satisfaction, the former _____while the latter _____. a. is written; is implied b. is implied; describes c. evaluates; describes d. describes; evaluates 983) _____expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. a. Dominant culture b. Subculture c. Socialization d. Cultural reality 984) The macro view of culture that gives an organization its distinct personality is its: a. dominant culture. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.282/713 b. subculture. c. strong culture. d. national culture. 985) Cultures within an organization, typically defined by departmental designations are often called: a. microcultures. b. subcultures. c. divisional cultures. d. microcosms. 986) One of the most frequently used selection devices that carries a disproportionate amount of influence: a. interview. b. written test. c. performance simulation test. d. work sampling. 987) The unstructured interview: a. is made up of random questions. b. typically is biased. c. often is unrelated to future job performance. d. all of the above 988) The variability in interview results across applicants is reduced by which of the following? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.283/713 a. b. c. d. using a standardized method of evaluating information using a standardized set of objectives using a standardized set of questions none of the above 989) The variability in interview results across applicants is reduced by which of the following? a. b. c. d. 990) screening interviewers for job-related skills standardizing the rating of the interviewers’ qualifications providing interviewers with a uniform method of recording data none of the above The effectiveness of the job interview is increased by: a. using audition-type interviews b. using behavioral structured interviews c. using performance-simulation interviews d. using problem-solving interviews 991) Applicants describe how they handled problems and situations in previous jobs in a: a. behavioral structured interview. b. audition-type interview. c. performance-simulation interview. d. problem-solving interview. 992) The behavioral structured interview is built on the assumption that: a. past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. b. technical knowledge and skills are the best predictor of job performance. c. personality is the best predictor of job performance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.284/713 d. none of the above. 993) The evidence indicates that interviews are most valuable for assessing a candidate’s a. applied level of mental skills. b. level of conscientiousness. c. interpersonal skills. d. all of the above. 994) In practice, organizations use interviews to a. determine applicant-organization fit. b. assess specific, job relevant skills. c. evaluate teamwork orientation. d. none of the above. 995) a. b. c. d. These yield validities superior to written aptitude and personality tests. work samples behavioral structured interviews integrity tests interest tests 996) According to the book U.S. corporations with 100 or more employees spent how much in a recent year on formal training? a. more than $25 billion. b. more than $50 billion. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.285/713 c. more than $80 billion. d. more than $100 billion. 997) Basic literacy training must often be provided by employers because the percentage of the U.S. population that reads below the eighth-grade level is: a. 20% b. 30% c. 40% d. 50% 998) Which one of the following employee skills was not specifically addressed by your author? a. financial b. basic literacy c. problem solving d. interpersonal 999) According to your author, which type of skill training has become increasingly important? a. financial b. technical c. problem solving d. interpersonal 1000) Learning how to be a better listener and how to be a more effective team player is included in: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.286/713 a. communication skills. b. technical skills. c. problem solving skills. d. interpersonal skills. 1001) A recent survey found that about ___ percent of employees working in the 1000 largest U.S. corporations receive ethics training. a. b. c. d. 10 25 50 75 1002) Examples of on-the-job training include all of the following except: a. job rotation. b. apprenticeship. c. simulation centers. d. understudy assignments. 1003) Examples of off-the-job training include all of the following except: a. classroom lectures. b. apprenticeship programs. c. Internet courses. d. public seminars. 1004) The primary drawback of on-the-job training is that: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.287/713 a. b. c. d. it is not as effective as other methods. it often disrupts the workplace. it is too time consuming. all of the above 1005) Effective training recognizes that people learn differently. The author mentions these learning styles: a. feeling. b. sensing. c. seeing. d. none of the above 1006) Which one of the following was mentioned in your text as a purpose for performance evaluations? a. improve group cohesiveness b. define departmental structure c. validate selection programs d. identify how jobs are done 1007) The performance evaluation purpose that was not suggested by your text is: a. a method to identify training needs. b. a feedback mechanism. c. a mechanism for security and control. d. a basis for reward allocation. 1008) Your text emphasizes performance evaluations as a mechanism for: a. providing feedback. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.288/713 b. determining promotions. c. human resource planning. d. identifying training needs. 1009) Performance evaluation is most relevant to which relationship in the expectancy theory of motivation? a effort-performance b. effort-goal c. reward-goal d. performance-goal 1010) We can expect individuals to work considerably below their potential if which of the following conditions occurs? a. if the objectives that employees are expected to achieve are unclear. b. if the criteria for measuring those objectives are vague. c. if the employees lack confidence that their efforts will lead to a satisfactory appraisal of their performance. d. all of the above 1011) Individual task outcomes that management could evaluate include all of the following except: a. quantity produced. b. scrap generated. c. average number of calls per day. d. cost per unit of production. 1012) Examples of behaviors that management could evaluate include all of the following except: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.289/713 a. quantity produced. b. average number of calls per day. c. sick days per year. d. cost per unit of production 1013) The weakest set of criteria used to evaluate employees is: a. traits. b. task outcomes. c. behaviors. d. none of the above. 1014) This is one of the most reliable sources of appraisal data. a. Immediate superiors b. Peers c. Immediate subordinates d. Customers 1015) Which of the following is not true concerning self-evaluation? a. Self-evaluations get high marks from employees themselves. b. Self-evaluations tend to heighten employees’ defensiveness about the appraisal process. c. Self-evaluations make excellent vehicles for stimulating job performance discussions between employees and their superiors. d. Self-evaluations suffer from over-inflated assessments. 1016) The approach to evaluation that uses feedback from those who have daily contact with an employee (everyone from mailroom personnel to customers to bosses to peers) is termed: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.290/713 a. critical incidents. b. 360-degree evaluation. c. BARS. d. multiperson comparisons. 1017) This system provides performance feedback from a full circle of daily contacts. a. 360-degree evaluation b. Peer evaluation c. Paired comparison d. Subordinate evaluation 1018) All of the following are methods of performance evaluation mentioned by the author except: a. critical incidents. b. written essays. c. interviews. d. graphic rating scales. 1019) The evaluation method that focuses the evaluator’s attention on those behaviors that are key to executing a job effectively is: a. forced comparison. b. critical incidents. c. graphic rating scales. d. behaviorally anchored rating scales. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.291/713 1020) Which performance evaluation method requires no complex forms or extensive training to complete? a. written essays. b. critical incidents. c. graphic rating scales. d. behaviorally anchored rating scales. 1021) Which performance evaluation method produces descriptions such as anticipates, plans, executes, and solves immediate problems? a. written essays b. critical incidents c. graphic rating scales d. behaviorally anchored rating scales 1022) If the manager uses critical incidents as a method of performance evaluation: a. the subordinate is apt to become confused. b. the evaluator’s writing skills become the determining factor in success or failure. c. the subordinate will become motivated. d. the focus is on key behaviors. 1023) One reason to consider graphic rating scales is: a. accuracy. b. quantitative analysis and comparison. c. quality of result. d. breadth of information. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.292/713 1024) When an appraiser rates employees based on items on a continuum with the points reflecting actual behaviors on the given job, it is called: a. BARS. b. critical incident. c. graphic rating scale. d. behavioral structured ratings. 1025) This method evaluates one’s performance against the performance of one or more others. a. BARS b. Critical incident c. Graphic rating scale d. Forced comparison 1026) This method requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as top one-fifth or second one-fifth. a. Individual ranking b. Group order ranking c. Paired comparison d. Fractional ranking 1027) Which approach to performance evaluation rank-orders employees from best to worst? a individual ranking http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.293/713 b. group order ranking c. paired comparison d. straight ranking 1028) All of the following are ways to overcome problems encountered with performance evaluations except: a. document performance in a journal. b. focus on identifiable traits. c. use multiple evaluators. d. emphasize behaviors. 1029) The author suggests that this can be used to increase the perception that employees are treated fairly. a. selective evaluation b. due process c. multiple raters d. documenting with a journal 1030) Which of the following is not a reason given by managers regarding their reluctance to give performance feedback? a. Many employees become defensive when their weaknesses are pointed out. b. Fear of confrontation with employees. c. Employees have an inflated assessment of their own performance. d. The human resources department or upper management is not supportive. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.294/713 1031) Which of the following is not a suggestion offered by your text for designing a system to evaluate the performance of teams? a. Tie the team’s results to the organization’s goals. b. Measure both team and individual performance. c. Encourage individuals to set personal goals. d. Train the team to create its own measures. 1032) Which of the following statements is true concerning international selection practices? a. Structured interviews are popular in all countries. b. Beliefs about how one should conduct an interpersonal interview are consistent across countries. c. The use of educational qualifications in screening candidates seems to be a universal practice. d. Policies and practices do not require modification from one country to the next. 1033) Which of the following is not true concerning international performance evaluations? a. Caution should be used in generalizing across cultures. b. Every culture is concerned with performance appraisal. c. Not all managers look at performance appraisal the same way as do managers in the US. d. Individualistic countries emphasize formal performance evaluation systems. 1034) Which of the following might a company consider to help employees address work/life conflicts? a. b. c. d. Keep workloads reasonable. Reduce work-related travel. Offer on-site quality child-care. all of the above 1035) The centerpiece of most diversity programs is: a. top management commitment. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.295/713 b. employee commitment. c. training. d. human resource personnel. 1036) Diversity training programs are generally intended to provide a vehicle for: a. b. c. d. increasing awareness and examining stereotypes. focusing on individual differences. eliminating group learning. balancing work/life conflicts. 1037) An example of change in the nature of the work force is: a. increase in college attendance. b. mergers and consolidations. c. more cultural diversity. d. increase in divorce rates. 1038) Which of the following is not cited as a force for change? a. b. c. d. technology economic shocks decreasing skill sets social trends 1039) Phrases such as “more cultural diversity,” “many new entrants with inadequate skills,” and “increase in professionals” are all examples of what force for change? a. technology b. world politics c. nature of the work force d. social trends http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.296/713 1040) An example of change in the nature of competition is: a. b. c. d. growth of e-commerce. collapse of Enron Corporation. more cultural diversity. increased interest in urban living. 1041) Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented are termed: a. planned change. b. second order change. c. change agents. d. first order change http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.297/713 1042) If an organization used an outside consultant as opposed to an insider as change agent, the result would probably be: a. more cautious and thoughtful. b. more reflective of the organization’s history and culture. c. more objective. d. reflective of the fact that change agents must live with the consequences of their actions. 1043) Which factor in choosing an outside consultant as change agent is likely to result in more drastic changes (good or bad)? a. the cost. b. internal members resistance to outsiders. c. they do not have to live with the repercussions after the change. d. objective perspective. 1044) If an organization used an insider as a change agent as opposed to an outside consultant: a. the change would probably be more cautious. b. the change would probably be more drastic. c. the change would probably be more objective. d. the change would more likely be second order. 1045) Resistance to change is positive since: a. b. c. d. it provides a degree of stability to behavior and productivity. without some resistance, OB would take on characteristics of chaotic randomness. resistance can be a source of functional conflict. all of the above 1046) It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.298/713 a. overt. b. expressed. c. passive. d. implicit. 1047) The greater challenge is managing resistance to change that is: a. passive. b. resolute. c. deferred. d. explicit. 1048) An example of a source of individual resistance to change is: a. inertia. b. structural inertia. c. habit. d. threat to expertise. 1049) Which of the following is not a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia Five reasons why individuals may resist change are 1. Habit: Life is complex, to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions everyday, we all rely on habits or programmed responses. 2. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. 3. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.299/713 4. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. 5. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change 1050) All of the following are sources of organizational resistance to change except: a. structural inertia. b. security. Page 181 c. limited focus of change. d. threat to established power relationships. 1051) The built-in mechanisms that an organization has to produce stability are termed: a. structural inertia. b. threat to expertise. c. habit. d. selective information processing. 1052) Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic for dealing with resistance to change? a. collaboration b. manipulation c. participation d. cooptation 1053) Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation? a. b. c. d. training and development facilitation and support education and communication teaching and advancement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.300/713 1054) Exchanging something of value for a lessening of resistance to change is best defined by which of the following tactics? a. compromise b. negotiation c. cooptation d. manipulation 1055) Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called: a. negotiation. b. cooptation. c. manipulation. d. coercion. 1056) Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively easy way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic? a. negotiation b. conciliation c. manipulation d. coercion 1057) If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, it is called: a. cooptation. b. exploitation. c. manipulation. d. coercion. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.301/713 1058) The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called: a. exploitation. b. cooptation. c. manipulation. d. coercion. 1059) Politics suggest that the impetus for change is more likely to come from: a. b. c. d. outside change agents. employees who are new to the organization. managers slightly removed from the main power structure. all of the above 1060) Managers who have spent their entire career with the organization and are high in the hierarchy are: a. good change agents. b. generally the impetus for change. c. often impediments to change. d. none of the above. 1061) This is one of the ways to achieve unfreezing: a. The driving forces directing behavior away from the status quo can be increased. b. The restraining forces which hinder movement from the inequality can be decreased. c. A combination of (a) and (b). d. All of the above are ways to achieve unfreezing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.302/713 1062) Who developed a three-step model for change that included unfreezing, movement, and refreezing? a. John Kotter b. David McClelland c. Kurt Lewin d. Lawrence Summers 1063) To direct behavior away from the status quo, one can increase the use of: a. restraining forces. b. restricting forces. c. driving forces. d. compelling forces. 1064) To move from equilibrium, Lewin suggests: a. b. c. d. decreasing restraining forces. increasing compelling forces. decreasing driving forces. all of the above 1065) _____ is a change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. a. Organizational development b. Action research c. Planned change d. Process consultation 1066) The step in the action research process where information is gathered about problem, concerns, and needed changes from members of the organization is: a. feedback. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.303/713 b. evaluation. c. diagnosis. d. action. 1067) All of the following are steps in the process of action research except: a. diagnosis. b. forming. c. feedback. d. action. 1068) The action research process closely resembles: a. political research. b. scientific method. c. organizational development. d. appreciative inquiry. 1069) In the process of action research, diagnosis is followed by: a. b. c. d. feedback. analysis. action. evaluation. 1070) Which of the following is considered a benefit of action research for an organization? a. b. c. d. Employees can carry out the specific actions to correct the problems identified. It is problem focused. It is solution centered. It is simple to implement. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.304/713 1071) _____ encompasses a collection of planned-change interventions built on humanisticdemocratic values that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee wellbeing. a. b. c. d. Organizational development Planned change Process consultation Action research 1072) Which of the following is not considered an underlying value in organizational development? a. participation b. confrontation c. contribution d. power equalization 1073) The de-emphasis of hierarchical authority and control in OD is referred to as: a. participation. b. power equalization. c. trust and support. d. respect for people. 1074) Which of the following is not true of OD? 1) 2) 3) 4) Problems should be condensed. Problems should be openly confronted. Effective organizations are characterized by trust. People should be treated with dignity and respect. 1075) T-groups are also known as: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.305/713 a. action research teams. b. appreciative inquiry training groups. c. team building groups. d. sensitivity training groups. 1076) _____ is a method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. a. Action research b. Planned change c. Process consultation d. Sensitivity training 1077) A tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions, and solving these differences is: a. sensitivity training. b. survey feedback. c. process consultation. d. intergroup development. 1078) The purpose of _____ is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, to perceive, understand, and act upon process events with which he or she must deal. a. a change agent b. survey feedback c. process consultation d. action research http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.306/713 1079) The activities included in team building include all of the following except: a. goal setting. b. personal development. c. team process analysis. d. role analysis. 1080) Rather than looking for problems, _____ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built upon to improve performance. a. b. c. d. appreciative inquiry action research team building process consultation 1081) Which of the following is not a step in the AI process? a. b. c. d. discovery dreaming devise destiny 1082) _______ is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. a. Continuous improvement processes b. Double-loop learning c. Innovation d. Process reengineering 1083) An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change is termed a(n): a. learning organization. b. continuous improvement process. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.307/713 c. innovative organization. d. double-loop learning organization. 1084) Which has been the most studied potential source of innovation? a. b. c. d. cultural structural human resources champions 1085) _____ involves correcting errors using past routines and present policies. a. Process reengineering b. Single-loop learning c. Double-loop learning d. Continuous improvement process 1086) Errors that are corrected by modifying the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines are part of: a. single-loop learning. b. double-loop learning. c. process reengineering. d. continuous improvement process. 1087) Which of the following is a characteristic of a learning organization? a. People have standard ways of doing their jobs. b. People pursue project of interest. c. People communicate over vertical and horizontal boundaries. d. People think in terms of independent relationships. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.308/713 1088) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a learning organization? a. There is a shared vision upon which everyone agrees. b. People sublimate their personal self-interest to work together to achieve the organization’s shared vision. c. Members integrate old ways of thinking with new ideas. d. People openly communicate with each other. 1089) Which is not a suggestion for managers to make their firms learning organizations? a. Establish a strategy that makes management’s commitment to change explicit. b. Redesign the organization’s structure by flattening the structure and increasing the use of cross-functional teams. c. Reshape the organization’s culture by emphasizing risk taking and openness. d. Systematically collect data and then select a change action based on the analyzed data. 1090) For potential stress to become actual stress, _____ and _____ must be present. a. people; organizations b. ambiguity; importance c. uncertainty; risk d. importance; uncertainty 1091) Which of the following is most likely to turn potential stress into actual stress? a. An outcome is difficult to achieve. b. The situation is complex. c. An outcome is uncertain. d. The situation involves competition. 1092) Which of the following is not an organizational factor related to stress? a. economic conditions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.309/713 b. task demands c. role demands d. organizational structure 1093) a. b. c. d. Which of the following is not a category of potential sources of stress? community environmental organizational individual 1094) Political uncertainties, economic uncertainties, and technological uncertainty are examples of which category of potential sources of stress? a. b. c. d. economic environmental organizational group 1095) There are several potential sources of stress. When pressures are created by other employees causing a lack of social support, the factor of stress involved is: a. interpersonal demands. b. organizational factors. c. role demands. d. organizational structure. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.310/713 1096) Family issues, economic problems, and inherent personality characteristics are examples of which factor of potential stress? personal environmental personnel individual 1097) Symptoms of stress can surface as: a. physiological outcomes. b. psychological outcomes. c. behavioral outcomes. d. all of the above 1098) Which of the following characteristics is most likely to be associated with high stress? a. considerable job experience b. external locus of control c. a high need to achieve d. type B behavior 1099) Symptoms of stress such as increased blood pressure and increased heart rate are _____ symptoms. a. psychological b. physiological http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.311/713 c. behavioral d. personal 1100) Which of the following is not a psychological consequence of stress? a. anxiety b. low self esteem c. frustration d. high blood pressure 1101) Excessive smoking, substance abuse, accident proneness, and appetite disorders are all examples of _____ consequences of stress. a. personal b. psychological c. behavioral d. physiological http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.312/713 1102) The most widely studied pattern in the stress-performance literature is the _____ relationship. a. self-efficacy b. reverse-inverted c. inverted U d. double-loop 1103) An individual approach to reduce stress is: a. selection and placement. b. redesigning jobs. c. goal setting. d. relaxation training. 1104) Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition are called: a. job redesign programs. b. wellness programs. c. employee involvement programs. d. organizational development programs. 1105) What do wellness programs focus on? a. mental condition b. physical condition c. both mental and physical condition d. stress reduction 1106) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.313/713 Finished goods Services Dividends Capital 1107) Which of the following is not one of the types of attitude? Job satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Behavior page 29 Organizational commitment 1108) Which of the following is NOT included in the ways employees can express dissatisfaction? Exit Voice Loyalty Noise page31 1109) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to be pleasant and accommodating in social situations? Extroversion Openness to experience Emotional stability Agreeableness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreeableness 1110) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Self-awareness Self-management Commitment Empathy 1111) What effect does stress typically have on mood? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.314/713 Positive Negative Unbiased No effect 1112) It is not possible for Mr. Asim to understand everything he sees, he notices a few of the things, we can say that he engages in: Assimilating Selective perception Halo Effect Target Perception 1113) The most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s _______________. Theories x and y Hierarchy of needs Goal setting theory Equity theory 1114) Our intrinsic desire for personal development is included in Alderfer’s _____________ needs. Existence Relatedness Esteem Growth http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=dF7G0yZ51GgC&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=desire+fo r+personal+development+is+included+in+Alderfer’s&source=bl&ots=pZ_ZQqszL_&sig=UNwXpU1gdqEmwg-9IFUevcxxxM&hl=en&ei=MOATI66LNDRccjP9dUE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBQ#v= onepage&q=intrinsic%20desire%20for%20personal%20developmen&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.315/713 1115) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers 1116) What sort of plan is a company-established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits? MBO program Gain sharing plan Employee stock ownership plan Piece-rate plan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock 1117) What happens in the second stage of group development? Close relationships are developed The group demonstrates cohesiveness Intra-group conflict often occurs Page no 80 The job task is performed 1118) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of group decision making? More knowledge through pooling of group resources More amount of time is required to make a decision Increased acceptance & commitment due to voice in decisions Greater understanding due to involvement in decision stages http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.316/713 1119) Which of the following is traditionally followed by the formal channels of communication within an organization? Authority chain page 96 Influence chain Transmission chain Social chain 1120) Clarification to employees about how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance, are examples of which function of communication? Information Control Motivation Emotional expression 1121) The _____ network best serves to promote high member satisfaction. Direct Circle Wheel All-channel Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT247&lpg=PT247&dq=network+i s+best+if+you+are+concerned+with+high+member+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=JFetK0rVJY& sig=bRfCm92nSZse5_CxrHtrOzjkbY&hl=en&ei=ek8qTLyrMIrRce_s8JQD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0C DEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=network%20is%20best%20if%20you%20are%20concerned%20 with%20high%20member%20satisfaction&f=false 1122) A communication channel with greater channel richness is most likely to provide: Greater feedback density Greater filtering capability http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.317/713 Greater perceptual wellness Larger amounts of information 1123) The study of organizational behavior is primarily concerned with all of the following dynamics in organizations EXCEPT: Interpersonal Behavioral Astrology Psychosocial 1124) How do proponents of reinforcement theory view behavior? As a product of heredity As a function of one’s power need As the result of a cognitive process As environmentally caused http://www.slideshare.net/gurdeep1211/ob-8-presentation 1125) Which of the following is true for the people who adopt a thinking style based on logics and rationality? They process information serially They perceive things as a whole They perceive things on the basis of past experiences Their decisions depend upon situation 1126) Sheraz wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give him self-respect and autonomy, but also because he wants a job with high status and recognition from others. Which of Maslow’s needs is Sheraz trying to meet? Self-actualization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.318/713 Social Esteem page 60 Safety 1127) Teams are very useful in which of the following situations? The work to be performed is very basic The tasks are interrelated No one wants to be accountable The group is homogeneous Ref http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=D9gETokeQxYC&pg=PA212&lpg=PA212&dq=Teams+are+very+us eful+tasks+are+interrelated&source=bl&ots=gR0e1yQZrD&sig=kFNFiFA17wcLHDEgOVhoyUqbM_8&hl=e n&ei=4yY3TO‐jK4‐ zrAeEmbiwAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Teams %20are%20very%20useful%20tasks%20are%20interrelated&f=false 1128) All of the following are studied in Organizational Behavior, EXCEPT Human behaviors in organizations International trade laws Organizational culture The relationship between people and organizations 1129) Which of the following behavior of an individual makes a positive contribution to an organization? Motivational behavior Performance behavior Organizational citizenship Perceptive contribution http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.319/713 Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=behavior+of+an+indivi dual+makes+a+positive+contribution+to+an+organization&source=bl&ots=TPoZ8mXe8X&sig=D3s9ASm OKDK0rrL1c_lDpt_b1wo&hl=en&ei=‐ Sc3TIyvJIeCrAf_z8WvAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage &q=behavior%20of%20an%20individual%20makes%20a%20positive%20contribution%20to%20an%20or ganization&f=false 1130) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement page 22 Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction 1131) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment page 23 Extinction Positive reinforcement 1132) The founder of TL Corporation has to face many difficulties while establishing his company even banks were not ready to grant loan. But he showed persistence and after four years he was able to generate finance by the mortgage of his own house. He was exhibiting which of the following personality trait of Big Five Personality Model? Agreeableness Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Extroversion http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.320/713 1133) Mr. Ahmed started his career as a clerk, now after 6 years of hard work he has earned the position of finance manager. He believes that all his success is because of his own hard work and devotion. Ahmed has: Self-efficacy Internal locus of control Emotional intelligence High self-esteem page 141 Ref: Internal locus ofcontrol Attributing outcomes to one's own actions 1134) Which of the following is an example of positive emotions? Anger Sadness Pride Disgust 1135) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills page 9 Leading skills, motivational skills and human skills Organizing skills, interpersonal skills and leading skills Motivating skills, intrapersonal skills and conceptual skills 1136) The rational decision-making approach assumes that decision makers: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.321/713 Have complete information Are motivated by greed Are often distracted by the environment Are subjective http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:goySL2rVjvwJ:www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/a rticle/view/1492/1433+rational+decision‐ making+approach+assumes+that+decision+makers:Have+complete+information&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl& srcid=ADGEEShsjPubtX3bq1qrEgGIbIGt09AAJdM8lyP5n4HPmVc_hNHuHlrVfqBDtElKgUW‐ Xl51eUaIiQvcmKE6MuTg36dz9hzJHJVcbrdMmYV2ZYnpcD4blJPpbni7cZC93JK7dzYjarU‐ &sig=AHIEtbTKwEQ28HMQTZnumKf7R1HIx8Ad6g 1137) Mr. Ahmad is HR manager in an organization. He has ten employees who directly report to him. They are the part of which of the following group? Command group Task group Friendship group Interest group Ref: A command group is a collection of subordinates who report to the same supervisor 1138) Which of the following is a structured approach to decision making that focuses on generating alternatives silently, prevents criticism of alternatives, and uses a voting process to identify group choices? Devil's advocacy The Delphi technique Dialectical inquiry The nominal group Ref: The nominal group technique “Process to generate ideas and evaluate solutions” A form of structured group decision making that enables everyone to participate and have his/her ideas heard without hostile criticism or distortions. A structured voting procedure is used to prioritize responses to the nominal question. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.322/713 1139) Which of the following determines requirements of organization conversion process? Machinery, computers and human skills page 13 Raw material and capital Finished products and services HR and information system 1140) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 1141) Last year, Ali had taken lunch at a fast food restaurant that caused him food poisoning. Now whenever he passes by the restaurant, he feels nauseous. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory 1142) Advertisements are directed at changing a person's: Attitude Value Ethics http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.323/713 Custom 1143) Which of the following lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions? Moods Behaviors Values Customs http://www.slideshare.net/rubayatppt/organizational-behavior-values-attitude-job-satisfaction 1144) Which of the following statements is NOT true about the difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions? Women show greater emotional expression Men express emotions more intensely Men express anger more frequently Women may have a greater need for social approval Ref: Page 40 1145) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers 1146) Which of the following is NOT a comparison an employee can use in equity theory? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.324/713 Self-inside Self-goal Other-outside Self-outside http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Bg1oNWWbn2QJ:www.slideshare.net/gurd eep1211/ob‐8‐presentation+equity+theory+Self‐inside+Self‐goal+Other‐outside+Self‐ outside&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1147) Two-factor theory suggests that dissatisfaction is caused by extrinsic factors. Which of the following is an example of such a factor? Advancement Working condition Achievement Recognition 1148) Which of the following is a direct monetary incentive given by the organizations to its employees? Promotion Gain sharing Flexible work hours Appreciation certificate 1149) When the group energy is focused on the task at hand, the group has moved to the _____________ stage. Storming Norming Maturation Performing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.325/713 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBONJXoZ4fIC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=When+the+group+en ergy+is+focused+on+the+task+at+hand,+the+group+has+moved+to+the+performing+stage&source=bl& ots=ZZ0sAK3f18&sig=1TQXGydq9laKycm1pWpehwdQDMU&hl=en&ei=Xls3TK2UPJCgkQXLkY2cAw&sa=X &oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=During%20this%20stage%2 C%20the%20group%20turns%20its%20focus%20to%20accomplishing%20the%20task%20at%20hand&f =false 1150) Which of the following statement best defines leadership? Implementing the strategy provided by management Least concerned in bringing organizational change Coordinating and handling day-to-day problems The ability to influence a group in goal achievement page 102 1151) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader’s behavior is directed toward getting the job done is called: Initiating structure Consideration Maximization Path-goal http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/actions/ohio_state.htm 1152) According to the University of Michigan studies, which of the following is used to define a leader who takes personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates? Situation-oriented Employee-oriented page 107 Production- oriented Task-oriented http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.326/713 1153) Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, and grievance procedures are examples of: Downward communication Horizontal communication Upward communication Lateral communication http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upward_communication 1154) Which of the following is the most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader? Chain All-channel Wheel Direct http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WFwK9yg6zbwJ:www.docuter.com/viewer. asp%3Fdocument%3D977118913497f05a152c011233061281%26ch7+Which+of+the+following+is+the+ most+effective+communication+network+for+facilitating+the+emergence+of+a+leader%3F+Chain+All‐ channel+Wheel+Direct&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1155) Asad telephones his employee, Usman, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock. In the communication process, Asad is: The sender The receiver The channel The encoder 1156) Which one of the following statement is NOT true regarding the relationship between age and job performance? Older workers bring to their job: experience, judgment and strong work ethics Older workers have more commitment to quality Older workers are perceived as flexible and welcome new technologies http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.327/713 Older workers are perceived as lacking flexibility and resistant to new technologies 1157) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called _________. Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu‐ 5YkC&pg=PT70&lpg=PT70&dq=Following+a+response+by+the+termination+or+withdrawal+of+somethi ng+unpleasant+is+called&source=bl&ots=9vx0lgK_3G&sig=X0bW89il4AFfO015AqPNdQsU5Pc&hl=en&ei =TmE3TJTgBcuLkAXJu5TMAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAQ#v=on epage&q=Following%20a%20response%20by%20the%20termination%20or%20withdrawal%20of%20so mething%20unpleasant%20is%20called&f=false 1158) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt pagr 39 Displayed Conditional Exposed 1159) Which of the following is least accurate about Ohio-State Study? High-high styles sometimes had negative relationship High-high leaders generally had superior subordinate performance High initiating structure is positively related to grievances High consideration is positively related to manager’s evaluation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.328/713 1160) Organizations that do not pay attention to diversity may face all of the following problems, Except: Lower productivity Increased tensions among workers Decreased turnover Increased complaints 1161) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction 1162) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive reinforcement 1163) Action of a person consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society is called which of the following behavior? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.329/713 Legal behavior Ethical behavior Cognitive behavior Loyal behavior 1164) Which of the following component of an attitude includes beliefs, opinions and information that a person has about the object he observed? Affective Behavioral Cognitive Terminal 1165) The founder of TL Corporation has to face many difficulties while establishing his company even banks were not ready to grant loan. But he showed persistence and after four years he was able to generate finance by the mortgage of his own house. He was exhibiting which of the following personality trait of Big Five Personality Model? Agreeableness Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Extroversion 1166) Which of the following is an example of positive emotions? Anger Sadness Pride Disgust http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.330/713 1167) Which of the following is the study of social system such as families, occupational classes and organizations ? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology 1168) In an interview, the interviewer's first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon: Nonverbal cues of the target Verbal communication by the target The intentions of the target The target's physical appearance 1169) The rational decision-making approach assumes that decision makers: Have complete information Are motivated by greed Are often distracted by the environment Are subjective 1170) In decision making process when managers define their limits and make their decision within the limits, it is called: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.331/713 Bounded rationality Optimal decision making Intuitive decision making Rational decision making 1171) People with which of the following decision making style work well with others and enjoy social interactions? Behavioral Directive Analytical Conceptual 1172) Mr. Zia is directly involved in the production of the automobiles. He is facing low motivation due to repetitive tasks. His manager changes his responsibilities and now he has to perform different tasks. His motivation has increased because of which of the following strategy? Job enrichment Job enlargement Job sharing Job rotation 1173) All of the following are examples of downward communication flow EXCEPT: Managers informing employees of procedures Managers pointing out problems that need attention Employees completing attitude surveys Managers telling employees to work more quickly http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.332/713 1174) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show. Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed Ref: Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions Page 39 1175) Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding face-to-face communication? It is highly personal It has high channel richness It usually results in delayed feedback It offers multiple information cues 1176) All of the following are examples of downward communication flows EXCEPT: Managers informing employees of procedures Managers pointing out problems that need attention Employees completing attitude surveys Managers telling employees to work more quickly 1177) A leader high in initiating structure would do which of the following? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.333/713 Exhibit laissez-faire type of leadership Maximize leader-member relations Assign group members to particular tasks Empower employees to make their own decisions Ref:The leader high in initiating structure could be described as someone who “assigns group members to particular tasks,” “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance,” and “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.” 1178) Teams are very useful in which of the following situations: The work to be performed is very basic The tasks are interrelated page 77 No one wants to be accountable The group is homogeneous 1179) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options Ref: The three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams a. The absence of Para-verbal and nonverbal cues. These help clarify communication by providing increased meaning, but aren’t available in online interactions. b. Limited social context. Virtual teams often suffer from less social rapport and less direct interaction among members. c. The ability to overcome time and space constraints. Virtual teams allow people to work together who might otherwise never be able to collaborate. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.334/713 1180) Team members with good listening, feedback, and conflict resolution skills possess ______________. Technical expertise Problem-solving skills Decision-making skill Interpersonal skills Ref: Good listening, feedback, conflict resolution, and other interpersonal skills Page 85 1181) Which of the following is NOT one of the key components of effective teams? Effective work design Recognized company identity Supportive contextual influences Well-managed team processes 1182) After which stage of a group’s development is there a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group? Norming Storming Development Forming Ref: http://www.authorpick.net/group-definition-and-role/ 1183) Which of the following statements is true? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.335/713 All command groups are also task groups Page 79 All task groups are also friendship groups All command groups are also informal groups All informal groups are also command groups 1184) In which of the following situation Synergy is most likely to occur? The activities of all group members are fully dependent on one another The performance of one member of a group affects what other members do Group members must perform specific behaviors in a predetermined order Group members acting together produce more or better output than alone Ref: Synergy is a biological term referring to an action of two or more substances that result in an effect that is more than the mere summation of the individual substances; the whole is more than the sum of its parts (2 + 2 = 5). 1185) Which one of the following groups may want government to direct more attention to environmental problems? Interest group page 79 Command group Formal group Task group 1186) Which of the following is a job that does not lend itself to telecommuting? An attorney who spends most of her time researching on the computer A car salesman who demonstrates the features of a new model of car A telemarketer who uses the phone to contact clients A product support specialist who fields calls from customers http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.336/713 Ref: Telecommuting Doing work that is generally performed in the office away from the office using different information technologies 1187) Which of the following is an example of a piece-rate plan? Stock options Rs20 for each unit produced page 72 Productivity bonus Commission 1188) What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize? Attainable, verifiable and measurable page 71 Achievable, controllable and profitable Inspirational, teachable and creative Challenging, emotional and constructive Reference: Management by objectives emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. 1189) Which of the following is NOT a biographical characteristic? Region Age Sex Tenure Reference: Page 16 Age http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.337/713 • Gender • Marital status • Length of service, etc. 1190) What is the largest demographic change in the last few years in Pakistani workforce? Increasing ethnic diversity A fall in married workers Increasing age of workers More women in the workforce Reference: Page 20 1191) Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory? Salary Working conditions Bonuses Responsibility http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two‐factor_theory#Validity_and_criticisms 1192) Which of the following method is used for strengthening desirable behavior? Negative Reinforcement Neutral Reinforcement Pleasant Reinforcement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.338/713 Positive Reinforcement http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=PLxI0xTMCEoC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=of+the+following+meth od+is+used+for+strengthening+desirable+behavior&source=bl&ots=SQKAWmEyZ9&sig=fWWumAP1EN 1imnCl‐ vthDThJolM&hl=en&ei=Pdk4TICSNoXCrAeE0d2DCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0 CB0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 1193) What is generally considered to be the single best thing that managers can do to improve performance? Allocate tasks depending on personality Restrict the use of punishment as a means of motivating workers Give abundant opportunities for employee growth Concentrate on intrinsic rewards rather than extrinsic rewards 1194) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Reference: Page 64 1195) According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating? When it is substantially satisfied It never stops motivating When one returns to a lower level need http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.339/713 When one chooses to move to a higher level need Page 60 1196) If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows ______________. Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Continuity Reference: Consistency: Responds in the same way over time Page 48 1197) Asif is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would Attribution Theory describe this behavior? It shows consensus It shows similarity It shows reliability It shows consistency page 48 1198) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an internally caused behavior? Working late in order to get a promotion page 48 Arriving at work late because heavy traffic Working weekends because of your employer’s orders Depending on luck for success http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.340/713 1199) What is the name of the theory that deals with how we explain the cause of behaviors of others? Judgment Theory Selective Perception Theory Attribution Theory Equality Theory Ref: Attribution theory describes how people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behavior. 1200) Which of the following is NOT an ethic in decision making? Utilitarianism Focus on right Focus on justice Favoritism Page 56 1201) Which of the following decision making style shows low tolerance for ambiguity and seeks rationality? Directive page 54 Analytical Conceptual Behavioral 1202) According to which of the following decision making model; people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.341/713 Bounded Rational Page 53 Three Component Model Contingency Rational 1203) Asma is experiencing conveyance problem for her college pick and drop. She decides to use the rational decision-making model to decide what to do. What might be the next step she takes if she follows this model? Define the problem Identify the decisions criteria Evaluate other available alternatives Select the best alternative http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model 1.Define the problem. 2.Identify decision criteria 3.Weight the criteria 4.Generate alternatives 5.Rate each alternative on each criterion 6.Compute the optimal decision 1204) Which of the following is the dimension of emotional intelligence that describes the ability to manage your own emotions and impulses? Self-awareness Self-management page 41 Commitment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.342/713 Social-skills Reference: Self-management. The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. 1205) The Big Five model is related to ________________ Perception Personality Page 34 Experience Culture 1206) Which of the following are defined as accepted principles or standards of a person or a group? Traditions Norms Attitudes Values Page 25 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/value Values are the moral principles and beliefs or accepted standards of a person or social group 1207) Ali is an employee in a company. He expresses his dissatisfaction by discussing the problem with the superiors, suggests improvements and involves the unions in problem solving, He expresses his dissatisfaction in which of the following ways: Exit Voice pae 32 Loyalty Neglect Reference: Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.343/713 improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 1208) Rabia is working in a software house. She is a very hard working, motivated to achieve organizational goals and due to her attachment with the organization she wishes to continue her job with the same organization. Her behavior is showing: Job involvemen Page 29 Job satisfaction Job commitment Job enrichment 1209) Which of the following is defined as a way of looking at life; a way of thinking, feeling or behaving? Value Attitude Behavior Mood Ref: http://www.career‐success‐for‐newbies.com/define‐your‐attitude.html 1210) Learning theories include all of the following EXCEPT: Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Contingency theory Ref: Contingency theory is a leadership theory 1211) Which of the following is not considered as a characteristic of organizations? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.344/713 Social entities Goal oriented Closed system page 12 Deliberately structured Reference: Organizations are: Social entities Goal oriented Deliberately structured Linked to the external environment 1212) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills Page 9 Leading skills and motivational skills Organizing skills and interpersonal skills Motivating skills and intrapersonal skills 1213) Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by_______. Stephen Covey Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.345/713 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 1214) ________________ is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Sociology Anthropology Social work Social psychology Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists work on cultures and environments 1215) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Culture shock Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country 1216) Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. Who is responsible for this difference? The perceiver The timing The context The situation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.346/713 1217) Which of the following statements is NOT an example of stereotyping? There is no need to offer child-care to him; men aren’t interested in child care Don’t hire an older worker; they can’t learn new skills She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one She won’t relocate for a promotion, since women don’t relocate 1218) Which of the following are all forms of variable-pay programs? Wage incentive plans, flextime, piece-rate Piece-rate, wage incentive plans, gain sharing Profit-sharing, lump-sum bonuses, extended vacations Retirement benefits, extended vacations, flextime Pay and Motivation 1. Variable Pay Programs can take the form of piece-rate plans, wage incentives, profit sharing, bonuses, and gain-sharing. 2. A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance. Unlike more traditional base-pay programs, variable pay is not an annuity—there is no guarantee. 1219) What sort of plan is a company-established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits? MBO program Gain sharing plan Employee stock ownership plan Piece-rate plan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock 1220) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? Face-to-face interacting groups Brainstorming Delphi technique Nominal group technique http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.347/713 1221) According to John Kotter, leaders establish direction by: Developing a vision of the future Inspiring people to overcome hurdles Aligning people by communicating their vision All of the given options John Kotter feels that management is about coping with complexity. • Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future; then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles. 1222) According to the Ohio State studies, which of the following is the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for his/her employees? Consideration Initiating structure Consensus-building Maximization Consideration is described as “the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings.” Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment 1223) Which of the following are the two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in theUniversity of Michigan studies? Emotional and rational Autocratic and democratic Initiating structure and consideration Employee-oriented and production-oriented Researchers at the University of Michigan identified two behaviors corresponding to consideration and initiating structure: employee-oriented and job-centered behaviors. An approach to organizational change, called the Managerial Grid, makes managers effective leaders by focusing how much they show concern for people and production. The Hersey and Blanchard model focuses on consideration and initiating structure behaviors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.348/713 1224) Rabia writes a memo to his employees. Putting her thoughts onto paper is an example of: Encoding Communicating Messaging Channeling Encoding “Translating the message into symbols or language that the receiver can understand” 1225) Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding face-to-face communication? It is highly personal It has high channel richness It usually results in delayed feedback It offers multiple information cues 1226) A ______ is a senior employee who guides and supports a less-experienced employee. Facilitator Leader Coach Mentor \ http://www.hrmbusiness.com/2009/01/two-cost-effective-ways-of-training-and.html Simply stated, mentoring is a process in which a more experienced person supports and aids a less experienced person in his/her professional or personal development. 1227) The path-goal theory was developed by ______________. Robert House Fred Fiedler Blake and Mouton Vroom and Yetton One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the path-goal theory developed by Robert House. 1228) Which of the following is NOT a dimension of trust? Integrity Competence Loyalty Determination http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.349/713 The key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust are integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness. Five Dimensions of Trust • Integrity (honesty and truthfulness) • Competence (technical/interpersonal) • Consistency (reliability, predictability and good judgment in handling situations) • Loyalty (willingness to protect and save face for a person) • Openness (willingness to share ideas and information freely) 1229) Which of the following is a feeling of devotion, duty, or attachment to somebody or something? Integrity Consistency Loyalty Reliability http://rivercitykarate.com/Definitions.htm Feeling of duty: a feeling of devotion, duty, or attachment to somebody or something 1230) Trust and trustworthiness affect a leader’s access to: Dedication and achievement Persuasion and control Power and influence Knowledge and cooperation Trust and Leadership 1. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership. When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. 2. It is evident that it is impossible to lead people who do not trust you. Trust and trustworthiness modulate the leader’s access to knowledge and cooperation. 1231) Power can be defined as: The ability to influence the behavior of others The right to influence the behavior of others The actualization of the dependency of others Downward influence on one’s followers Power - the ability to influence another person http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.350/713 1232) One reacts to _____ power out of fear of the negative consequences if one fails to comply. Legitimate Coercive Punitive Referent Coercive power depends on fear One reacts to this type of power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one fails to comply http://personal.ashland.edu/csavage/Power%20and%20Politics.ppt 1233) Which of the following is least likely to create dependency? Scarcity of resources Non substitutability Power legitimacy Supply and demand 1234) Activities that influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within an organization are known as: Human resources Political behaviors Influential power moves Interactive initiatives http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:2XEauZcrEUgJ:www.busi.mun.ca/jay a/2301/OB7F03.ppt+Activities+that+influence+the+distribution+of+advantages+and+disadvanta ges+within+an+organization+are+known+as&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1235) Which of the following is NOT considered one of the potential sources of conflict? Too much communication Value similarities Too little communication Jurisdictional ambiguity 1236) The focus of relationships in distributive bargaining is: Accommodation The long term http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.351/713 The short term Lose-lose Distributive bargaining can resolve disputes but it often negatively affects one or more negotiators’ satisfaction because it is focused on the short term and because it is confrontational. Integrative bargaining, in contrast, tends to provide outcomes that satisfy all parties and that build lasting relationships. 1237) Which one of the following dichotomies of organizational structure specifically defines where decisions are made? Complexity/simplicity Specialization/enlargement Formalization/in formalization Centralization/decentralization 1238) Which of the following organizational design superimposes product or project based design on existing function-based design? Matrix Structure Functional Structure Divisional Structure Holding structure Matrix Structure It combines two forms of departmentalization--functional and product: · The strength of functional departmentalization—putting like specialists together and the pooling and sharing of specialized resources across products 1239) A bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Highly routine operating tasks Formalized rules and regulations Decentralized decision making High work Specialization 1240) How do most employees react to job enlargement efforts? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.352/713 Unqualified approval Somewhat enthusiastically With a lack The reaction tends to be mixed 1241) Which one of the following can impact international business operations by its affect on business hours, holidays, and days of rest? Paralanguage Communication barriers Religion Cultural knowledge Essential elements of TQM include all EXCEPT: Analysis of customer quality needs Benchmarking Rewarding Standards Essential Elements of TQM • A supportive organizational culture • Management commitment and leadership • Provide a sense of direction • Analysis of customer quality needs • Benchmarking • Standards • Strategies to close quality gaps • Training • Quality teams • Progress monitoring and measurement • Exceeding customer expectations Rewarding is part of Performance Management 1242) Focusing on controlling or eliminating stressors that might provoke the stress response is called: Managing stress Stress Prevention Job stress Stress management Ref: Stress Prevention: Focusing on controlling or eliminating stressors that might provoke the stress response http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.353/713 1243) The individual or group who undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in organization is called: Negotiator Communicator Change Agent Spokesperson Ref: Change agent - the individual or group who undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization 1244) All of the following are advantages of internal change agents EXCEPT: Better Knowledge of the organization Available more quickly May be close to the problem Requires higher out of pocket costs Ref: Advantage of Internal Change Agents is Lower out-of-pocket costs 1245) Ali is working as a Finance Officer in a private limited company. His boss periodically observes his work on specific parts of his job and writes down using specific behavioral descriptions, what he sees him doing. The boss is using which one of the following appraisal technique? Critical incident methods Written essays Graphic rating scale Paired comparison Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedure The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria. 1246) Most important elements in managing culture include all EXCEPT: What leaders pay attention to How leaders react to crises How leaders behave What leaders think about work 1247) Which of the following are indicators of a strong organizational culture? Weak managers Narrowly defined roles Widely shared values http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.354/713 High levels of dissention Ref: strong cultures: The organization’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared. 1248) Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces which of the following? Massive changes A dynamic environment An unknown environment A stable environment Ref: So consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces a stable environment 1249) Which of the following is NOT a means of transmitting culture within an organization? Stories Rituals Language Therapy 1250) Which of the following is NOT a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia Five reasons why individuals may resist change are 1. Habit: Life is complex, to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions everyday, we all rely on habits or programmed responses. 2. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. 3. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. 4. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. 5. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change 1251) Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic for dealing with resistance to change? Acceleration page 182 Manipulation Participation Education http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.355/713 1252) In practice, organizations use interviews for which of the following reason? To determine applicant-organization fit Solely to assess specific, job relevant skills To assess a candidate’s credit history To manipulate an applicant’s image of the company 1253) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Culture shock page 14 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. 1254) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 1255) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called----------------. Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment Ref: The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. 1256) Which of the following statement is true regarding “perceiver”? The person making interpretations http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.356/713 The person making accurate judgments The person handling problems The person appointed to transmit information Ref: The perceiver’s knowledge base is organized into schemas, abstract knowledge structures stored in memory that allow people to organize and interpret information about a given target of perception. 1257) Which of the following statement best describes “motivation?” Results in a level of efforts put by a group Intensifies an individual’s efforts from others Guides an individual’s efforts towards a goal page 59 Meets an individual’s needs, wants and demnands Ref: Motivation “A state of mind, desire, energy or interest that translates into action” or “The inner drive that directs a person’s behavior toward goals 1258) Which of the following is likely to decrease as a worker grows older? Productivity Likelihood of quitting Work ethic Absenteeismpage 18 Ref: • There is a negative relationship between tenure to absence. 1259) Individual decisions are generally preferable to group decisions when which of the following is required? Speed Creativity Acceptance Quality 1260) If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are _____. Educated Trained Born page 106 Authoritarian Ref • Trait theories assumption: Leadership is basically inborn, therefore we could select the right http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.357/713 leaders. behaviors. 1261) If Ali is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display? He prefers to talk on the phone He prefers to send emails He relies on memos or letters He avoids face-to-face communication 1262) Asad telephones his employee, Usman, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock. In the communication process, Asad is: The sender The receiver The channel The encoder Ref: The information the sender needs or wants to share with other people. Effective messages are clear and complete 1263) The path-goal theory was developed by ______________. Robert House Fred Fiedler Blake and Mouton Vroom and Yetton Ref:One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the path-goal theory developed by Robert House. 1264) Sumeera has been working in a packaging company for last ten years. She is the most senior employee of her department that’s why her manager frequently relies on her judgment. Whenever manger goes out of city for work, he put Sumeera in charge because he knows she will handle work efficiently in his absence. What type of trust relationship is this? Reward-based trust Knowledge-based trust Identification-based trust Deterrence-based trust http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.358/713 Ref: • Knowledge-based trust • Trust based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction 1265) Computer specialist, tax accountants, economists and industrial psychologists possess which of the following power? Referent Information Formal Expert page 115 Ref: Expert Power: • Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge." 1266) Leaders achieve goals, and power is: A goal in and of itself Usually used by poor leaders A means of achieving goals page 115 A strong influence on leaders’ goals Ref: Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. 1267) Which of the following is least likely to create dependency? Scarcity of resources Non substitutability Power legitimacy Supply and demand 1268) Dependency is decreased when the resource you control is: Scarce Important Insufficient Easily replaced 1269) Which of the following is a form of illegitimate political behavior? Forming coalition Symbolic protests Complaining to supervisors Bypassing the chain of command http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.359/713 1270) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intra-organizational behavior? Positive negotiation Distributive bargaining Integrative bargaining page 132 Equal bargaining Ref: In terms of intra-organizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. 1271) Ali wants to buy a motor bike. He goes to the showroom and sees different models of bikes. He likes one of them very much and wants to purchase it. He asks the price from dealer which is more then his range. Both of them then negotiate over price. This is an example of: BATNA Distributive negotiation page 132 Integrative negotiation Third party negotiation Ref: Distributive bargaining • An example of distributive bargaining is buying a car: a. You go out to see the car. It is great and you want it. b. The owner tells you the asking price. You do not want to pay that much. c. The two of you then negotiate over the price. 1272) The focus of relationships in distributive bargaining is: Accommodation The long term The short term Lose-lose Ref: Distributive bargaining can resolve disputes, but it often negatively affects one or more negotiators’ satisfaction because it is focused on the short term. 1273) Which of the following statements is true pertaining to the role of personality traits in negotiations? Charming personalities quickly resolve the conflicts Competent individuals make excellent negotiations Extroverts are less effective negotiators than introverts http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.360/713 Internal locus of control people are better negotiators 1274) Which of the following is a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures? Decision making Groupthink Brainstorming Group polarization Ref: Groupthink - a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures 1275) Which of the following is right about the encoding step in the communication process? It is not necessary for verbal communication It is difficult for receiver to understand It involves converting the idea into message It follows the transmission of the message to receiver 1276) Which of the following terms involves the use of power and influence tactics for personal benefit ? Political seasoning Coalition formation Legitimate authority Organizational politics Ref: Organizational politics involves the use of power and influence for personal gain. http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0073659088/student_view0/chapter8/learning_objectives.html 1277) To achieve a compromise approach, one needs to________________. Avoid overt disagreement Value openness and trust Dominate the other conflicting party Give up something of value page 126 Ref: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.361/713 1278) If you have a narrow span of control, you have which of the following type of a (n) organization? Efficient Short Tall Matrix 1279) Which of the following is NOT one of the strengths of the Matrix Structure? It facilitates coordination in complex activities It facilitates the efficient allocation of specialists It eliminates the duplication of resources It minimizes ambiguity in reporting 1280) Setting Goals, establishing and communicating elements and standards is called: Planning Developing Monitoring Leading 1281) ---------------- is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. Development Standards Benchmarking TQM Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_management 1282) All of the following include behavioral symptoms of stress EXCEPT: Asthma Bad moods Being irritable Defensiveness Asthma is Long-term Physical Symptoms 1283) All of the following include Physical symptoms of stress EXCEPT: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.362/713 Bad moods Faster heart beat Increased sweating Cool skin Bad mood is behavioral symptoms of stress 1284) When the people are asked to envision the organization in five years and to describe what is different is called: Discovery Dreaming Design Destiny http://www.citeman.com/4139-inter-group-development/ 1285) All of the following are operational activities of HR EXCEPT __________________ which is a strategic activity. Analyzing HR metrics and measurements Recruiting and selecting employees Responding to goals and objectives set by executives Complying with laws, policies, and procedures 1286) A technical specialists working with a reputable organization is allowed to continue to contribute his expertise to the company without having to become manager. He makes recommendations in a wide range of business areas, participates in high level decisions, and acts as mentor to other employees. This situation is represented by which one of the following option? Traditional career path Network career path Lateral skill path Dual career path page 166 Dual-Career Path— A career-path method, that recognizes that technical specialists can and should be allowed to continue to contribute their expertise to a company without having to become managers. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.363/713 1287) Which characteristic is NOT reflective of subcultures? Includes core values of the organization page 171 Typically defined by department designations Includes values shared only within the organization Includes values unique to members of a department or group A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority 1288) Phrases such as “more cultural diversity,” “many new entrants with inadequate skills” are all examples of which force for change ? Technology World politics Nature of the work force Social trends http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT423&lpg=PT423&dq=Nature+of +the+workforce+More+cultural+diversity+Aging+population+Many+new+entrants+with+inade quate+skills&source=bl&ots=JFeuK0zXIV&sig=gxmswn0onhisyd80vTIqlmKgLA&hl=en&ei=tbE5TIeNEY6WrAeRzqG3CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul t&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1289) If an organization used an insider as a change agent, as opposed to an outside consultant then which of the following is true? The change would probably be more cautious The change would probably be more drastic The change would probably be more objective The change would most likely be second order Ref: change agents can offer a more objective perspective than insiders can http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:RybWk9FSBYJ:web.ed.ntnu.edu.tw/~minfei/OBch19.doc+If+an+organization+use+an+insider+ as+a+change+agent,+as+opposed+to+an+outside+consultant+The+change+would+probably+be +more+objective&cd=16&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1290) Which of the following is the last step in job analysis process? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.364/713 Select representative positions to be analyzed Review relevant background information Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities Develop a job description and job specification Steps in Job Analysis Job Analysis process has following steps: a. Identify how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected and how it should be collected. Interviewing and position analysis questionnaire are some examples of data collection techniques. b. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. c. Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze, and it may not be necessary to analyze them all. d. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. e. Review and verify the job analysis information with job incumbents to confirm that it is factually correct and complete. f. Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information. 1291) Which of the following is NOT a strategy to reduce social loafing? Have group members evaluate each other's contributions Keep work groups as small as possible Make individual contributions or levels of performance in a group identifiable Contributions of the group, not the individual, are most important To reduce social loafing, group members must know that each individual's contributions will be evaluated. The more a person can evaluate individuals the less social loafing will happen in a group 1292) The lowest level positions require ____________ skills but as you move up_____________ skills are more required. Conceptual, Technical Technical, Conceptual Human, Conceptual Human, Technical Line managers need Technical skill the most while top manager will need minimum. Top mangers/CEO needs Conceptual type of skill the most. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.365/713 1293) Mr. Hassan, Professor of Mathematics, when he starts teaching about a concept, he praise any answer that is close to the right answer. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning Contemporary theory This describes the process of shaping the operant behavior of answering questions. In shaping you start by reinforcing anything that is close to the final response. Then you gradually require closer and closer approximations before giving a reinforcer. So this is an example of Operant conditioning. 1294) Which of the following can be considered a method of social learning? Classroom Workshop TV commercial Work Manual http://www.slideshare.net/wcfujita/observational-social-learning-theory 1295) “Smoking is injurious to health”. This statement is an example of which one of the following components of attitude? Cognitive page 28 Affective Behavioral Behavior intension The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is a value statement. Such an opinion is the Cognitive component of an attitude. So above answer is almost same in nature. The belief that “discrimination is wrong” is a value statement and an example of the cognitive component of an attitude http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.366/713 1296) Asif is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would Attribution Theory describe this behavior? It shows consensus It shows similarity It shows reliability It shows consistency page 48 1297) Which of the following statement best describes “motivation?” Results in a level of efforts put by a group Results in a level of efforts put by a group Intensifies an individual’s efforts from others Guides an individual’s efforts towards a goal page 59 Meets an individual’s needs, wants and demnands Ref: Motivation “A state of mind, desire, energy or interest that translates into action” or “The inner drive that directs a person’s behavior toward goals 1298) What are the three key elements of motivation? Interest, activity and reward Awareness, effort and outcome Stimulation, progress and achievement Intensity, direction and persistence page 59 Key Elements of Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 1299) Hassan derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships with his extended family. Which of Maslow’s needs is Hassan fulfilling through these relationships? Self-actualization Esteem Social Page 60 Physiological Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.367/713 Social needs: affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 1300) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 1301) What continuum in the two-factor theory is made up of the hygiene factors? No dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction No dissatisfaction to satisfaction Satisfaction to no satisfaction Satisfaction to dissatisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=F1c3wHNDFwC&pg=PA391&lpg=PA391&dq=No+dissatisfaction+to+dissatisfaction&source=bl&ots=n22F 8T5WyM&sig=pHgO63oA8xPOFvmPUFQS1F2ToTQ&hl=en&ei=Tdg5TN3zE4m2rAfSlsC3C A&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CD0Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%20N o%20dissatisfaction%20to%20dissatisfaction&f=false 1302) All of the following are problem solving techniques EXCEPT: Consensus Brainstorming Nominal Group Techniques Synergy Group Problem Solving Techniques • Consensus presenting opinions and gaining agreement to support a decision • Brainstorming process to generate a quantity of ideas • Nominal Group Technique process to generate ideas and evaluate solutions • Delphi Technique process to generate ideas from physically dispersed experts • Computer-Aided Decision Making 1303) Which of the following are the two dimensions of leader behavior explained in the Ohio State studies? Initiating structure and consideration page 106 Employee-oriented and production-oriented Concern for people and concern for production Operant conditioning and classical conditioning http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.368/713 • They narrowed over a thousand dimensions into two dimensions—initiating structure and consideration 1304) According to the University of Michigan studies, which of the following is used to define a leader who takes personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates? Situation-oriented Employee-oriented Production- oriented Task-oriented Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations. They took a personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepted individual differences among members 1305) According to the Managerial Grid, managers perform best using which of the following styles? 9, 9 9, 1 1, 9 5, 5 http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/business/managegrid.html The grid itself suggests that management is best at a 9,9 co-ordinates, where both people and production concerns are fully addressed, but a question is whether this is always appropriate, either all the time or at different times. 1306) Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow? Suggestion boxes Disscussing problem with boss Feedback on job performance Letters to your boss 1307) Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, and grievance procedures are examples of: Downward communication Horizontal communication Upward communication Lateral communication http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upward_communication http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.369/713 1308) Asif is the manager of a petroleum company. He lets the employees know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. He observes which of the following leadership style? Supportive Participative Directive Achievement-oriented http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=h1DOfzjrrQUC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=lets+the+e mployees+know+what+is+expected+of+them,+schedules+work+to+be+done,+and+gives+specif ic+guidance+as+to+how+to+accomplish+tasks&source=bl&ots=_JCxtcajYF&sig=W6fp5lwCO 7Zy3aCHpIHv5a3TY0&hl=en&ei=geY5TL2oE820rAfG6ti2CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=3&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=lets%20the%20employees%20know%20what%20i s%20expected%20of%20them%2C%20schedules%20work%20to%20be%20done%2C%20and %20gives%20specific%20guidance%20as%20to%20how%20to%20accomplish%20tasks&f=fal se 1309) Which of the following is NOT true of charismatic leaders? They have ability to articulate their vision They have behavior that is unconventional They are unwilling to take high personal risk They have high self belief and exhibit determination Charismatic Leadership” Four characteristics of the charismatic leader have been identified. They have a vision, are willing to take risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive follower needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary 1310) Trust and trustworthiness affect a leader’s access to: Dedication and achievement Persuasion and control Power and influence Knowledge and cooperation Trust and Leadership 1. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership. When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.370/713 2. It is evident that it is impossible to lead people who do not trust you. Trust and trustworthiness modulate the leader’s access to knowledge and cooperation. 1311) The most fragile relationships are contained in which of the following types of trust? Reward Deterrence page 112 Knowledge Identification Deterrence-Based Trust: · The most fragile relationships are contained in deterrence-based trust. One violation or inconsistency can destroy the relationship 1312) Naveed is relatively new employee and wants to make sure that he makes a good impression on his coworkers and supervisor. He agrees with the supervisor’s opinion most of the time and is always doing nice things for him. Naveed is attempting to use: Political behavior Defensive behavior Fastidious behavior Impression management page 120 1313) Which type of conflict will you experience among the multiple roles in your life, like role of a father and a manager? Intergroup Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Interrole Conflict page 124 Intrarole Conflict 1314) In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible? Illumination Intentions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.371/713 Behavior Cognition http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:oiHv9uUBAhQJ:www.mehralborz.com/WebPag es/OB/ch08/ref/OB_Ch08_FurtherRef_01.pdf+conflict+become+visible&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl &srcid=ADGEEShd2oD5HTtqgbL4FuJ8xp8yUwXyM5xA2Q76J3pZbiNZSt37fGQn0t7fZ2HLq7czPtz31K_7jCd7AChqNwg6k9 LZ4j96YRe9xXIyLkmWPvx7HYrEn2kKJ4XgdGXcgk5EdsgT6GY&sig=AHIEtbRYsTbZjkT5XGFVefgqOpClKnopg 1315) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intra-organizational behavior? Positive negotiation Distributive bargaining Integrative bargaining page 132 Equal bargaining Ref: In terms of intra-organizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. 1316) The example of labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies which of the following bargaining? Integrative Reflective Distributive page 132 Restrictive 1317) Which of the following is NOT a conflict resolution technique? Creating super ordinate goals Appointing a devil’s advocate Exercising authoritative command Generating additional resources Devil's advocacy Assigning someone the role of critic 1318) UNO wants to bring in a neutral third party who will facilitate a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. This person is a(n): Mediator page 128 Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.372/713 The third party acts as a mediator, taking a neutral stance and helping parties reconcile their differences. 1319) If you have a narrow span of control, you have which of the following type of a (n) organization? Efficient Short Tall Matrix 1320) Which of the given options is the expansion of job content to include a wider variety of the tasks and to increase the workers' responsibility for checking quality and direction for the method? Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Job reengineering Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities 1321) Seema is working with a pharmaceutical firm; as a means of balancing her work and family responsibilities she typically works a standard 40-hour week or only work 3 or 4 days of the week (i.e., putting in more than 8 hours but working fewer days). Which one of the following work schedule Seema is following? Compressed work week Shorter work week Longer work week Job sharing http://www.piercetrips.com/mc/page.do?sitePageId=44500 A compressed work week, also known as a flex schedule, gives you the benefit of an extra day off by allowing you to finish your usual number of working hours in fewer days per pay period. Work four 10-hour days each week with one day off with a 4/40 schedule, or work 80 hours in nine days with an extra day off every other week 1322) Which one of the following is NOT an example of regional economic alliances? European Union Democratic Union of Hungarians North American Free Trade Agreement Caribbean Community http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.373/713 Regional economic alliances examples –European Union (EU). –North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). –Caribbean Community (CARICOM). –Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC). 1323) Personal management skills such as attitudes and behaviors that drive one's potential for growth and team work skills is called _____________. Soft skills Hard skills Technical skills None of the given options http://lordmitchelltraining.com/ 1324) All of the following include Physical symptoms of stress EXCEPT: Bad moods Faster heart beat Increased sweating Cool skin Bad mood is behavioral symptoms of stress 1325) When the people are asked to envision the organization in five years and to describe what is different is called: Discovery Dreaming Design Destiny http://www.citeman.com/4139-inter-group-development/ 1326) Which one of the following involves lateral transfers that enable employees to work at different jobs? Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation Job enhancement Job rotation and temporary assignments in other departments help people see another perspective. Promotions, transfers, and firings remove individuals from conflict situation. 1327) Job analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.374/713 Goals and objectives Performance standards Evaluation criteria All of the given options http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=dkEyggW6JDMC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=Perform ance+ReviewJob+Analysis+can+be+used+in+performance+review+to+identify+or+develop:•+g oals+and+objectives•+performance+standards•+evaluation+criteria•+length+of+probationary+p eriods•+duties+to+be+evaluated&source=bl&ots=IcFZikkqFW&sig=eU22mRArLqaiiZV9MxxGaHPjko&hl=en&ei=SCs6TMK6LNCUrAeyu6C3CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=re sult&resnum=7&ved=0CDMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false Performance Review Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: goals and objectives performance standards evaluation criteria length of probationary periods duties to be evaluated 1328) A technical specialists working with a reputable organization is allowed to continue to contribute his expertise to the company without having to become manager. He makes recommendations in a wide range of business areas, participates in high level decisions, and acts as mentor to other employees. This situation is represented by which one of the following option? Traditional career path Network career path Lateral skill path Dual career path page 166 Dual-Career Path— A career-path method, that recognizes that technical specialists can and should be allowed to continue to contribute their expertise to a company without having to become managers. 1329) The centerpiece of most diversity programs is: Money Employer commitment Training Human resource personnel http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.375/713 1330) Which of the following statement is true regarding a dominant culture? The sum of an organization’s subcultures Defined by the leader of an organization Synonymous with an organization’s culture page 171 Likely to be a weak culture of an organization • An organization’s culture is its dominant culture. 1331) All of the following are examples of material symbols EXCEPT: Use of the company jet New employee orientations Luxury cars for executives Private parking spots 1332) Responding to changes in external or internal environment is called: Incremental Change Anticipatory change Radical Change Reactive change 1333) Phrases such as “more cultural diversity,” “many new entrants with inadequate skills” are all examples of which force for change? Technology World politics Nature of the work force Social trends 1334) Which of the following is an example of change in the nature of competition? Growth of e-commerce Decline in global oil prices Increased interest in urban living A decrease in interest rates http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.376/713 1335) Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation? Training and development Facilitation and support Education and communication Cooptation and manipulation Six tactics used by change agents in dealing with resistance to change: 1. Education and communication: 2. Participation: 3. Facilitation and support: 4. Negotiation: 5. Manipulation and cooptation: 6. Coercion: 1336) A bachelor degree holder is most likely to have a job that requires: Human skills Technical skills page 9 Conceptual skills Leading skills 1337) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 1338) Desires for associations with those who are significant to us, such as family members, supervisors, and friends, are examples of which of the following Alderfer’s needs? Relatedness Existence Association Esteem http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.377/713 http://www.12manage.com/methods_alderfer_erg_theory.html Relatedness Needs: social and external esteem (involvement with family, friends, co-workers and employers)(Maslow's third and fourth levels) 1339) A person in the organization may have crucial information about a statistical breakthrough of great importance to the organization and its strategic marketing plan. This is an example of which of the following power? Referent Legitimate Reward Expert http://books.google.com/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA359&lpg=PA359&dq=“breakthr ough+of+great+importance+to+the+organization+and+its+strategic”&source=bl&ots=TPnY2ndeO&sig=_SUnR9f_yXmn0t6-fcpNLo4P63Y&hl=en&ei=-F2GSzWGs6zrAfL_Jy3Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v= onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cbreakthrough%20of%20great%20importance%20to%20the%20organ ization%20and%20its%20strategic%E2%80%9D&f=false 1340) Keeping subordinates informed about company policies and the penalties for violating those policies is an example of using which of the following power? Referent Legitimate Expert Coercive 1341) The reasons for political behavior include all of the following EXCEPT: Ambiguous goals Scarce resources Control of information Non-programmed decisions http://www.docstoc.com/docs/10634423/Power-management 1342) Samina and Naeem are Senior managers of marketing depertment. Samina wants her department to grow and expand into new products. While Naeem feels that the department is already too big and should reduce its size and trim its product line. Samina and Naeem are experiencing which of the following conflict? Legal conflict Task conflict Process conflict http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.378/713 Relationship conflict Task conflict Conflict over content and goals of the work 1343) The degree to which two party’s goals can be achieved simultaneously is called: Goal interdependence Goal accommodation Goal avoidance Goal compatibility http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA387&lpg=PA387&dq=degree+ to+which+two+party’s+goals+can+be+achieved+simultaneously&source=bl&ots=TPoZamXi7 U&sig=T3nDuR85M6JWNlNja6WXC1Q2FuM&hl=en&ei=vDY6TI_aLpPHrAf16oG3CA&sa= X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=degree%20to %20which%20two%20party%E2%80%99s%20goals%20can%20be%20achieved%20simultane ously&f=false 1344) When two party’s goals are incompatible, but their interactions are important to meeting their goals, which reaction to conflict is likely to occur? Competition Collaboration Compromise Accommodation http://college.cengage.com/business/moorhead/organizational/6e/students/glossary/index.html#C 1345) Which of the following statements about gender difference in leadership is correct? There is no difference in leadership on the basis of gender Women leaders are not good at negotiation Men leaders seem to be more supportive and patient Women tend to adopt democratic leadership style http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:nJ6_1Y6zAkMJ:www.uh.edu/~wagon /IO_10.ppt+Women+tend+to+adopt+democratic+leadership+style&cd=35&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl= pk 1346) The main advantage of division of labor is that it promotes: Worker satisfaction Worker autonomy The creation of stimulating jobs Efficient use of labor http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.379/713 1347) The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals is: Strategic management Strategy-structure fit Organizational design Organizational reconfiguration http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SKeN0zvtOhMJ:www.slideshare.net/ guest3bd2a12/organizational-designpresentation+Organizational+design+process+of+constructing+and+adjusting+an+organization's +structure+to+achieve+its+goals&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1348) Which of the following is the manner in which divided tasks are combined and allocated to work groups? Departmentalization Specialization Formalization Standardization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA411&lpg=PA411&dq=the+man ner+in+which+divided+tasks+are+combined+and+allocated+to+work+groups&source=bl&ots= TPo_2fZifT&sig=JbCz0ICM74hdtQ4Mcz0Ni2xYPPk&hl=en&ei=qzo8TP6H4LBcd_cnIAD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onep age&q=the%20manner%20in%20which%20divided%20tasks%20are%20combined%20and%20 allocated%20to%20work%20groups&f=false 1349) Which of the following selection technique is most commonly used worldwide? Work sample test Interview Background check Performance-simulation tests 1350) Which of the following states the minimum acceptable qualifications that the incumbent must possess to perform the job successfully? Job description Job specification page 164 Job evaluation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.380/713 Job enrichment 1351) All of the following are examples of internal forces for change EXCEPT: Company Crisis Changing work climate Declining effectiveness Globalization http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:a2QBkJJ2h3IJ:jhunt.ba.ttu.edu/ch18.p pt+internal+forces+for+change+Company+Crisis+Changing+work+climate+Declining+effectiv eness&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1352) ABC is a manufacturing company. R&D department suggested some changes in their product line. But employees of marketing department were reluctant in accepting this change. A meeting was held to remove the ambiguity and all pros and cons were discussed which resulted in better decision. In this case the resistance to change from the marketing department resulted in which of the following? Positive decision Negative decision Conflicting decision Irrational decision 1353) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? Structural inertia Threat to expertise Dislike of change agent Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiroshi ma/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+orga nizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1354) Which of the following is the organizational source of resistance to change? Fear of unknown Economic threat New social relationship Fixed investment page 181. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.381/713 1355) The CEO of ABC manufacturer is not satisfied with the sales of his products. He has decided to operate in international market to earn the targeted sales. What can be the possible reason of this expansion? To work with untrained labor To avoid cultural diversity To acquire resources To work under poor working conditions 1356) Which one of the following is defined as a social entity composed of two or more people which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Community Organization Partnership Treaty 1357) Which of the following are identified as new managerial functions? Planning and organizing Leading and controlling Directing and monitoring TQM and continuous improvement page 8 1358) Which of the following is defined as intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services? Mechanism Technology page 12. Operational system Information system Technology - the intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet 1359) Faizan, a supervisor, has to choose between two different suggestions offered by employees about work schedule. Which one of the following will be most suitable for Faizan? Inductive reasoning Spatial visualization Deductive reasoning http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.382/713 Perception 1360) According to the Big Five model; people having personality dimension of openness to experience are: Caring and dependable Flexible and risk taker page 35 Outgoing and talkative Tolerant and self-hearted 1361) The ability of a person to manipiulate his/her emotions according to a given situation is called________________. Emotional Intelligence Emotional Constraints Affective Emotions Cognitive dissonance Ref: Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. 1362) According to which of the following decision making model; people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient? Bounded Rational Page 53 Three Component Model Contingency Rational Reference: Bounded Rationality; People satisfice—they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient 1363) When individuals compare their outcomes and inputs against those of others, the framework is ______________. Equity theory page 59 Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory Two Factor theory Equity theory proposes that workers compare their own outcome/input ratio (the ratio of the outcomes they receive from their jobs and from the organization to the inputs they contribute) to the outcome/input ratio of a referent. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.383/713 1364) Which of the following is NOT a biographical characteristic? Region Age Sex Tenure Reference: Page 16 Age • Gender • Marital status • Length of service, etc. 1365) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? Specific performance objectives Page 71 Precise job descriptions Clear direction and purpose Higher salaries MBO’s appeal lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. 1366) Which of the following groups is defined by the organization’s structure? Informal Friendship Interest Formal page 80 Formal groups—those defined by the organization’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks 1367) A team in which a significant amount of communication and interaction occurs electronically rather than face to face is referred to as: A research and development team A self-managed work team A problem solving team A virtual team page 89 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.384/713 Virtual teams have a significant amount of communication and interaction occurring electronically rather than face to face. 1368) Which of the following are the two dimensions of leader behavior explained in the OhioState studies? Initiating structure and consideration page 105 Employee-oriented and production-oriented Concern for people and concern for production Operant conditioning and classical conditioning The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. • They narrowed over a thousand dimensions into two dimensions—initiating structure and consideration. 1369) Which step determines whether understanding has been achieved during the communication process? Decoding Feedback Channel Encoding 1370) Which of the following is NOT an example of upward communication? Informing employees of policies Suggestion boxes Grievance procedures A letter to your boss 1371) Bilal tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. Bilal is engaging in: Filtering page 97. Defensiveness Selective perception Selective selection Filtering occurs when senders withhold part of a message because they think the receiver does not need or want the information. 1372) Which of the following leadership model integrates the expectancy theory of motivation with the Ohio state Leadership research? Contingency Path-goal http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.385/713 Leader-participation Cognitive arousal http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=V0ON3WC9qikC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=Pathgoal+integrates+the+expectancy+theory+of+motivation+with+the+Ohio+state+Leadership+rese arch&source=bl&ots=BUSITe1VFi&sig=Gww4MN_p_Ds0jnhuhkyYTxv0gJc&hl=en&ei=YcU 8TOHBOIzBccP8ZMD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Th e%20pathgoal%20leadership%20theory%20combines%20elements%20of%20the%20Ohio%20State%20st udies%20(ie%2C%20...%20and%20initiating%20structure)%20with%20expectancy%20theories %20of%20motivation.&f=false 1373) The transactional and transformational leadership should be viewed as: Opposing approaches to accomplishing goals Subcomponents of situational leadership Building blocks of charismatic leadership Cumulative forms of leadership 1374) Which of the following is a feeling of devotion, duty, or attachment to somebody or something? Integrity Consistency Loyalty Reliability http://rivercitykarate.com/Definitions.htm Feeling of duty: a feeling of devotion, duty, or attachment to somebody or something 1375) The new manager-employee relationship is an example of which of the following type of trust? Deterrence-based page 112. Knowledge-based Identification-based Supposition-based 1376) When a bank robber points a gun at a bank employee, which of the following is his base of power? Coercive Legitimate http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.386/713 Positional Authoritative 1377) Which of the following types of power requires acceptance of the leader’s authority by members of the organization? Personal Organizational Legitimate Positional 1378) Cricket stars influence people's choice of athletic shoes and cola drinks. People are admired due to which of the following power? Referent Expert Legitimate Personal 1379) High job specialization can lead to which of the following type of conflict? Communication Structural Personal-variable Job-related http://www.mbanotesworld.in/2009/12/5-stages-of-conflict-process.html 1380) Which of the following is mostly likely to promote the success of mediation? High motivation of the disputing parties page 134. Shared perceptions of the mediator as coercive Shared perceptions of the mediator as biased Extensive experience of the mediator The key to success—the conflicting parties must be motivated to bargain and resolve their conflict, intensity cannot be too high, and the mediator must be perceived as neutral and no coercive. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.387/713 1381) Which of the following can be described as being loose in structure and a catalyst for open lines of communications throughout the organization which results in an increased flow of information? Centralization Decentralization Departmentalization Simple organizations http://en.allexperts.com/q/Management-Consulting-2802/2008/9/decentralisation-delegation.htm A decentralized organization can be described as being loose in structure and a catalyst for open lines of communications 1382) A tall, centralized hierarchy of authority and top-down communication and decision making are characteristics of which of the following organizational structures? Organic structure Matrix structure Mechanistic structure Functional structure 1383) A Plant Manager overseeing the functions of the Manager of Engineering, the Manager of Accounting, and the Manager of Manufacturing is an example of: Product departmentalization Geographical departmentalization Functional departmentalization Process departmentalization 1384) Which of the following statement is TRUE with regard to boundaryless organizations? These organizations attempt to emulate simple structure These remove the horizontal boundaries of management These do not adopt participative decision making style Team members will be rewarded for mastering multiple skills 1385) Which of the following are the forces that affect how an organization designs its structure? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.388/713 Suppliers, competitors, job design Suppliers, job design, customers Environment, economic forces, competitors Environment, technology, and human resources 1386) Giving workers more control over how a task is to be completed often leads to job enrichment because: Workers can think out their own way of tackling the task Change their pattern of working when they want Feel more responsible for achieving the end product All of the given options 1387) Which of the following characterizes non-routine or complicated technologies? High task variety and high task analyzability Low task variety and high task analyzability Low task variety and Low task analyzability High task variety and low task analyzability http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=7L_WjP50TrQC&pg=PA387&lpg=PA387&dq=Nonroutine+or+complicated+technologies+are+characterized+by+high+task+variety+and+low+task +analyzability.&source=bl&ots=ch4OAsmceQ&sig=kygAQ1mTXDu5LiV9MAeBCPFKxA4& hl=en&ei=tjs6TObwONG_rAfjpfy2CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0C BMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%20or%20complicated%20technologies%20are%20characteriz ed%20by%20high%20task%20variety%20and%20low%20task%20analyzability.&f=false Non-routine or complicated technologies are characterized by high task variety and low task analyzability. 1388) When the people are asked to envision the organization in five years and to describe what is different is called: Discovery Dreaming Design Destiny http://www.citeman.com/4139-inter-group-development/ 1389) In practice, organizations use interviews _____. To determine applicant-organization fit Solely to assess specific, job relevant skills To manipulate an applicant’s image of the company http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.389/713 To assess a candidate’s credit history 1390) All of the following are operational activities of HR EXCEPT __________________ which is a strategic activity. Analyzing HR metrics and measurements Recruiting and selecting employees Responding to goals and objectives set by executives Complying with laws, policies, and procedures 1391) Performance is a function of which of the following factors? Skill, willingness to act and reward Ability, motivation and opportunity Knowledge, skills and abilities Tasks, incentives and rewards http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:z4_M809Z9HEJ:www.studiesonline.org/MGT413/Notes/Motivation.ppt+1389)+Performance+is+a+function+of+Ability,+mot ivation+and+opportunity&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1392) Cultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation are called: Multi cultures National Cultures Dominant Cultures Subcultures 1393) Which characteristic is NOT reflective of subcultures? Includes core values of the organization page 171 Typically defined by department designations Includes values shared only within the organization Includes values unique to members of a department or group A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.390/713 1394) Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces which of the following? Massive changes A dynamic environment An unknown environment A stable environment Ref: So consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces a stable environment 1395) Looking for better way to stay is called: Reactive change Anticipatory change page 179 Radical Change Incremental Change • Anticipatory Change: – Looking for better ways to stay – Ahead of the competition 1396) When there is some change in organization that is intentional and goal-oriented activity then it is called; Planned change Unplanned change Evolutionary change Revolutionary change Some organizations treat all change as an accidental occurrence, however, change as an intentional, goal-oriented activity is planned change. 1397) Which of the following technique refer to the application of direct threats or force upon resisters? Exploitation Cooptation Manipulation Coercion Overcoming Resistance to Change • Negotiation – Exchange something of value for a lessening of resistance. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.391/713 • Manipulation and Cooperation – Twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive. • Coercion – The application of direct threats or force upon resisters. 1398) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing? Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 1399) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. 1400) of: The communication used by managers to provide job instructions is an example Downward communication Lateral communication Directional communication Diagonal communication Ref: In downward communication Organizational decisions are made at top level and then flow down to the people who carry them. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.392/713 1401) All of the following are the examples of reward power EXCEPT: Pay Work assignments Promotion Transfer http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=exampl es+of+reward+power++Pay+Work+assignments+Promotion+Transfer&source=bl&ots=fun3mV yrLr&sig=Amk-u2trL3L3gKgvlHq5NWORztI&hl=en&ei=zzg6TN7NIS2rAeQgs3LAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CD4Q6AEwCQ#v= onepage&q&f=false 1402) A person in the organization may have crucial information about a statistical breakthrough of great importance to the organization and its strategic marketing plan. This is an example of which of the following power? Referent Legitimate Reward Expert http://books.google.com/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA359&lpg=PA359&dq=“breakthr ough+of+great+importance+to+the+organization+and+its+strategic”&source=bl&ots=TPnY2ndeO&sig=_SUnR9f_yXmn0t6-fcpNLo4P63Y&hl=en&ei=-F2GSzWGs6zrAfL_Jy3Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v= onepage&q=%E2%80%9Cbreakthrough%20of%20great%20importance%20to%20the%20organ ization%20and%20its%20strategic%E2%80%9D&f=false 1403) Keeping subordinates informed about company policies and the penalties for violating those policies is an example of using which of the following power? Referent Legitimate Expert Coercive 1404) Which of the following best describes a leader? Being a leader also means being a manager Leaders can emerge from with in a group Leaders are appointed to their positions Leaders influence others beyond the formal authority http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.393/713 1405) Which of the following statements about gender difference in leadership is correct? There is no difference in leadership on the basis of gender Women leaders are not good at negotiation Men leaders seem to be more supportive and patient Women tend to adopt democratic leadership style http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:nJ6_1Y6zAkMJ:www.uh.edu/~wa gon/IO_10.ppt+Women+tend+to+adopt+democratic+leadership+style&cd=35&hl=en&ct=cl nk&gl=pk 1406) Which of the following is the system of task, reporting, and authority relationships within which the work of the organization is done? Organizational goals Organizational structure Organizational system Organizational charts 1407) Which of the following is the manner in which divided tasks are combined and allocated to work groups? Departmentalization Specialization Formalization Standardization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA411&lpg=PA411&dq=the+man ner+in+which+divided+tasks+are+combined+and+allocated+to+work+groups&source=bl&ots= TPo_2fZifT&sig=JbCz0ICM74hdtQ4Mcz0Ni2xYPPk&hl=en&ei=qzo8TP6H4LBcd_cnIAD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onep age&q=the%20manner%20in%20which%20divided%20tasks%20are%20combined%20and%20 allocated%20to%20work%20groups&f=false 1408) Environmental uncertainty exists when managers: Relax the constraints on product demand Attempt to simplify the general environment Attempt to stabilize the task environment Have difficulty predicting the impact of environmental factors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.394/713 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA443&lpg=PA443&dq=Environ mental+uncertainty+exists+when+managers+Have+difficulty+predicting+the+impact+of+enviro nmental+factors&source=bl&ots=TPo_2jVkeW&sig=jRoDZclIpcrBomf8tPOclpUsrA&hl=en&ei=DMg8TOfKGo_ZcY200YoD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&v ed=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Environmental%20uncertainty%20exists%20when%20m anagers%20Have%20difficulty%20predicting%20the%20impact%20of%20environmental%20fa ctors&f=false 1409) The job design method aimed at increasing the motivational factors in a job is called: Job enrichment Job enlargement Job rotation Cross-training http://books.google.com/books?id=TtD413y868C&pg=PA337&lpg=PA337&dq="increasing+the+motivational+factors+in+a+job"&source= bl&ots=l9gbRR-x1o&sig=oxJjRGiD0GOjIVRBWzwXyIRMcu4&hl=en&ei=oImGS4m4O4GrAe_nI3ICg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage &q=%22increasing%20the%20motivational%20factors%20in%20a%20job%22&f=false 1410) Which of the following selection technique is most commonly used worldwide? Work sample test Interview Background check Performance-simulation tests 1411) Website and internet is changing the way companies and individuals communicate. It is an example of which of the following forces for change? People Technology Communication Social 1412) All of the following are examples of internal forces for change EXCEPT: Company Crisis Changing work climate Declining effectiveness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.395/713 Globalization http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:a2QBkJJ2h3IJ:jhunt.ba.ttu.edu/ch18.p pt+internal+forces+for+change+Company+Crisis+Changing+work+climate+Declining+effectiv eness&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1413) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? Structural inertia Threat to expertise Dislike of change agent Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiroshi ma/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+orga nizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1414) Which of the following is the organizational source of resistance to change? Fear of unknown Economic threat New social relationship Threatened power page 182. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hirosh ima/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+org anizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1415) Few years earlier there was a huge market of Window Air conditioner in Pakistan. Now split air conditioners have replaced window AC. This change occurred due to which of the following driving forces of change? Changing values Changing nature of workforce Knowledge explosion Rapid product obsolescence http://www.qfinance.com/dictionary/obsolescence 1416) Which of the following is the process in which data is gathered, analyzed, summarized and returned to those who generated them? Process Consultation Survey feedback Inter-group development http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.396/713 Sensitivity Training Survey Feedback Survey feedback techniques can form the basis for a change process. In the process, data are gathered, analyzed, summarized, and returned to those who generated them to identify, discuss, and solve problems. 1417) Textile industry of Pakistan is facing huge losses due to the downfall of electricity. These conditions are causing great stress among the employees and owners of textile mills. Which of the following is the potential source of stress in this scenario? Economic uncertainty Technological change Political uncertainty Task demand 1418) Which of the following performance management component is about acknowledging good performance? Planning Monitoring Rewarding Rating 1419) Which of the following is NOT an HR’s role in career development? Taking career development initiatives Polishing leadership qualities Matching individual and organization needs Identification of career opportunities 1420) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? Finished goods Services Dividends Capital 1421) The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institution and organizations is distributed unequally is called: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.397/713 Terminal Values Power Distance Fairness Uncertainty Avoidance 1422) Emotional Responses that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job are called: Felt Emotions Displayed Emotions page 39. Moods Emotional Intelligence Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. 1423) When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transaction, it is called: Alexithymia Felt Emotions Emotional Labor Displayed Emotions page 39 Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. 1424) Asif is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would Attribution Theory describe this behavior? It shows consensus It shows similarity It shows reliability It shows consistency page 48 1425) Amna is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Amna most likely using? Prototyping Contrast effect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.398/713 Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 1426) What is generally considered to be the single best thing that managers can do to improve performance? Allocate tasks depending on personality Restrict the use of punishment as a means of motivating workers Give abundant opportunities for employee growth Concentrate on intrinsic rewards rather than extrinsic rewards 1427) In equity theory, individuals assess the ________________. Cost-benefit ratio Efficiency-effectiveness trade-off Quantity-quality trade-off Outcome-input ratio page 59 1428) Who sets MBO objectives? The immediate supervisor The superior and subordinate The head of department The employees themselves 1429) Fahad, Zain and Usama work in different departments, but often take lunch together. They are an example of what type of group? Formal Informal Command Task http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.399/713 1430) When the group energy is focused on the task at hand, the group has moved to the _____________ stage. Storming Norming Maturation Performing http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBONJXoZ4fIC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=When+the +group+energy+is+focused+on+the+task+at+hand,+the+group+has+moved+to+the+performing +stage&source=bl&ots=ZZ0sAK3f18&sig=1TQXGydq9laKycm1pWpehwdQDMU&hl=en&ei= Xls3TK2UPJCgkQXLkY2cAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBgQ6A EwAQ#v=onepage&q=During%20this%20stage%2C%20the%20group%20turns%20its%20focu s%20to%20accomplishing%20the%20task%20at%20hand&f=false 1431) Demand on leader is ___________ in a team comprising of 2-7 members. High Highest Low Moderate 1432) Which of the following best demonstrates the effectiveness of self-managed teams? An increase in the number of teams required to manufacture a product A reduction in the number of employees qualified to participate in the teams A significant reduction in response time for resolving customer concerns An increase in the technology budget for connecting team members 1433) Which of the following is NOT true about electronic meeting? Participants type their responses onto a computer screen It can be highly effective under certain conditions Group cohesiveness will be considered high Participants will be honest and anonymous http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.400/713 1434) There is fairly strong evidence that traits can predict _____ more accurately than leadership effectiveness. Leadership emergence Extraversion in leaders Leadership awareness Leadership competence 1435) The University of Michigan researchers concluded that: Employee-oriented leaders had lower productivity Employee-oriented leaders had higher productivity Production-oriented leaders created lower employee satisfaction Production-oriented leaders created higher employee satisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=The+University+of+Michigan+researchers+conclud ed+that:+Employee-oriented+leaders+had+lower+productivity+Employeeoriented+leaders+had+higher+productivity+Productionoriented+leaders+created+lower+employee+satisfaction+Productionoriented+leaders+created+higher+employee+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=0lwVCJzBpr&sig=Y KI9f5YIVHHWbdvUW5PTCGVTqSc&hl=en&ei=M888TJjiB8mJcJfawOUD&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1436) Which of House’s leaders from path-goal theory are friendly and show concern for the needs of followers? Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented 1437) The charismatic leaders are likely to: Invoke high performance among followers Encourage women to seek leadership positions Motivate followers to become more extroverted Avoid media attention regarding their achievements http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.401/713 1438) Sumeera has been working in a packaging company for last ten years. She is the most senior employee of her department that’s why her manager frequently relies on her judgment. Whenever manger goes out of city for work, he put Sumeera in charge because he knows she will handle work efficiently in his absence. What type of trust relationship is this? Reward-based trust Knowledge-based trust Identification-based trust Deterrence-based trust Ref: • Knowledge-based trust • Trust based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction 1439) Legitimate power is based on which of the following element? Positive rewards Interpersonal trust Structural position Expert knowledge 1440) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of her which of the following power? Formal Expert Referent Information 1441) Which type of conflict will you experience among the multiple roles in your life, like role of a father and a manager? Intergroup Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Interrole Conflict page 124 Intrarole Conflict 1442) All of the following are types of conflict EXCEPT: Task Conflict Person-role Conflict Relationship Conflict http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.402/713 Process Conflict 1443) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that functional conflict is: Necessary for effective group performance An indication of the group maturity level Always focused around relationships Make group members static and apathetic 1444) UNO wants to bring in a neutral third party who will facilitate a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. This person is a(n): Mediator page 128 Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant The third party acts as a mediator, taking a neutral stance and helping parties reconcile their differences. 1445) In comparing the organizational design needs of the small organization and the large organization, which of the following is a consideration for the small organization? More formalization More specialization More centralization Flat hierarchy of authority 1446) Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure? High centralization High employee discretion Standardization Bureaucracy 1447) You have eliminated horizontal, vertical, and external barriers within your organization. You are operating as a/an: Boundaryless organization Organizational pyramid http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.403/713 Matrix organization Virtual organization http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:XJIiVayZ4ksJ:www.scribd.com/doc/7 220239/Contemporary-OrganizationalDesigns+Boundaryless+organization+eliminates+horizontal,+vertical,+and+external+barriers+w ithin+organization&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1448) A trucking company routinely makes all of its office staff work for a week in the warehouse area; loading trucks, cleaning trucks, and doing other work which they are capable of. This program is an example of which of the following? Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment Job sharing 1449) Essential elements of TQM include all EXCEPT: Analysis of customer quality needs Benchmarking Rewarding Standards Essential Elements of TQM • A supportive organizational culture • Management commitment and leadership • Provide a sense of direction • Analysis of customer quality needs • Benchmarking • Standards • Strategies to close quality gaps • Training • Quality teams • Progress monitoring and measurement • Exceeding customer expectations 1450) The purpose of --------------- is for an outside consultant to assist a manager, “to perceive, understand, and act upon process events”. Process Consultation Team Building Appreciative Inquiry Sensitivity Training http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.404/713 1451) Once the causes of difficulty have been identified, the groups can move to the _____________ to develop solutions that will improve relations between the groups. Process Consultation Appreciative Inquiry Integration phase Team Building http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA492&lpg=PA492&dq=Once+the+causes+of+difficulty+have+been+identifi ed,+the+groups+can+move+to+the+Integration+phase+to+develop+solutions+that+will+improv e+relations+between+the+groups&source=bl&ots=0lwVCHCBsk&sig=e29IsUf4z_J9XxGcoo43 kq9JBok&hl=en&ei=4ow8TNi0B8qLkAX06qiKAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum =1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Once%20the%20causes%20of%20difficulty%20ha ve%20been%20identified%2C%20the%20groups%20can%20move%20to%20the%20Integratio n%20phase%20to%20develop%20solutions%20that%20will%20improve%20relations%20betw een%20the%20groups&f=false 1452) Which type of selection technique is given the most weight? Written test Performance-simulation test Electronic test Interview 1453) The centerpiece of most diversity programs is: Money Employer commitment Training Human resource personnel 1454) A strong culture can act as a substitute for which of the following? Institutionalization Formalization Socialization Organizational rules http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=kQ71jtW3YvYC&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=A+strong +culture+can+act+as+a+substitute+for&source=bl&ots=cchOjKQgIP&sig=jpU1AEefmU4lPey m6bJKUpMTNKg&hl=en&ei=mI08TPewDMGHkQW3weR7&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.405/713 t&resnum=4&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=A%20strong%20culture%20can%20act% 20as%20a%20substitute%20for&f=false 1455) Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces which of the following? Massive changes A dynamic environment An unknown environment A stable environment Ref: So consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces a stable environment 1456) Which of the following is an example of change in the nature of competition? Growth of e-commerce Decline in global oil prices Increased interest in urban living A decrease in interest rates 1457) Which of the following is NOT a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia Five reasons why individuals may resist change are 1. Habit: Life is complex, to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions everyday, we all rely on habits or programmed responses. 2. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. 3. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. 4. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. 5. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.406/713 perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change 1458) What term is used for feelings that tend to be less intensive than emotions? Affect Cognition Thoughts Mood http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Y204wolJtFgJ:marrichassociates.com/ BUS_261__Organizational_Behavior_Twelth_Day.ppt+moods+are+feelings+that+tend+to+be+l ess+intensive+than+emotions&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1459) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of group in organization? Common goal Interaction with one another Accept expectations and obligations Mutually independent 1460) Which of the following refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other? Formal organization Informal organization Business organization Government organization 1461) All of the following are the primary bases of personal power EXCEPT: Referent power Position power Expert power Coercive power 1462) Trying to make someone else accept blame for a problem is an example of which of the following conflict handling intention? Competing Compromising Avoiding http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.407/713 Accommodating http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT313&lpg=PT313&dq=Trying+to+make+someone+else+accept+blame+for+a+pro blem+(coflict)&source=bl&ots=9vx1faK_4J&sig=aIYqoSZK04_8oQrfXf1A0mIZ6As&hl=en& ei=e5E8TK7RCJCTkAWt15SFAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CB8Q 6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=trying%20to%20make%20him%20or%20her%20accept%20the%20bl ame%20for%20a%20problem&f=false 1463) At Sawera Manufacturing, Inc., the sales representatives often argue with the production employees because promised orders are often behind the schedule. The production employees claim that the sales representatives frequently fail to submit orders until they are already past due. The sales representatives and the production employees are experiencing which of the following conflict? Competition for scarce resources Intergroup conflict Interpersonal conflict Representative conflict http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_conflict Intergroup conflict occurs in two general forms. Horizontal strain involves competition between functions: for example, sales versus production, research and development versus engineering, purchasing versus legal, line versus staff, and so on. Vertical strain involves competition between hierarchical levels: for example, union versus management, foremen versus middle management, shop workers versus foremen 1464) When two party’s goals are incompatible, but their interactions are important to meeting their goals, which reaction to conflict is likely to occur? Competition Collaboration Compromise Accommodation http://college.cengage.com/business/moorhead/organizational/6e/students/glossary/index.htm l#C 1465) Which of the following is NOT a personal cause of conflict in organizations? Personalities Perception Authority relationships Communication http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:S0qRK5FuRD4J:www.swcollege.com/ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.408/713 management/nelsonquick/powerpoint/ch13.ppt+personal+cause+of+conflict+in+organizations+Personalities+Percep tion+Authority+relationships+Communication&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1466) To achieve a compromise approach, one needs to________________. Avoid overt disagreement Value openness and trust Dominate the other conflicting party Give up something of value page 126 Ref: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome 1467) Division of labor is often referred to as which of the following? Departmentalization The organizational chart Specialization The administrative hierarchy 1468) When there is a narrow span of control, to improve the span of control there is likely to be: An increase in the number of workers Less control over production workers More administrative levels Less bureaucracy 1469) Jobs grouped according to traditional business tasks such as marketing, manufacturing, and personnel are departmentalized by: Process Service Function Structure 1470) The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.409/713 Strategic management Strategy-structure fit Organizational design Organizational reconfiguration http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SKeN0zvtOhMJ:www.slideshare. net/guest3bd2a12/organizational-designpresentation+Organizational+design+process+of+constructing+and+adjusting+an+organizati on's+structure+to+achieve+its+goals&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1471) An alternative work arrangement in which employees must be present to perform job duties during a required core time but starting and ending work times can vary is called which of the following? Job sharing Compressed workweek scheduling Task restructuring Flextime http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:SBLpc7H9gTsJ:polaris.umuc.edu/~nhoaglan/CO MM393X/example.pdf+An+alternative+work+arrangement+in+which+employees+must+be+pr esent+to+perform+job+duties+during+a+required+core+time+but+starting+and+ending+work+t imes+can+vary&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjah6NWomz4CumoVdmkvBVqV4pCEdtyBNC3QWnbc71Z9qzwVVYBhx_72oD23KAzOEzzlrcpgStI9zO0GSda4mMXkdvPYv0H6okpD2oE0t2B4fNTtmvB xj3L37p8K86DY-3vjE&sig=AHIEtbSk2JRn-JUnGbr-pl97e98UJFjXMQ 1472) The tools, techniques, and actions used by an organization to transform inputs into outputs are called: An organization's technology The throughput The transformation process Work design http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=CmFjF5tNmuEC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=Technology +(tools,+techniques,+actions+used+to+transform+inputs+into+outputs)&source=bl&ots=XpDL vSG_p6&sig=8oHMHfK9WSyFr7HB5gNLbXG2tVY&hl=en&ei=EYQ9TI7JH8yLkAWOoPyx DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CDUQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=Te chnology%20(tools%2C%20techniques%2C%20actions%20used%20to%20transform%20inputs %20into%20outputs)&f=false 1473) Which of the following states the minimum acceptable qualifications that the incumbent must possess to perform the job successfully? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.410/713 Job description Job specification page 164 Job evaluation Job enrichment 1474) Which of the following specifies the relative value of each job in the organization? Job description Job specification Job evaluation page 164 Job enrichment http://hubpages.com/hub/Job-Description-JD 1475) All of the following are examples of external forces for change EXCEPT: Workforce diversity Globalization Company Crisis Ethical behavior http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:MDtRc4o5LJsJ:managementconsultingcourses.c om/Lesson37OrganizationalChange.pdf+external+forces&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGE ESjmmxVNB9jBnCk46Kw6hwbxQtgp7UBv2O5ykvNCmSTG2OuhXnY5ibebEefpMrJYEXblZ rOZ68Wyk3yxLFjAu8ZEO6cmmacuLjtG0Kqvtcyt2nbouU8Jm6bBNwmdidHDj_Ds_2_u&sig= AHIEtbSESsgO0hNmhb_lsAuO0GtIyhmMrw 1476) All of the following are examples of external forces for change EXCEPT: Changing work climate Workforce diversity Globalization Ethical behavior http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:MDtRc4o5LJsJ:managementconsultingcourses.c om/Lesson37OrganizationalChange.pdf+of+external+forces+for+change+Workforce+diversity+ Globalization+Company+Crisis+Ethical+behavior&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjmm xVNB9jBnCk46Kw6hwbxQtgp7UBv2O5ykvNCmSTG2OuhXnY5ibebEefpMrJYEXblZrOZ68 Wyk3yxLFjAu8ZEO6cmmacuLjtG0Kqvtcyt2nbouU8Jm6bBNwmdidHDj_Ds_2_u&sig=AHIEt bSESsgO0hNmhb_lsAuO0GtIyhmMrw 1477) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.411/713 Structural inertia Threat to expertise Dislike of change agent Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiroshi ma/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+orga nizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1478) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? Structural inertia Threat to expertise New social relationships Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiros hima/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+or ganizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=p k 1479) Which of the following is the process of planned change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioral science? Organizational culture Organizational theory Organizational Change Organizational Development http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA504&lpg=PA504&dq=is+the+ process+of+planned+change+and+improvement+of+the+organization+through+application+of+ knowledge+of+the+behavioral+science&source=bl&ots=TPo_3eUheO&sig=4mM27mZ4L0OX DAgHY_tpfx2Xrqo&hl=en&ei=P4Y9TLqbOYGgkQWZzoGlDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=r esult&resnum=5&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1480) Which of the following can be termed as organizational development program? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.412/713 Switching from manual to computerized system Technological change Total Quality Management Designing changes for other organization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA504&lpg=PA504&dq=is+the+pr ocess+of+planned+change+and+improvement+of+the+organization+through+application+of+kn owledge+of+the+behavioral+science&source=bl&ots=TPo_3eUheO&sig=4mM27mZ4L0OXD AgHY_tpfx2Xrqo&hl=en&ei=P4Y9TLqbOYGgkQWZzoGlDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=res ult&resnum=5&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Total%20Quality%20Management%20 %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&f=false 1481) Which of the following is the process in which data is gathered, analyzed, summarized and returned to those who generated them? Process Consultation Survey feedback Inter-group development Sensitivity Training Survey Feedback Survey feedback techniques can form the basis for a change process. In the process, data are gathered, analyzed, summarized, and returned to those who generated them to identify, discuss, and solve problems. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA511&lpg=PA511&dq=Survey+f eedback+techniques+can+form+the+basis+for+a+change+process.+In+the+process,+data+are+g athered,+analyzed,+summarized,+and+returned+to+those+who+generated+them+to+identify,+d iscuss,+and+solve+problems.&source=bl&ots=TPo_3eUmdS&sig=WhIapmWqPgKI9R93g1SN tHeW3KA&hl=en&ei=LYg9TK3LJJCgkQWLyPy5Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resn um=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Survey%20feedback%20techniques%20can%20f orm%20the%20basis%20for%20a%20change%20process.%20In%20the%20process%2C%20da ta%20are%20gathered%2C%20analyzed%2C%20summarized%2C%20and%20returned%20to %20those%20who%20generated%20them%20to%20identify%2C%20discuss%2C%20and%20s olve%20problems.&f=false 1482) Which of the following performance component is about addressing poor performance and improving good performance? Planning Monitoring page 198 Rewarding Developing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.413/713 1483) Usman is a production in charge in an organization. His performance can be judged on the criteria of cost of per unit of production or total units produced. Identify the criteria on which his performance has been evaluated. Attitude Traits Individual task outcomes Behavior http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA460&lpg=PA460&dq=Individual+task+outcomes&source=bl&ots=0lwVD Exzul&sig=j3JStL0et7CLtT0T1QsLYaaVTQ&hl=en&ei=F4o9TK7lMdGGkAWG69ikDA&sa=X&oi=book_ result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CDQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Individual%20task%20outc omes&f=false 1484) The behavior of people is influenced by which of the following factors? Psychological needs Individual drives Social roles and status All of the given options 1485) Which of the following is defined as intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services? Mechanism Technology page 12. Operational system Information system Technology - the intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet 1486) Which of the following is not one of the types of attitude? Job satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Behavior page 29 Organizational commitment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.414/713 1487) Which of the following is NOT included in the ways employees can express dissatisfaction? Exit Voice Loyalty Noise page31 1488) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best described these values? Terminal values Instrumental values page 25 Theoretical values Social values 1489) The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another is called __________ Attitude Personality Perception Mind-set http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=stable+set+ of+psychological+attributes+that+distinguishes+one+person+from+another&source=bl&ots=TP o_3eWgcW&sig=2dzcA6ITvsBSrw-ejaSYlTlBWcY&hl=en&ei=oI09TJDiD4gkQW2wqiyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=one page&q=stable%20set%20of%20psychological%20attributes%20that%20distinguishes%20one %20person%20from%20another&f=false 1490) According to e: Caring and dependable Flexible and risk taker page 35 Outgoing and talkative Tolerant and self-hearted 1491) Mr. Abad thinks that his own actions and behaviors have an impact in determining what happens to him. What do you think he has? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.415/713 Core locus of control Personal Locus of control Internal Locus of control page 35 External Locus of control 1492) Which of the following is the dimension of emotional intelligence that describes the ability to manage your own emotions and impulses? Self-awareness Self-management page 41 Commitment Social-skills Reference: Self-management. The ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses. 1493) Which of the following is NOT a factor in the individual perceiver? Attitude Motive Location Perception Ref: The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations 1494) A decision making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcomes is: Rational decision making page 52 Bonded rational model Intuitive decision making Contingent decision making 1495) What is the first step in the Rational Decision-Making Model? Defining the problem Weighing the decision criteria Identifying the decision criteria http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.416/713 Developing alternatives 1496) Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the rational decision-making model? The decision maker has complete information The decision maker is aware of all consequences The decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria The decision maker is constrained by time and costs page 53 1497) If someone wishes to emphasize the importance of making decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, the focus of his/her teaching will be on which of the following? Rights Privilege Justice Utilitarianism http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA129&dq=decisions+consistent+with+fundamental+liberties+and+privileges &hl=en&ei=dZE9TIv5LMuHkQWq2bmuDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ve d=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=decisions%20consistent%20with%20fundamental%20liber ties%20and%20privileges&f=false 1498) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an internally caused behavior? Working late in order to get a promotion page 48 Arriving at work late because heavy traffic Working weekends because of your employer’s orders Depending on luck for success 1499) Amna is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Amna most likely using? Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.417/713 – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 1500) Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one’s hunger, thirst, and need for sex? Esteem Safety Physiological page60 Social 1501) Sheraz wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give him self-respect and autonomy, but also because he wants a job with high status and recognition from others. Which of Maslow’s needs is Sheraz trying to fill? Self-actualization Social Esteem page60 Safety 1502) Hassan derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships with his extended family. Which of Maslow’s needs is Hassan fulfilling through these relationships? Self-actualization Esteem Social Page 60 Physiological Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Social needs: affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 1503) What is the primary organizational factor that satisfies people’s physiological needs? Relationship Recognition Pay page60 Admiration 1504) Which of Maslow’s needs best approximates McClelland’s need for achievement? Esteem Self-actualization page63 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.418/713 Physiological Social 1505) Which of the following is NOT a comparison an employee can use in equity theory? Self-inside Self-goal Other-outside Self-outside http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Bg1oNWWbn2QJ:www.slideshare.net/gu rdeep1211/ob‐8‐presentation+equity+theory+Self‐inside+Self‐goal+Other‐outside+Self‐ outside&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1506) The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship. Performance-reward page66 Effort-performance Reward-personal goal Effort-satisfaction 1507) Which of the following concepts is inconsistent with the expectancy theory of motivation? Self-interest is pursued Performance and rewards are related Attractive rewards will motivate One’s inputs and outputs are compared to another’s http://www.flashcardmachine.com/organizational-behavior1.html 1508) What is the largest demographic change in the last few years in Pakistani workforce? Increasing ethnic diversity A fall in married workers Increasing age of workers More women in the workforce Reference: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.419/713 Page 20 1509) What is the name for an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated? Gainsharing Profit-sharing Piece rates Employee ownership http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&dq=incentive+plan+where+improvements+in+group+pr oductivity+determine+the+total+amount+of+money+that+is+allocated&source=bl&ots=0lwVD Ezzvo&sig=1wz7ya6FwoyZhss8_qCV3mEkuwc&hl=en&ei=9JE9TKyPIMqHkQX1lMGkDA& sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=incentive %20plan%20where%20improvements%20in%20group%20productivity%20determine%20the% 20total%20amount%20of%20money%20that%20is%20allocated&f=false 1510) In which of the following situation Synergy is most likely to occur? The activities of all group members are fully dependent on one another The performance of one member of a group affects what other members do Group members must perform specific behaviors in a predetermined order Group members acting together produce more or better output than alone page 82 1511) Which of the following type of teams would most likely empower its team members to make work-related decisions? Technical Self-managed page 88 Problem-solving Cross functional 1512) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options page 89 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.420/713 1513) All of the following are problem solving techniques EXCEPT: Consensus Brainstorming Nominal Group Techniques Synergy Group Problem Solving Techniques • Consensus presenting opinions and gaining agreement to support a decision • Brainstorming process to generate a quantity of ideas • Nominal Group Technique process to generate ideas and evaluate solutions • Delphi Technique process to generate ideas from physically dispersed experts • Computer-Aided Decision Making 1514) Which of the following statement best defines leadership? Implementing the strategy provided by management Least concerned in bringing organizational change Coordinating and handling day-to-day problems The ability to influence a group in goal achievement page 102 1515) Which of the following leadership style gave the group members complete freedom? Autocratic Democratic Laissez-faire Consideration http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NXD/is_4_11/ai_n25115242/ 1516) Which of the following is a behavioral theory of leadership? Trait theory Fiedler model Ohio State studies page 106 Equity Theory 1517) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first? Transmitting Decoding Encoding Understanding http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.421/713 1518) Which of the following is the product of a sender’s encoding? Channel Message Transmission Medium 1519) If Ali is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display? He prefers to talk on the phone He prefers to send emails He relies on memos or letters He avoids face-to-face communication 1520) Which of the following is an important nonverbal component of communication? Written memo Paraphrase Eye contact E-mail 1521) The ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic is called: Verbal Comprehension Number aptitude Perceptual Speed Memory http://www.wikijob.co.uk/wiki/perceptual-speed 1522) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show. Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.422/713 1523) A group composed of MBA marketing students similar in age, type of problem, and personality characteristics can be called_____________________ A homogeneous group A heterogeneous group A command group A task group http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=rn_sHk_1Jw0C&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=homogeneou s+group+is+similar+in+age,+type+of+problem,+and+personality+characteristics&source=bl&ot s=zH3Z3t_y9d&sig=S_MKbsGHCvl0gfqS2HvGudyZzKA&hl=en&ei=6qU9TJ2VKo2TkAWS_ _W5Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q= homogeneous%20group%20is%20similar%20in%20age%2C%20type%20of%20problem%2C% 20and%20personality%20characteristics&f=false 1524) The opinion or belief segment of an attitude is described by which component of attitude? Cognitive Affective Behavioral Behavior intension http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:MEs1IGdINhQJ:www.slideshare.net/sr macalinao/employee-attitude-and-theireffects+opinion+or+belief+segment+of+an+attitude&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1525) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best described these values? Terminal values Instrumental values page 25 Theoretical values Social values 1526) Which of the following country is a representative of collectivism as a nation i.e. group harmony, cohesiveness, consensus and corporation? Canada Japan United States Cape Town http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.423/713 1527) Guatemala is a country where inequalities exist showing gap between rich and poor. Which of the following value is truly representing the state of Guatemala? Power distance Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty avoidance 1528) The Big Five model is related to ________________ Perception Personality Page 34 Experience Culture 1529) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to be pleasant and accommodating in social situations? Extroversion Openness to experience Emotional stability Agreeableness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreeableness 1530) Which of the following is NOT one of the traits according to the Big Five Model? Conscientiousness Extroversion Agreeableness Self actualization 1531) Emotional Responses that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job are called: Felt Emotions Displayed Emotions page 39. Moods Emotional Intelligence Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.424/713 1532) Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions, as agreed upon by most contemporary researchers? Anger Fear Hate page 39 Sadness 1533) Sana is a group leader at interior designing firm. She is concerned with the achievement of her peers and subordinates, she appreciate their suggestions and motivates them to come up with something new and unique. Which of the following is Sana’s style? Conceptual Behavioral page 55 Directive Analytical 1534) “Just because he was late in his first class, his teacher thinks he is irresponsible student". Which error teacher has commited in this case? Selective perception Stereotyping Hallo effect Social perception 1535) It is not possible for Mr. Asim to understand everything he sees, he notices a few of the things, we can say that he engages in: Assimilating Selective perception Halo Effect Target Perception 1536) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? An employee is late because of a flat tire. An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job. An employee was promoted because he was hard working. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.425/713 1537) According to attribution theory, if someone shows different behaviors in different situations then this can be termed as___________. Consensus Distinctiveness Reliability Consistency 1538) Which of the following statement best describes “motivation?” Results in a level of efforts put by a group Intensifies an individual’s efforts from others Guides an individual’s efforts towards a goal page 59 Meets an individual’s needs, wants and demnands Ref: Motivation “A state of mind, desire, energy or interest that translates into action” or “The inner drive that directs a person’s behavior toward goals 1539) Shahid is a salaried employee whose job is to proof read legal documents. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory? The quantity of documents he proofreads will decrease The quality of documents he proofreads will decrease The quantity and/or the quality of documents he proofreads will increase There will be no effect of this fact on his performance 1540) The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship. Performance-reward page66 Effort-performance Reward-personal goal Effort-satisfaction http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.426/713 1541) Two-factor theory suggests that dissatisfaction is caused by extrinsic factors. Which of the following is an example of such a factor? Advancement Working condition Achievement Recognition 1542) What continuum in the two-factor theory is made up of the hygiene factors? No dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction No dissatisfaction to satisfaction Satisfaction to no satisfaction Satisfaction to dissatisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=F1c3wHNDFwC&pg=PA391&lpg=PA391&dq=No+dissatisfaction+to+dissatisfaction&source=bl&ot s=n22F8T5WyM&sig=pHgO63oA8xPOFvmPUFQS1F2ToTQ&hl=en&ei=Tdg5TN3zE4 m2rAfSlsC3CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CD0Q6AEwCA# v=onepage&q=%20No%20dissatisfaction%20to%20dissatisfaction&f=false 1543) Which of the following is NOT a biographical characteristic? Region Age Sex Tenure Reference: Page 16 Age • Gender • Marital status • Length of service, etc. 1544) Which of the following statements concerning tenure is NOT true? Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity Tenure and satisfaction are positively related Tenure is a good variable in explaining turnover Tenure and organizational investment are negatively related http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT66&lpg=PT66&dq=Tenure+does+not+appear+to+be+a+good+predictor+of+empl oyee+productivity&source=bl&ots=9vx1g8LV5A&sig=0HIdt8YIaWqk7yp0WeQHvhttp://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.427/713 keb5Q&hl=en&ei=8Ms9TLCdKY2gkQXZwpmkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1545) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? Specific performance objectives Page 71 Precise job descriptions Clear direction and purpose Higher salaries MBO’s appeal lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. 1546) Who sets MBO objectives? The immediate supervisor The superior and subordinate The head of department The employees themselves 1547) Which of the following are all forms of variable-pay programs? Wage incentive plans, flextime, piece-rate Piece-rate, wage incentive plans, gain sharing Profit-sharing, lump-sum bonuses, extended vacations Retirement benefits, extended vacations, flextime Pay and Motivation 1. Variable Pay Programs can take the form of piece-rate plans, wage incentives, profit sharing, bonuses, and gain-sharing. 1548) Which of the following is one advantage of variable pay plans to management? They turn fixed labor costs into variable labor costs They turn low producers into high producers They turn slow employees into fast employees They turn high fixed costs into low fixed costs 1549) Which of the following statements most accurately describes interest groups? They are longer lasting than friendship groups They are formed because of some common objective http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.428/713 They are governed by labor laws They are likely to involve great social conflict 1550) Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being completed ______________ Require multiple skills Require judgment Require experience All of the given options http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:jctn2iNywhEJ:59.74.71.99/2010/glx/jia oan/jae/chapt09.doc+Teams+typically+outperform+individuals+when+the+tasks+being+completed&c d=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1551) Team members with good listening, feedback, and conflict resolution skills possess ______________. Technical expertise Problem-solving skills Decision-making skills Interpersonal skills 1552) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of a small team? Lack for diversity of views Less chances of disagreement Less rigidity Less difficult to assemble 1553) Individual decisions are generally preferable to group decisions when which of the following is required? Speed Creativity Acceptance Quality 1554) The main difference between a leader and a manager is: Managers seek change and leaders don't Leaders are thought of as better people because they don't punish Leaders are advocates for change, and managers for the status quo http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.429/713 Managers are concerned with people, and leaders with events 1555) Which of the following is a behavioral theory of leadership? Trait theory Fiedler model Ohio State studies page 106 Equity Theory 1556) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader’s behavior is directed toward getting the job done is called: Initiating structure Consideration Maximization Path-goal http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/actions/ohio_state.htm 1557) A leader high in initiating structure would do which of the following? Exhibit laissez-faire type of leadership Maximize leader-member relations Assign group members to particular tasks Empower employees to make their own decisions 1558) The graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership styles by Blake and Mouton is known as: Least preferred co-worker scale Leader-participation model Autocratic-democratic continuum Managerial grid http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT263&lpg=PT263&dq=graphic+portrayal+of+a+twodimensional+view+of+leadership+styles+by+Blake+and+Mouton+is+known+as&source=bl&ot s=9vx1g9GW3B&sig=1OfeEPxbEf8TYupU2FRTJlIPSkA&hl=en&ei=yd89TMTFJoygkQX42s SkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CCoQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f= false 1559) The means by which a communication is passed is called: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.430/713 Medium Instrument Conductor Transmission 1560) Bulletin, notice boards, circulars are considered to be which type of communication? Upward communication Downward communication Horizontal communication Lateral communication 1561) Which of the following is an important nonverbal component of communication? Written memo Paraphrase Eye contact E-mail 1562) Which of the following communication network occurs when a checkout clerk reports to a department manager, who in turn reports to a store manager, who reports to a regional manager? Wheel All-channel Chain Horizontal 1563) The _____ network best serves to promote high member satisfaction. Direct Circle Wheel All-channel Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT247&lpg=PT247&dq=network+i s+best+if+you+are+concerned+with+high+member+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=JFetK0rVJY& http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.431/713 sig=bRfCm92nSZse5_CxrHtrOzjkbY&hl=en&ei=ek8qTLyrMIrRce_s8JQD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0C DEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=network%20is%20best%20if%20you%20are%20concerned%20 with%20high%20member%20satisfaction&f=false 1564) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of group in organization? Common goal Interaction with one another Accept expectations and obligations Mutually independent 1565) Jobs in which success demands stamina, leg strength and manual dexterity require management to identify an employee’s which characteristics? Physical abilities page 21 Motor abilities Mental abilities Emotional abilities 1566) Which of the following communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee? Vertical Wheel All-channel page100 Chain 1567) When all communication is channeled through one person, which of the following communication network exists? All-channel Chain Horizontal Wheel page100 1568) Formal guidelines and authority hierarchies are examples of which function of communication? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.432/713 Control Agreement Motivation Information http://managementconsultingcourses.com/Lesson13Communication.pdf 1569) Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow? Suggestion boxes Disscussing problem with boss Feedback on job performance Letters to your boss 1570) The means by which a communication is passed is called: Medium Instrument Conductor Transmission 1571) On the Leadership Grid, a manager who has a medium concern for both, people and production is a (n): Team manager Country club manager Middle of the road manager Authority-obedience manager http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Int-Loc/Leadership-Theories-andStudies.html 1572) If a leader’s main concern is accomplishing his/her group’s tasks, the Universityof Michigan studies label this leader as: Production-oriented page 107 Laissez-faire Consideration-oriented Employee-oriented 1573) Which of the following are the two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies? Emotional and rational http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.433/713 Autocratic and democratic Initiating structure and consideration Employee-oriented and production-oriented page 107 1574) If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are _____. Educated Trained Born page 106 Authoritarian Ref • Trait theories assumption: Leadership is basically inborn, therefore we could select the right leaders. 1575) The main difference between a leader and a manager is: Managers seek change and leaders don't Leaders are thought of as better people because they don't punish Leaders are advocates for change, and managers for the status quo Managers are concerned with people, and leaders with events 1576) Which of the following techniques most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process? Groupthink Nominal group page92 Brainstorm Electronic meeting http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=most+restricts+discussion+or+interpersonal+commu nication+during+the+decisionmaking+process&source=bl&ots=0lwVDGBvsl&sig=HzYcgmuXbyQMCeBCQ6KVjU6mnE&hl=en&ei=MuY9TKr7MYuUkAWSirWkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul t&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=most%20restricts%20discussion%20or%2 0interpersonal%20communication%20during%20the%20decision-making%20process&f=false 1577) Which of the following is a tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion? Group conformity Group shift Groupthink page 136 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.434/713 Social loafing http://allpsych.com/dictionary/g.html 1578) What is generally the result of groupthink? Higher quality decisions More risky decisions Less critical analysis Unpopular decisions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TAaDaezB__8C&pg=PA448&dq=critical+analysis++gr oupthink&hl=en&ei=Yeg9TMXwF4WecarwvaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1 &ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=critical%20analysis%20%20groupthink&f=false 1579) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options 1580) Which of the following helps to explain the current popularity of teams? Easy to manage Less expensive Use employee talents better page 84 Promote socialization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA141&dq=current+popularity+of +teams+Use+employee+talents+better&hl=en&ei=pOo9TLHFC8LIcYC0iKIB&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=current%20popularity%2 0of%20teams%20Use%20employee%20talents%20better&f=false 1581) Which of the following statements concerning tenure is NOT true? Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity Tenure and satisfaction are positively related Tenure is a good variable in explaining turnover Tenure and organizational investment are negatively related http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT66&lpg=PT66&dq=Tenure+does+not+appear+to+be+a+good+predictor+of+empl oyee+productivity&source=bl&ots=9vx1g8LV5A&sig=0HIdt8YIaWqk7yp0WeQHvkeb5Q&hl=en&ei=8Ms9TLCdKY2gkQXZwpmkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1582) What other name is the two-factor theory known by? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.435/713 Theories X and Y Motivator-Hygiene Theory page 60 Hierarchy of Needs Theory Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Theory 1583) Which of the following method is used for strengthening desirable behavior? Negative Reinforcement Neutral Reinforcement Pleasant Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=PLxI0xTMCEoC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=of+the+foll owing+method+is+used+for+strengthening+desirable+behavior&source=bl&ots=SQKAWmEy Z9&sig=fWWumAP1EN1imnClvthDThJolM&hl=en&ei=Pdk4TICSNoXCrAeE0d2DCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=3&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 1584) How does McClelland define the need for affiliation? Drive to excel, to strive to succeed Need to make others behave in a novel way Desire for friendship and mutual understanding page 63 The desire to control & influence their behavior 1585) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 1586) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders? Physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization page 60 Safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization Physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.436/713 1587) What are the three key elements of motivation? Interest, activity and reward Awareness, effort and outcome Stimulation, progress and achievement Intensity, direction and persistence page 59 Key Elements of Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 1588) Amna is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Amna most likely using? Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 1589) Asma is experiencing conveyance problem for her college pick and drop. She decides to use the rational decision-making model to decide what to do. What might be the next step she takes if she follows this model? Define the problem Identify the decisions criteria Evaluate other available alternatives Select the best alternative http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model 1.Define the problem. 2.Identify decision criteria 3.Weight the criteria http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.437/713 4.Generate alternatives 5.Rate each alternative on each criterion 6.Compute the optimal decision 1590) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Situation Perceiver Reality Target 1591) What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB? The perceptions people form about each other The perceptions people form about their employer The perceptions people form about society The perceptions people form about external reality http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=most+relevant+application+of+perception+concepts +to+OB&source=bl&ots=0lwVDHACvo&sig=aqP41WMlk07mN32jrqWaZZ78IL0&hl=en&ei= OAwTOztEZCTkAWWlbzQDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwA g#v=onepage&q=most%20relevant%20application%20of%20perception%20concepts%20to%2 0OB&f=false 1592) Imran is the head of a group at an advertising agency working with artists and designers to come up with effective branding of new products. Why is it particularly important for him to keep his team happy? People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood People are more efficient when they are in a good People are more productive when they are in a good mood People are more creative when they are in a good mood http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA118&dq=People+are+more+creati ve+when+they+are+in+a+good+mood&hl=en&ei=3wwTMj3MIuqcbGauaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v= onepage&q=People%20are%20more%20creative%20when%20they%20are%20in%20a%20goo d%20mood&f=false 1593) Which of the following statement is true regarding Big five Model? The Big Five traits are related to intrinsic motivational factors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.438/713 The Big Five traits are related to extrinsic motivational factors The Big Five traits are related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors page 34 The Big Five traits have no relationship to motivational factors 1594) The degree to which people value relationships and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare for others is called: Quantity of life Quality of life page 26 Long-term orientation Social Loafing 1595) All of the following are sources of the values EXCEPT: External Reference Groups Role Models Achievement page 25 Teachers Sources of values – Parents. – Friends. – Teachers. – Role models. – External reference groups. 1596) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best described these values? Terminal values Instrumental values page 25 Theoretical values Social values 1597) Which of the following is NOT one of the scales to measure job satisfaction? Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire The Faces Scale The mentor scale page 30 Descriptive Index 1598) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called----------------. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.439/713 Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment Ref: The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. 1599) Last year, Ali had taken lunch at a fast food restaurant that caused him food poisoning. Now whenever he passes by the restaurant, he feels nauseous. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory 1600) Which of the following are identified as new managerial functions? Planning and organizing Leading and controlling Directing and monitoring TQM and continuous improvement page 8 1601) Mr. Ahmed is responsible to transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions and results. Which managerial role is he playing in organization? Disseminator Spokesperson page 9 Representative Figurehead 1602) The greatest contribution of which one of the following to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations? Psychology Sociology http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.440/713 Anthropology Social Psychology http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA5&dq=OB+is+through+their+st udy+of+group+behavior+in+organizations,+particularly+formal+and+complex+organizations& hl=en&ei=NxoTM2GE8q2cZ698aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q=OB%20is%20through%20their%20study%20of%20group%20behavior%20in%20 organizations%2C%20particularly%20formal%20and%20complex%20organizations&f=false 1603) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing. Planning page 7 Organizing Leading Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 1604) The behavior of people is influenced by which of the following factors? Psychological needs Individual drives Social roles and status All of the given options 1605) The greatest contribution of which one of the following to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA5&dq=OB+is+through+their+st udy+of+group+behavior+in+organizations,+particularly+formal+and+complex+organizations& hl=en&ei=NxoTM2GE8q2cZ698aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.441/713 =onepage&q=OB%20is%20through%20their%20study%20of%20group%20behavior%20in%20 organizations%2C%20particularly%20formal%20and%20complex%20organizations&f=false 1606) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills page 9 Leading skills, motivational skills and human skills Organizing skills, interpersonal skills and leading skills Motivating skills, intrapersonal skills and conceptual skills 1607) The smell of fresh cake baking makes Saima’s mouth water is an example of which one of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory 1608) Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because: Attitudes influence behavior and perception Attitudes give warning signs of potential problems Attitudes are associated with job satisfaction All of the given options page 28 1609) Which of the following is NOT one of the scales to measure job satisfaction? Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire The Faces Scale The mentor scale page 30 Descriptive Index 1610) Zahra’s personality shows that she is dependable, well organized, and responsible. According to the Big Five model; which of the following is the right dimension for describing Zahra’s personality? Agreeableness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.442/713 Emotional stability Extroversion Conscientiousness page 35 1611) Which of the following are the categories into which emotions are usually grouped? Simple and Complex Positive and Negative page 38 Positive and Complex Complex and Negative 1612) Emotional Responses that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job are called: Felt Emotions Displayed Emotions page 39. Moods Emotional Intelligence Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. 1613) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options 1614) What do we call the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment? Environmental analysis Social verification Outlook Perception page44 1615) The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a/an: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.443/713 Perceptual issue page 52 Emergency issue Cognitive issue Ethical issue 1616) Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the rational decisionmaking model? The decision maker has complete information The decision maker is aware of all consequences The decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria The decision maker is constrained by time and costs page 53 1617) According to which of the following decision making model; people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient? Bounded Rational Page 53 Three Component Model Contingency Rational 1618) How is the satisficing decision maker best characterized? As using rationality As using bounded rationality page 53 As using creativity As relying on others to make decisions 1619) Which of the following is NOT an ethic in decision making? Utilitarianism Focus on right Focus on justice Favoritism Page 56 1620) Which of the following statements is NOT an example of stereotyping? There is no need to offer child-care to him; men aren’t interested in child care Don’t hire an older worker; they can’t learn new skills She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one page 46 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.444/713 She won’t relocate for a promotion, since women don’t relocate 1621) What is the primary organizational factor that satisfies people’s physiological needs? Relationship Recognition Pay page60 Admiration 1622) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 1623) Shahid is a salaried employee whose job is to proof read legal documents. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory? The quantity of documents he proofreads will decrease The quality of documents he proofreads will decrease The quantity and/or the quality of documents he proofreads will increase There will be no effect of this fact on his performance 1624) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers 1625) Research does NOT support which of the following statements about gender in the workplace? Women are more willing to conform to authority than men http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.445/713 Men are more aggressive than women Women are more productive at work than men page 17 Men have higher expectations of success 1626) Which of the following is NOT one of the most widely used variable-pay programs? Piece-rate wages Merit-based pay Fixed pay page 72 Profit sharing plans 1627) In which of the following situation Synergy is most likely to occur? The activities of all group members are fully dependent on one another The performance of one member of a group affects what other members do Group members must perform specific behaviors in a predetermined order Group members acting together produce more or better output than alone page 82 1628) Which of the following is the stage of group development characterized by the development of close relationships and cohesiveness? Forming Norming page 80 Storming Adjourning 1629) Which of the following does NOT explain the characteristics of teams? Commonality of purpose Interconnectivity among individual members Flexibility and degree of responsiveness Restrictions on expression of ideas 1630) Which of the following is NOT considered an advantage of electronic meetings? Maintains the secrecy of ideas Speed up decision making process Receiving credit for the best ideas http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.446/713 Accurate exchange of opinions 1631) Which of the following statement is true about decision making using nominal group techinque? This method is good to generate a quantity of ideas This method is good for building group cohesiveness This method is good for encouraging independent thinking page 92 This method is an inexpensive way of generating maximum ideas 1632) Which of the following is the product of a sender’s encoding? Channel Message Transmission Medium 1633) If Ali is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display? He prefers to talk on the phone He prefers to send emails He relies on memos or letters He avoids face-to-face communication 1634) Sami is developing marketing page for the company web site and is concerned about the appearance of his active links. He seeks reactions from fellow employees. The reactions he seeks are part of the: Adjourning phase Encoding phase Decoding phase Feedback phase 1635) Which of the following is an important nonverbal component of communication? Written memo Paraphrase http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.447/713 Eye contact E-mail 1636) A communication channel with greater channel richness is most likely to provide: Greater feedback density Greater filtering capability Greater perceptual wellness Larger amounts of information 1637) Jobs in which success demands stamina, leg strength and manual dexterity require management to identify an employee’s which characteristics? Physical abilities page 21 Motor abilities Mental abilities Emotional abilities 1638) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing? Planning page 7 Organizing Leading Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 1639) A bachelor degree holder is most likely to have a job that requires: Human skills Technical skills page 9 Conceptual skills Leading skills 1640) Which of the following type of values determine the preferences for the means to be used in achieving desired ends? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.448/713 Terminal values Instrumental values page25 Theoretical values Social values 1641) Ali is an employee in a company. He expresses his dissatisfaction by discussing the problem with the superiors, suggests improvements and involves the unions in problem solving, He expresses his dissatisfaction in which of the following ways? Exit Voice pae 32 Loyalty Neglect Reference: Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 1642) The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship? Performance-reward page66 Effort-performance Reward-personal goal Effort-satisfaction 1643) The communication used by managers to provide job instructions is an example of: Downward communication Lateral communication Directional communication Diagonal communication Ref: In downward communication Organizational decisions are made at top level and then flow down to the people who carry them. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.449/713 1644) The behavior of people is influenced by which of the following factors? Psychological needs Individual drives Social roles and status All of the given options 1645) The greatest contribution of which one of the following to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA5&dq=OB+is+through+their+st udy+of+group+behavior+in+organizations,+particularly+formal+and+complex+organizations& hl=en&ei=NxoTM2GE8q2cZ698aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v =onepage&q=OB%20is%20through%20their%20study%20of%20group%20behavior%20in%20 organizations%2C%20particularly%20formal%20and%20complex%20organizations&f=false 1646) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills page 9 Leading skills, motivational skills and human skills Organizing skills, interpersonal skills and leading skills Motivating skills, intrapersonal skills and conceptual skills 1647) The smell of fresh cake baking makes Saima’s mouth water is an example of which one of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.450/713 1648) Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because: Attitudes influence behavior and perception Attitudes give warning signs of potential problems Attitudes are associated with job satisfaction All of the given options page 28 1649) Which of the following is NOT one of the scales to measure job satisfaction? Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire The Faces Scale The mentor scale page 30 Descriptive Index Ref: The most widely used scales to measure job satisfaction include theMinnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Faces Scale, and the Job Descriptive Index. 1650) Zahra’s personality shows that she is dependable, well organized, and responsible. According to the Big Five model; which of the following is the right dimension for describing Zahra’s personality? Agreeableness Emotional stability Extroversion Conscientiousness page 35 1651) Which of the following are the categories into which emotions are usually grouped? Simple and Complex Positive and Negative page 38 Positive and Complex Complex and Negative 1652) Emotional Responses that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job are called: Felt Emotions Displayed Emotions page 39. Moods Emotional Intelligence http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.451/713 Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. 1653) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options 1654) What do we call the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment? Environmental analysis Social verification Outlook Perception page44 1655) The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a/an: Perceptual issue page 52 Emergency issue Cognitive issue Ethical issue 1656) Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the rational decision-making model? The decision maker has complete information The decision maker is aware of all consequences The decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria The decision maker is constrained by time and costs page 53 1657) According to which of the following decision making model; people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient? Bounded Rational Page 53 Three Component Model http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.452/713 Contingency Rational Reference: Bounded Rationality;People satisfice—they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient. 1658) How is the satisficing decision maker best characterized? As using rationality As using bounded rationality page 53 As using creativity As relying on others to make decisions 1659) Which of the following is NOT an ethic in decision making? Utilitarianism Focus on right Focus on justice Favoritism Page 56 1660) Which of the following statements is NOT an example of stereotyping? There is no need to offer child-care to him; men aren’t interested in child care Don’t hire an older worker; they can’t learn new skills She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one She won’t relocate for a promotion, since women don’t relocate 1661) What is the primary organizational factor that satisfies people’s physiological needs? Relationship Recognition Pay page60 Admiration 1662) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.453/713 Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 1663) Shahid is a salaried employee whose job is to proof read legal documents. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory? The quantity of documents he proofreads will decrease The quality of documents he proofreads will decrease The quantity and/or the quality of documents he proofreads will increase There will be no effect of this fact on his performance 1664) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers 1665) Research does NOT support which of the following statements about gender in the workplace? Women are more willing to conform to authority than men Men are more aggressive than women Women are more productive at work than men Men have higher expectations of success 1666) Which of the following is NOT one of the most widely used variable-pay programs? Piece-rate wages Merit-based pay Fixed pay page 72 Profit sharing plans 1667) In which of the following situation Synergy is most likely to occur? The activities of all group members are fully dependent on one another The performance of one member of a group affects what other members do Group members must perform specific behaviors in a predetermined order http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.454/713 Group members acting together produce more or better output than alone 1668) Which of the following is the stage of group development characterized by the development of close relationships and cohesiveness? Forming Norming page 80 Storming Adjourning 1669) Which of the following statement is true about decision making using nominal group techinque? This method is good to generate a quantity of ideas This method is good for building group cohesiveness This method is good for encouraging independent thinking page 92 This method is an inexpensive way of generating maximum ideas 1670) Which of the following is the product of a sender’s encoding? Channel Message Transmission Medium 1671) If Ali is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display? He prefers to talk on the phone He prefers to send emails He relies on memos or letters He avoids face-to-face communication 1672) Sami is developing marketing page for the company web site and is concerned about the appearance of his active links. He seeks reactions from fellow employees. The reactions he seeks are part of the: Adjourning phase Encoding phase Decoding phase http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.455/713 Feedback phase 1673) Which of the following is an important nonverbal component of communication? Written memo Paraphrase Eye contact E-mail 1674) A communication channel with greater channel richness is most likely to provide: Greater feedback density Greater filtering capability Greater perceptual wellness Larger amounts of information 1675) Jobs in which success demands stamina, leg strength and manual dexterity require management to identify an employee’s which characteristics? Physical abilities page 21 Motor abilities Mental abilities Emotional abilities 1676) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing? Planning page 7 Organizing Leading Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.456/713 1677) A bachelor degree holder is most likely to have a job that requires: Human skills Technical skills page 9 Conceptual skills Leading skills Reference: Technical Skills • The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job Bachelor degree holder will certainly prefer the job that requires his expertise in certain field. Human and conceptual skills are required for the jobs as of disturbance handlers, figure heads and liaison etc. 1678) Which of the following type of values determine the preferences for the means to be used in achieving desired ends? Terminal values Instrumental values page25 Theoretical values Social values 1679) Ali is an employee in a company. He expresses his dissatisfaction by discussing the problem with the superiors, suggests improvements and involves the unions in problem solving, He expresses his dissatisfaction in which of the following ways? Exit Voice page 32 Loyalty Neglect Reference: Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 1680) The degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will generate a desired outcome is defined by expectancy theory as what kind of relationship? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.457/713 Performance-reward page66 Effort-performance Reward-personal goal Effort-satisfaction 1681) of: The communication used by managers to provide job instructions is an example Downward communication Lateral communication Directional communication Diagonal communication Ref: In downward communication Organizational decisions are made at top level and then flow down to the people who carry them. 1682) Giving an employee a two-day suspension from work without pay for showing up drunk is an example of which of the following: Punishment Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement 1683) Rabia is working in a software house. She is a very hard working, motivated to achieve organizational goals and due to her attachment with the organization she wishes to continue her job with the same organization. Her behavior is showing: Job involvemen Page 29 Job satisfaction Job commitment Job enrichment 1684) Which of the following lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions? Moods Behaviors Values page 28 Customs Importance of Values 1. Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.458/713 our perceptions. 1685) _________________ are the preferences concerning the ends to be achieved. Terminal values page25 Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values Types of values – Terminal values. • Preferences concerning the ends to be achieved. – Instrumental values. • Preferences for the means to be used in achieving desired ends. 1686) Which of the following is NOT included in the values across cultures? Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Assertiveness Individualism versus collectivism 1687) Which of the following statements is TRUE for affect? Affect is a type of emotion and religion Affect is a type of mood and environment Affect can be a mood or an emotion Affect is the result of conscious thought 1688) The ability of a person to manipulate his/her emotions according to a given situation is called________________. Emotional Intelligence Emotional Constraints Affective Emotions Cognitive dissonance 1689) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.459/713 1690) What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB? The perceptions people form about each other The perceptions people form about their employer The perceptions people form about society The perceptions people form about external reality http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=most+relevant+application+of+perception+concepts +to+OB&source=bl&ots=0lwVDHACvo&sig=aqP41WMlk07mN32jrqWaZZ78IL0&hl=en&ei= OAwTOztEZCTkAWWlbzQDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwA g#v=onepage&q=most%20relevant%20application%20of%20perception%20concepts%20to%2 0OB&f=false 1691) Whenever Sana is successful she takes full credit for what has happened, but whenever she is unsuccessful she attributes her failure to bad luck or blames one of her fellow employees. She is doing__________. Self-serving biase The halo effect Distinctiveness Projection 1692) Hunger, thirst, sex, pay, and physical work environment are examples of which of Alderfer’s needs? Existence Safety Growth Physiological 1693) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Reference: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.460/713 Page 64 1694) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? Reward-satisfaction relationship Satisfaction-performance relationship Rewards-personal goals relationship Effort-satisfaction relationship http://www.citeman.com/434‐expectancy‐theory/ 1695) What continuum in the two-factor theory is made up of the hygiene factors? No dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction No dissatisfaction to satisfaction Satisfaction to no satisfaction Satisfaction to dissatisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=F1c3wHNDFwC&pg=PA391&lpg=PA391&dq=No+dissatisfaction+to+dissatisfaction&source=bl&ots=n22F 8T5WyM&sig=pHgO63oA8xPOFvmPUFQS1F2ToTQ&hl=en&ei=Tdg5TN3zE4m2rAfSlsC3C A&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CD0Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%20N o%20dissatisfaction%20to%20dissatisfaction&f=false 1696) Some MBO programs fail to live up to expectations. Which of the following is NOT a common reason that MBO programs fail? Allowing subordinate to participate in setting goals Unwillingness to reward goal accomplishment Unrealistic expectations regarding results Lack of commitment by top management 1697) Who sets MBO objectives? The immediate supervisor The superior and subordinate The head of department The employees themselves http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.461/713 1698) The tendency of individuals to exert less effort when they work in a group than when they work alone is referred to as: Sucker effect Social loafing Social facilitation Socialization 1699) Teams generally have a(n) _____________ impact on employee motivation. Inconsistent Positive Discouraging Neutral 1700) Demand on leader is ___________ in a team comprising of 2-7 members. High Highest Low Moderate 1701) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of a small team? Lack for diversity of views Less chances of disagreement Less rigidity Less difficult to assemble 1702) Which of the following type of teams allows for collaboration between team members who are physically dispersed? Local Global Virtual Interactive 1703) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.462/713 There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options 1704) Which of the following is described as a tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members? Group think Group shift Group polarization Social loafing http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:jpU4nEhHBWMJ:www.csus.edu/indi v/a/antonenl/ppt/ch09.ppt+tendency+for+group+discussion+to+produce+shifts+toward+more+e xtreme+attitudes+among+members&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1705) Which of the following is a group decision making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion? Brainstorming Groupthink Nominal group Technique page 92 Delphi model 1706) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? Face-to-face interacting groups Brainstorming Delphi technique Nominal group technique 1707) Which of the following techniques most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process? Groupthink Nominal group page92 Brainstorm Electronic meeting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.463/713 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=most+restricts+discussion+or+interpersonal+commu nication+during+the+decisionmaking+process&source=bl&ots=0lwVDGBvsl&sig=HzYcgmuXbyQMCeBCQ6KVjU6mnE&hl=en&ei=MuY9TKr7MYuUkAWSirWkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul t&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=most%20restricts%20discussion%20or%2 0interpersonal%20communication%20during%20the%20decision-making%20process&f=false 1708) According to Robert House, which of the following statement is true? Managers use the authority inherent in their designated formal rank Leaders are the primary agent for bringing organizational change Leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future Leaders align and direct people by communicating their vision http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA290&lpg=PA290&dq=Managers+use+the+authority+inherent+in+their+des ignated+formal+rank&source=bl&ots=0lwVDMCzsr&sig=luqabQEHb4pqTjaddvqm5-gUeQ&hl=en&ei=ENY-TMKNsewcbD43MwE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=o nepage&q=Managers%20use%20the%20authority%20inherent%20in%20their%20designated% 20formal%20rank&f=false 1709) The University of Michigan researchers concluded that: Employee-oriented leaders had lower productivity Employee-oriented leaders had higher productivity Production-oriented leaders created lower employee satisfaction Production-oriented leaders created higher employee satisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=The+University+of+Michigan+researchers+conclud ed+that:+Employee-oriented+leaders+had+lower+productivity+Employeeoriented+leaders+had+higher+productivity+Productionoriented+leaders+created+lower+employee+satisfaction+Productionoriented+leaders+created+higher+employee+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=0lwVCJzBpr&sig=Y KI9f5YIVHHWbdvUW5PTCGVTqSc&hl=en&ei=M888TJjiB8mJcJfawOUD&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1710) The means by which a communication is passed is called: Medium Instrument http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.464/713 Conductor Transmission 1711) When manager marketing is communicating with the manager production, it is called: Upward communication Downward communication Lateral communication Vertical communication http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA62&dq=Lateral+communicati on+Organizational+Behavior&hl=en&ei=p9cTP3KBIT6cPrpoNsE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v= onepage&q=Lateral%20communication%20Organizational%20Behavior&f=false 1712) Sami is developing marketing page for the company web site and is concerned about the appearance of his active links. He seeks reactions from fellow employees. The reactions he seeks are part of the: Adjourning phase Encoding phase Decoding phase Feedback phase 1713) Memos, letters, e-mail, fax transmissions, and organizational periodicals represent examples of: Informal communication channels Formal communication channels Written communication Non verbal communication 1714) Which of the following is an important nonverbal component of communication? Written memo Paraphrase Eye contact E-mail http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.465/713 1715) Rumors would most likely flourish in situations where there is: Ambiguous situation Well-communicated change Assurance by management A chain communication style 1716) Which one of the following study in the field of OB has contributed knowledge on a number of topics including: learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership, motivation, job satisfaction, decision making, etc? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Physiology http://www.scribd.com/doc/17564392/Chapter-1-What-is-Organizational-Behavior 1717) __________ are the shared beliefs about expected behaviors aimed at making groups function effectively. Group ethics Group norms Group criteria Group unity http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=G9GqzPJHSZkC&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=shared +beliefs+about+expected+behaviors+aimed+at+making+groups+function+effectively&source=b l&ots=tahkDS0tlX&sig=lFxA4-ZBQ2Ca_3vfZDuLaUXhyog&hl=en&ei=PNoTIPZGcyqcbrwleIE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=o nepage&q=shared%20beliefs%20about%20expected%20behaviors%20aimed%20at%20making %20groups%20function%20effectively&f=false 1718) Which of the following type of values determine the preferences for the means to be used in achieving desired ends? Terminal values Instrumental values page25 Theoretical values Social values 1719) The Big Five model is related to ________. Perception http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.466/713 Personality Page 34 Experience Culture 1720) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 1721) Process variables include all of the following EXCEPT: Climate of trust Team efficacy Minimized social loafing Specific goals http://www.stamfordonline.com.my/courses/dmc/mcg602/MCG%20602%20Week%209.pdf 1722) The behavior of people is influenced by which of the following factors? Psychological needs Individual drives Social roles and status All of the given options 1723) Which of the following statements best describes the goals of Organizational Behavior? To understand the behaviors of people at work To appreciate the behavior of people at work To align behaviors according to the organizational goals To describe, understand, predict, and control human behavior at work http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=To+describ e,+understand,+predict,+and+control+human+behavior+at+work&source=bl&ots=fun4fVCtIm &sig=X6EKo1y6aLN_Yi_Sx4uiXhG0530&hl=en&ei=9dwhttp://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.467/713 TMHhHYy4ccLpwNQE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBQ #v=onepage&q=To%20describe%2C%20understand%2C%20predict%2C%20and%20control% 20human%20behavior%20at%20work&f=false 1724) Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by_______. Stephen Covey Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 1725) Learning theories include all of the following EXCEPT: Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Contingency theory Ref: Contingency theory is a leadership theory 1726) “Smoking is injurious to health”. This statement is an example of which one of the following components of attitude? Cognitive page 28 Affective http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.468/713 Behavioral Behavior intension Ref: Cognitions A person's knowledge, opinions, or beliefs 1727) Which of the following is not one of the types of attitude? Job satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Behavior page 29 Organizational commitment Types of attitudes OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. 1728) The measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self-worth is called: Job involvement page 29 Job satisfaction Job commitment Job enrichment Job involvement • A workable definition: the measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self-worth. 1729) All of the following are attitudes associated with job satisfaction EXCEPT: The work itself Promotion opportunities Supervision Negligence http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA78&dq=attitudes+associated+with+job+satisfaction++++++++++The+work +itself++++++++++Promotion+opportunities++++++++++Supervision&hl=en&ei=Hd8-TJhttp://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.469/713 zC8XIcfHmicsE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBA#v=one page&q=of%20the%20major%20jobsatisfaction%20facets%20(work%20itself%2C%20pay%2C%20advancement%20opportunities %2C%20supervision%2C%20co-workers&f=false 1730) Which of the following lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions? Moods Behaviors Values page 28 Customs Importance of Values 1. Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions. 1731) _________________ are the preferences concerning the ends to be achieved. Terminal values page25 Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values Types of values – Terminal values. • Preferences concerning the ends to be achieved. – Instrumental values. • Preferences for the means to be used in achieving desired ends. 1732) Which of the following is NOT included in the values across cultures? Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Assertiveness page 26 Individualism versus collectivism 1733) All of the following are sources of the values EXCEPT: External Reference Groups http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.470/713 Role Models Achievement page 25 Teachers Sources of values – Parents. – Friends. – Teachers. – Role models. – External reference groups. 1734) What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB? The perceptions people form about each other The perceptions people form about their employer The perceptions people form about society The perceptions people form about external reality http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=most+relevant+application+of+perception+concepts +to+OB&source=bl&ots=0lwVDHACvo&sig=aqP41WMlk07mN32jrqWaZZ78IL0&hl=en&ei= OAwTOztEZCTkAWWlbzQDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwA g#v=onepage&q=most%20relevant%20application%20of%20perception%20concepts%20to%2 0OB&f=false 1735) Which of the following is NOT consistent with rational decision-making? Consistency Value-minimization Ranking of criteria Evaluating alternatives 1736) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an internally caused behavior? Working late in order to get a promotion page 48 Arriving at work late because heavy traffic Working weekends because of your employer’s orders Depending on luck for success 1737) If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows ______________. Distinctiveness Consensus http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.471/713 Consistency page 48 Continuity 1738) Hassan derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships with his extended family. Which of Maslow’s needs is Hassan fulfilling through these relationships? Self-actualization Esteem Social Page 60 Physiological Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Social needs: affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. 1739) According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating? When it is substantially satisfied page 60 It never stops motivating When one returns to a lower level need When one chooses to move to a higher level need 1740) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 1741) Our intrinsic desire for personal development is included in Alderfer’s _____________ needs. Existence Relatedness Esteem Growth http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=dF7G0yZ51GgC&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=desire+fo r+personal+development+is+included+in+Alderfer’s&source=bl&ots=pZ_ZQqszL_&sig=UNwXpU1gdqEmwg-9IFUevcxxxM&hl=en&ei=MOATI66LNDRccjP9dUE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBQ#v= onepage&q=intrinsic%20desire%20for%20personal%20developmen&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.472/713 1742) McClelland’s theory of needs concentrates on which three needs? Power, acceptance and confirmation Affiliation, control and realization Achievement, realization and acceptance Achievement, power and affiliation page 63 1743) Which of the following appears to be the combination of needs found in the best managers? High achievement, high power High achievement, low power High power, low affiliation Low power, high affiliation http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT154&dq=combination+of+needs +found+in+the+best+managers++++++++++High+achievement,+high+power&hl=en&ei=nuMTNqKCoe6cY6ZvZEF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA# v=onepage&q=The%20best%20managers%20are%20high%20in%20their%20need%20for%20p ower%20and%20low%20in%20their%20need%20for%20affiliation&f=false 1744) Which of the following is NOT a comparison an employee can use in equity theory? Self-inside Self-goal Other-outside Self-outside http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Bg1oNWWbn2QJ:www.slideshare.net/gu rdeep1211/ob‐8‐presentation+equity+theory+Self‐inside+Self‐goal+Other‐outside+Self‐ outside&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1745) Which of the following method is used for strengthening desirable behavior? Negative Reinforcement Neutral Reinforcement Pleasant Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement page#22 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=PLxI0xTMCEoC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=of+the+foll owing+method+is+used+for+strengthening+desirable+behavior&source=bl&ots=SQKAWmEy Z9&sig=fWWumAP1EN1imnClhttp://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.473/713 vthDThJolM&hl=en&ei=Pdk4TICSNoXCrAeE0d2DCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=3&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 1746) Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate of women in the workplace? Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family page 17 Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men Women tend to work in jobs that have less flexible schedules than men do 1747) Which of the following is a job that does not lend itself to telecommuting? An attorney who spends most of her time researching on the computer A car salesman who demonstrates the features of a new model of car A telemarketer who uses the phone to contact clients A product support specialist who fields calls from customers Ref: Telecommuting Doing work that is generally performed in the office away from the office using different information technologies 1748) Which one of the following groups may want government to direct more attention to environmental problems? Interest group page 79 Command group Formal group Task group 1749) Which of the following type of teams would most likely empower its team members to make work-related decisions? Technical Self-managed page 88 Problem-solving Cross functional 1750) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of group decision making? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.474/713 More knowledge through pooling of group resources More amount of time is required to make a decision page 91 Increased acceptance & commitment due to voice in decisions Greater understanding due to involvement in decision stages 1751) Which of the following is a tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion? Group conformity Group shift Groupthink page 136 Social loafing http://allpsych.com/dictionary/g.html 1752) Group decisions are generally preferable to individual decisions when which of the following is required. Acceptance of the solution A complicated solution Speed and efficiency Clear responsibility http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT208&dq=Group+decision s+are+generally+preferable+to+individual+decisions+when+Acceptance+of+the+solutio n&hl=en&ei=BekTO1dysFxl_zo7gQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCYQ6AEwA A#v=onepage&q=Group%20decisions%20are%20generally%20preferable%20to%20ind ividual%20decisions%20when%20Acceptance%20of%20the%20solution&f=false 1753) John Kotter’s view argues that management focuses on coping with complexity, whereas leadership focuses on coping __________. Conflict Success Morale Change page102 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=l0Ek_I5afyAC&pg=PA14&dq=John+Kotter’s+view+ar gues+that+management+focuses+on+coping+with+complexity,+whereas+leadership+focuses+o n+coping+change&hl=en&ei=d-kTPvnLY_Ccc6d3IUF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v= onepage&q=Coping%20with%20complexity%20Coping%20with%20change&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.475/713 1754) If behavioral leadership theories are correct, then which of the following statement is true? Leadership behaviors are consistent Leaders are born with leadership behaviors Leaders’ behavior should be altered Leadership skills can be trained 1755) Which of the following communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee? Vertical Wheel All-channel page100 Chain 1756) Which of the following is the most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader? Chain All-channel Wheel page#100 Direct http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WFwK9yg6zbwJ:www.docuter.com/vie wer.asp%3Fdocument%3D977118913497f05a152c011233061281%26ch7+Which+of+the+follo wing+is+the+most+effective+communication+network+for+facilitating+the+emergence+of+a+l eader%3F+Chain+All-channel+Wheel+Direct&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1757) Which one of the following study in the field of OB has contributed knowledge on a number of topics including: learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership, motivation, job satisfaction, decision making, etc? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Physiology http://www.scribd.com/doc/17564392/Chapter-1-What-is-Organizational-Behavior 1758) How do proponents of reinforcement theory view behavior? As a product of heredity As a function of one’s power need As the result of a cognitive process http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.476/713 As environmentally caused http://www.slideshare.net/gurdeep1211/ob-8-presentation 1759) A bachelor degree holder is most likely to have a job that requires: Human skills Technical skills page 9 Conceptual skills Leading skills 1760) The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another is called _______. Attitude Personality Perception Mind-set http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=stable+set+ of+psychological+attributes+that+distinguishes+one+person+from+another&source=bl&ots=TP o_3eWgcW&sig=2dzcA6ITvsBSrw-ejaSYlTlBWcY&hl=en&ei=oI09TJDiD4gkQW2wqiyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=one page&q=stable%20set%20of%20psychological%20attributes%20that%20distinguishes%20one %20person%20from%20another&f=false 1761) Teams are very useful in which of the following situations? The work to be performed is very basic The tasks are interrelated page 77 No one wants to be accountable The group is homogeneous 1762) Which one of the following is defined as a social entity composed of two or more people which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Community Organization Partnership Treaty http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.477/713 1763) Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by_______. Stephen Covey Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 1764) When a textile factory supervisor gives a group of college students a tour of the plant, he or she is acting as: Guide Figurehead Liaison Monitor 1765) The opinion or belief segment of an attitude is described by which component of attitude? Cognitive Affective Behavioral Behavior intension 1766) The Globe Framework for assessing cultures includes all EXCEPT: Future Orientation Work Moods Power Distance Gender Differentiation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.478/713 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:daMVWtsDPUJ:www.business.utah.edu/~mgtab/OB03.ppt+Globe+Framework+for+assessing+cultures&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1767) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options 1768) People who have difficulty in expressing their emotions and understanding the emotions of others suffer from which psychological disorder? Alexithymia page 40 Amnesia Dyslexia Anorixia 1769) Which of the following statement is true regarding “perceiver”? The person making interpretations The person making accurate judgments The person handling problems The person appointed to transmit information Ref: The perceiver’s knowledge base is organized into schemas, abstract knowledge structures stored in memory that allow people to organize and interpret information about a given target of perception. 1770) The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a/an: Perceptual issue page 52 Emergency issue Cognitive issue Ethical issue 1771) Which is NOT one of the steps in the rational decision-making model? Defining the problem Identifying the decision criteria Computing the decision alternatives Rating the alternatives http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.479/713 1772) Which of the following decision making style shows low tolerance for ambiguity and seeks rationality? Directive page 54 Analytical Conceptual Behavioral 1773) Sana is a group leader at interior designing firm. She is concerned with the achievement of her peers and subordinates, she appreciate their suggestions and motivates them to come up with something new and unique. Which of the following is Sana’s style? Conceptual Behavioral page 55 Directive Analytical 1774) Which applicants are usually considered “best” by interviewers? Those with the best qualifications Those who lack any unfavorable characteristics Those who are verbally adept Those whose interview lasts the longest 1775) Which of the following method is used for strengthening desirable behavior? Negative Reinforcement Neutral Reinforcement Pleasant Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=PLxI0xTMCEoC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=of+the+foll owing+method+is+used+for+strengthening+desirable+behavior&source=bl&ots=SQKAWmEy Z9&sig=fWWumAP1EN1imnClvthDThJolM&hl=en&ei=Pdk4TICSNoXCrAeE0d2DCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=3&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 1776) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.480/713 1777) Which of the following statements most accurately describes interest groups? They are longer lasting than friendship groups They are formed because of some common objective They are governed by labor laws They are likely to involve great social conflict 1778) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of group decision making? More knowledge through pooling of group resources More amount of time is required to make a decision page 91 Increased acceptance & commitment due to voice in decisions Greater understanding due to involvement in decision stages 1779) Which of the following techniques most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process? Groupthink Nominal group page92 Brainstorm Electronic meeting http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=most+restricts+discussion+or+interpersonal+co mmunication+during+the+decisionmaking+process&source=bl&ots=0lwVDGBvsl&sig=HzYcgmuXbyQMCeBCQ6KVjU6mnE&hl=en&ei=MuY9TKr7MYuUkAWSirWkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=r esult&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=most%20restricts%20discussion%2 0or%20interpersonal%20communication%20during%20the%20decisionmaking%20process&f=false 1780) Which of the following statement is true about decision making using nominal group techinque? This method is good to generate a quantity of ideas This method is good for building group cohesiveness This method is good for encouraging independent thinking page 92 This method is an inexpensive way of generating maximum ideas 1781) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first? Transmitting Decoding Encoding http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.481/713 Understanding 1782) When manager marketing is communicating with the manager production, it is called: Upward communication Downward communication Lateral communication Vertical communication http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA62&dq=Lateral+communi cation+Organizational+Behavior&hl=en&ei=p9cTP3KBIT6cPrpoNsE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA #v=onepage&q=Lateral%20communication%20Organizational%20Behavior&f=false 1783) Sami is developing marketing page for the company web site and is concerned about the appearance of his active links. He seeks reactions from fellow employees. The reactions he seeks are part of the: Adjourning phase Encoding phase Decoding phase Feedback phase 1784) Which one of the following are not the skills exhibited by an effective manager? Clarifies goals and objectives for everyone involved Discourages participation, upward communication, and suggestions Plans and organizes for an orderly work flow Facilitates work through team building, training, coaching and support 1785) Ali is an employee in a company. He expresses his dissatisfaction by discussing the problem with the superiors, suggests improvements and involves the unions in problem solving, He expresses his dissatisfaction in which of the following ways? Exit Voice page 32 Loyalty Neglect Reference: Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.482/713 improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 1786) In the following steps of rational decision making, which would come first? Generate alternatives Identify criteria Make a choice Implement the decision http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-makingmodels.html The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model 1.Define the problem. 2.Identify decision criteria 3.Weight the criteria 4.Generate alternatives 5.Rate each alternative on each criterion 6.Compute the optimal decision 1787) The factors an individual views as important in a decision are assessed in which step of the rational model? Decision criteria Developing alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Problem definition 1788) Which of the following is true for the people who adopt a thinking style based on logics and rationality? They process information serially They perceive things as a whole They perceive things on the basis of past experiences Their decisions depend upon situation 1789) Process variables include all of the following EXCEPT: Climate of trust Team efficacy Minimized social loafing Specific goals http://www.stamfordonline.com.my/courses/dmc/mcg602/MCG%20602%20Week%209.p df http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.483/713 1790) Which of the following is a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures? Decision making Groupthink Brainstorming Group polarization Ref: Groupthink - a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures 1791) All of the following are the major challenges that managers must deal with, in order to remain competitive EXCEPT: Managing ethical behavior anticipate changes in foreign currency valuations Keeping up with technological change Managing a diverse workforce 1792) Which of the following is the complex human reaction to personal achievement or setbacks that may be felt and displayed by a person? Attitude Emotions Value Perception http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:EALKBiO1AnIJ:www.drluisortiz.com/ PPT/ob09Chap005.ppt+complex+human+reaction+to+personal+achievement+or+setbacks+that +may+be+felt+and+displayed+by+a+person&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 1793) Which of the following is the study of social system such as families, occupational classes and organizations ? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology 1794) In system theory the transformation or conversion of inputs into outputs is accomplished with the help of which of the following? Mechanism http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.484/713 Technology Operational system Information system http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ROvGf0pvK8C&pg=PA322&lpg=PA322&dq=transformation+or+conversion+of+inputs+into+ou tputs+is+accomplished+with+technology&source=bl&ots=Le6_axGEi&sig=jBFk4Bydd_9_bc3g1YePKvJHDes&hl=en&ei=bm4_TNDYN9S8cerW0cwE&sa=X&oi= book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBIQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q&f=false 1795) Mr. Afaq is working in a sales department of Star Corporation. He gave a personal report to the general manager. In his report he pointed out that the sales staff are not performing their due responsibilities. Afaq’s attitude is showing which of the following component? Cognitive Affective Behavioral None of the given option The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_(psychology) 1796) Mr. Ahmed is responsible to transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions and results. Which managerial role is he playing in organization? Disseminator Spokesperson page 9 Representative Figurehead 1797) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options 1798) Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions, as agreed upon by most contemporary researchers? Anger Fear Hate page 39 Sadness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.485/713 1799) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Situation Perceiver Reality Target 1800) When people tend to use intuitive decision making? When a high level of uncertainty exists When facts and figures are available When programmed decions are made When there is no time constraint 1801) Which of the following terms involves making decisions so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number? Utilitarianism Justice Rights Satisfying Ref : Utilitarian criterion—decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. This view tends to dominate business decision making. 1802) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? An employee is late because of a flat tire. An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job. An employee was promoted because he was hard working. 1803) What are the three key elements of motivation? Interest, activity and reward Awareness, effort and outcome Stimulation, progress and achievement Intensity, direction and persistence page 59 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.486/713 Key Elements of Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 1804) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders? Physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization page 60 Safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization Physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization 1805) Hunger, thirst, sex, pay, and physical work environment are examples of which of Alderfer’s needs? Existence Safety Growth Physiological 1806) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers 1807) Which of the following has Not been shown to be a benefit of flextime? Reduced absenteeism Improved productivity Decreased satisfaction Improved promptness 1808) Which of the following statements is true? All command groups are also task groups All task groups are also friendship groups All command groups are also informal groups All informal groups are also command groups http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.487/713 1809) Which of the following is NOT one of the key components of effective teams? Effective work design Recognized company identity Supportive contextual influences Well-managed team processes 1810) What is generally the result of groupthink? Higher quality decisions More risky decisions Less critical analysis Unpopular decisions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TAaDaezB__8C&pg=PA448&dq=critical+analysis++gr oupthink&hl=en&ei=Yeg9TMXwF4WecarwvaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1 &ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=critical%20analysis%20%20groupthink&f=false 1811) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? Face-to-face interacting groups Brainstorming Delphi technique Nominal group technique 1812) Which group decision-making technique seems most reasonable for the management of a multinational company whose offices are located in China, India, Australia and England? Brainstorming session Nominal group technique Electronic meeting Postal service interaction 1813) Messages conveyed through body movements and facial expressions are called: Non-verbals Physical characteristics Semantics Excitement 1814) Which of the following is the most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.488/713 Chain All-channel Wheel Direct http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WFwK9yg6zbwJ:www.docuter.com/v iewer.asp%3Fdocument%3D977118913497f05a152c011233061281%26ch7+Which+of+the+fol lowing+is+the+most+effective+communication+network+for+facilitating+the+emergence+of+a +leader%3F+Chain+All-channel+Wheel+Direct&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1815) The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another is called _______. Attitude Personality Perception Mind-set http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=stable+set+ of+psychological+attributes+that+distinguishes+one+person+from+another&source=bl&ots=TP o_3eWgcW&sig=2dzcA6ITvsBSrw-ejaSYlTlBWcY&hl=en&ei=oI09TJDiD4gkQW2wqiyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=one page&q=stable%20set%20of%20psychological%20attributes%20that%20distinguishes%20one %20person%20from%20another&f=false 1816) Which of the following managerial roles might include reading trade magazines to learn more about competitors? Disseminator Leader Monitor Spokesperson 1817) A manager performing the role of disseminator is most likely to do which of the following activity? Speak in a Chamber of Commerce's meeting Hire a new Human Resource Manager for the company Inform subordinates about newly founded competitors Develop a new strategic five-year plan for the company 1818) Which of the following variables adversely affects organization's performance? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.489/713 Organizational citizenship Productivity Turnover Job satisfaction 1819) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive reinforcement 1820) Which of the following is the set of characteristics that underlines a relatively stable pattern of behavior? Emotions Moods Values Personality http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6894/is_2_7/ai_n28320359/ 1821) The extent to which personality attributes are inherited from our parents or shaped by our environment is called which of the following factors? Individual differences Psychological contributions Nature versus nurture Psychological contract Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=The+ extent+to+which+personality+attributes+are+inherited+from+our+parents+or+shaped+by+our+ environment+is+called&source=bl&ots=TPoW9n0leW&sig=eGurCOg44Xe3Oor0PySxQhS0AQ&hl=en&ei=aCULTMWsBtC04QbC7bR2&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&re snum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20extent%20to%20which%20personalit y%20attributes%20are%20inherited%20from%20our%20parents%20or%20shaped%20by%20o ur%20environment%20is%20called&f=false 1822) People with which of the following decision making style work well with others and enjoy social interactions? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.490/713 Behavioral Directive Analytical Conceptual 1823) Which of the following statement is TRUE regarding trait theories? Fit traits to various situations Emphasize the situation in classifying approaches to leadership Suggest leaders are born and not made Focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities 1824) Which of the following determines requirements of organization conversion process? Machinery, computers and human skills Raw material and capital Finished products and services HR and information system 1825) Which of the following can be considered a method of social learning? Classroom Workshop TV commercial Work Manual http://www.slideshare.net/wcfujita/observational-social-learning-theory 1826) The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institution and organizations is distributed unequally is called: Terminal Values Power Distance Fairness Uncertainty Avoidance http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.491/713 1827) Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one’s food, shelter and cloth? Physiological Social Esteem Safety 1828) A group which is raising funds from public for a medical research on a disease that can affect the population can be called as: Command group Formal group Task group Interest group 1829) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Culture shock page 14 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. 1830) Last year, Ali had taken lunch at a fast food restaurant that caused him food poisoning. Now whenever he passes by the restaurant, he feels nauseous. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.492/713 1831) Faizan, a supervisor, has to choose between two different suggestions offered by employees about work schedule. Which one of the following will be most suitable for Faizan? Inductive reasoning Spatial visualization Deductive reasoning Perception http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:vZThQyRRJpYJ:www.slideshare.net/ga r_dev/the-foundations-of-organizationalbehavior+Spatial+visualization+has+to+choose+between+two+different+suggestions+offered+b y+employees+about+work+schedule&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1832) Which of the following is NOT a component of attitude? Cognition Affect Behavior Myths 1833) Individuals having an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient and can be hostile, are called: Self Monitoring Self Esteemed Type A personality Type B personality 1834) Which of the following statements is TRUE for affect? Affect is a type of emotion and religion Affect is a type of mood and environment Affect can be a mood or an emotion Affect is the result of conscious thought 1835) How is the satisficing decision maker best characterized? As using rationality As using bounded rationality page 53 As using creativity As relying on others to make decisions 1836) When people tend to use intuitive decision making? When a high level of uncertainty exists When facts and figures are available When programmed decions are made When there is no time constraint http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.493/713 1837) Which of the following statement is true regarding “analytical decision making style”? Tries to avoid conflict and seek acceptance Provides creative solution to the problems Uses minimum information Takes little time in making decisions 1838) Hunger, thirst, sex, pay, and physical work environment are examples of which of Alderfer’s needs? Existence Safety Growth Physiological 1839) How would a theory X manager view employees? Seeking responsibility Needing to be coerced to achieve goals Viewing work as a normal daily activity Exercising self control 1840) What sort of plan is a company-established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits? MBO program Gain sharing plan Employee stock ownership plan Piece-rate plan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock 1841) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options 1842) What result does groupshift have on the decisions a group makes? They are less effective They are generally riskier They are made more quickly They are objectively incorrect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupshift http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.494/713 1843) Which of the following statement best defines leadership? Implementing the strategy provided by management Least concerned in bringing organizational change Coordinating and handling day-to-day problems The ability to influence a group in goal achievement page 102 1844) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first? Transmitting Decoding Encoding Understanding 1845) All of the following are examples of nonverbal communication EXCEPT: Instant messaging Physical distance Facial expressions Hand gestures 1846) Which of the following types of networks is most likely to promote accuracy? Chain Direct Horizontal All-channel 1847) Ali is an employee in a company. He expresses his dissatisfaction by discussing the problem with the superiors, suggests improvements and involves the unions in problem solving, He expresses his dissatisfaction in which of the following ways? Exit Voice pae 32 Loyalty Neglect Reference: Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 1848) The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another is called _______. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.495/713 Attitude Personality Perception Mind-set http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=stable+s et+of+psychological+attributes+that+distinguishes+one+person+from+another&source=bl& ots=TPo_3eWgcW&sig=2dzcA6ITvsBSrw-ejaSYlTlBWcY&hl=en&ei=oI09TJDiD4gkQW2wqiyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v= onepage&q=stable%20set%20of%20psychological%20attributes%20that%20distinguishes% 20one%20person%20from%20another&f=false 1849) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 1850) According to McClelland, what is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise? The need for power The need for achievement The need for affiliation The need for control 1851) Which of the following is the major source of change affecting large number of organizations today? Corporate governance Globalization Business ethics Cultural change 1852) Which of the following is the ability to correctly perceive, evaluate, express and regulate emotions and feelings? Emotional Intelligence Mental Ability Physical Ability Memory Ability http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.496/713 1853) Mr. Imran has the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. He is exhibiting which of the following components of emotional intelligence? Self-awareness Empathy page 41 Handling relationship Managing emotions 1854) The process of managing emotions with organizationally desired emotions exhibit which of the following concept? Emotional frustration Emotional contagion Emotional labor Emotional conflict http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotional_labor 1855) Which of the following stage of perceptual process model involves noticing some of the information available to the person and filtering out the rest? Interpretation Organization Selective attention Judgment 1856) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills page 9 Leading skills, motivational skills and human skills Organizing skills, interpersonal skills and leading skills Motivating skills, intrapersonal skills and conceptual skills 1857) Mr. Ali is a top level manager at ABC Corporation. He has achieved everything he desired in his life. The only thing he misses is the relationships. At this point of career he really needs warm friendships. Identify the need of Mr. Ali. Need for achievement Need for affiliation Need for power Need for motivation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.497/713 1858) Mr. kashif is the member of a team who voluntarily meet and discuss different issues like how the quality of products be improved, what possible changes can be made to improve working conditions etc. Mr. Kashif is the member of which of the following team? Self-Managed team Problem solving team Cross functional team Virtual team 1859) Mr. Usman is the part of the team whose members takes the responsibility for their work, monitor their own performance and alter their behaviors when required to solve a problem. Usman is the member of which of the following team? Self-Managed team Problem solving team Cross functional team Virtual team 1860) Which of the following is a technique that is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the requirement of a face-to-face meeting? The nominal group technique Dialectical inquiry Brainstorming The Delphi technique 1861) A person or a group with a direct or indirect interest or involvement in organization and who is highly affected by the operations of the organization is called _______. Shareholder Stakeholder Stockholder Patron 1862) Who proposed that there are three major relevant motives, or needs, in the workplace? McClelland McGregor Herzberg Maslow http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:fGfxDHH7uooJ:www.scribd.com/doc/7 201879/Motivation-andMorale+There+are+three+major+relevant+motives+or+needs+in+workplace+situations&hl=en &gl=pk&strip=1 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.498/713 1863) The behavior of people is influenced by which of the following factors? Psychological needs Individual drives Social roles and status All of the given options 1864) Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by_______. Stephen Covey Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 1865) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Culture shock page 14 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.499/713 1866) “Smoking is injurious to health”. This statement is an example of which one of the following components of attitude? Cognitive page 28 Affective Behavioral Behavior intension Ref: Cognitions A person's knowledge, opinions, or beliefs 1867) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best described these values? Terminal values Instrumental values page 25 Theoretical values Social values 1868) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Situation Perceiver Reality Target 1869) If someone wishes to emphasize the importance of making decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, the focus of his/her teaching will be on which of the following? Rights Privilege Justice Utilitarianism http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA129&dq=decisions+consistent+with+fundamental+liberties+and+privile ges&hl=en&ei=dZE9TIv5LMuHkQWq2bmuDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum =1&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=decisions%20consistent%20with%20fundament al%20liberties%20and%20privileges&f=false 1870) What would be the predicted result of overpaying a piece-rate worker, according to equity theory? Quality will increase Quantity will increase Quality will decrease http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.500/713 There will be no effect 1871) What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize? Attainable, verifiable and measurable page 71 Achievable, controllable and profitable Inspirational, teachable and creative Challenging, emotional and constructive 1872) Which of the following is an example of a piece-rate plan? Stock options Rs20 for each unit produced Productivity bonus Commission 1873) Employees who band together to seek improved working conditions form a(n) __________________ group. Support Interest Work Command 1874) Which of the following leadership style gave the group members complete freedom? Autocratic Democratic Laissez-faire Consideration http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NXD/is_4_11/ai_n25115242/ 1875) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader’s behavior is directed toward getting the job done is called: Initiating structure Consideration Maximization Path-goal http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/actions/ohio_state.htm http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.501/713 1876) Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication? Filtering Silence Language Selective perception Barriers to effective communication include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions,and language. 1877) Formal guidelines and authority hierarchies are examples of which function of communication? Control Agreement Motivation Information http://managementconsultingcourses.com/Lesson13Communication.pdf 1878) An informal communication network is typically called a _________. Grapevine Chain system Contextual system Free acting system 1879) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 1880) Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being completed _______. Require multiple skills Require judgment Require experience All of the given options http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:jctn2iNywhEJ:59.74.71.99/2010/glx /jiaoan/jae/chapt09.doc+Teams+typically+outperform+individuals+when+the+tasks+being+complete d&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.502/713 1881) In which of the following communication network, any network member can communicate with any other member? Wheel All-channel Interpersonal Circle 1882) Rising Sun is a manufacturing corporation, which is a profitably operating for many years. Employees of this organization are satisfied and motivated because they are involved in decision making that result in fewer conflicts. They keep on innovating new products. Rising Sun is practicing which of the following approach to gain organizational effectiveness? The internal system approach The external resource approach The organizational process approach Technical approach 1883) The use of wide range of tools, knowledge, or techniques that are used to transform inputs into outputs is called: Task environment Structure Mission Technology 1884) Weight-lifting, pull-ups and leg lifts are the examples of which of the following abilities? Emotional Intelligence Mental Ability Physical Ability Memory Ability 1885) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.503/713 1886) Ethical behavior is influenced by which of the following two major factors? Religion and value system Terminal and instrumental values Ethical reasoning and intelligence Individual influences and organizational influences http://www.google.com.pk/search?q=Ethical+behavior+is+influenced+by+two+major+factors+ +++++++++Individual+influences+and+organizational+influences&hl=en&rlz=1C1CHNY_enP K385PK385&prmdo=1&tbs=bks:1&ei=nJI_TPPPFIXRcbKdrZYF&start=0&sa=N 1887) Suleman is very talkative and assertive and enjoys meeting new people on a regular basis. Which of the following job can attract Suleman the most? Accountant Sales representative Animal trainer Research scientist 1888) A colleague of Mr. Usman talks on phone for three hours every morning. Mr. Usman thinks that his job involves a lot of phone contacts. While one of his colleagues Mr. Ali thinks that he wastes a lot of time in socializing on the phone. Mr. Usman and Mr. Ali are at which of the following stage of perceptual process? Selective attention Organization Interpretation Behavior 1889) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing? Planning page 7 Organizing Leading Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.504/713 1890) Categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute is called: Attribution Prejudice Stereotyping Selective perception http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ROvGf0pvK8C&pg=PA416&lpg=PA416&dq=categorizing+or+labeling+people+on+the+basis+o f+a+single+attribute&source=bl&ots=Le6_ayFJYl&sig=QFT21q7Mpw520OkoQLhQF6o62I&hl=en&ei=b5M_TNy8JsHQcdL2oOME&sa=X&oi=book_resu lt&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=categorizing%20or%20labeling %20people%20on%20the%20basis%20of%20a%20single%20attribute&f=false 1891) People with which of the following decision making style work well with others and enjoy social interactions? Behavioral Directive Analytical Conceptual 1892) Which of the following needs requires increased responsibility, high status and recognition? Self esteem Self-actualization Social Safety 1893) Which of the following is the set of activities that involve the alteration of specific job or its part in order to enhance employees’ productivity? Job specification Job sharing Job design Job worth http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=VE3GvaAEU0sC&pg=PA150&dq=of+activities+that+i nvolve+the+alteration+of+specific+job+or+its+part+in+order+to+enhance+employees’+product ivity&hl=en&ei=JZQ_TJmC8TQceHqzZMF&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=one page&q=refers%20to%20any%20set%20of%20activities%20that%20involve%20the%20alterati on%20of%20specific%20jobs%20or%20interdependent%20systems%20of%20&f=false 1894) At SOIL Corporation employees at shop floor are organized into teams that perform a wide variety of tasks. Moreover they have responsibility for quality, scheduling http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.505/713 and setting work priorities. SOIL Corporation is using which of the following job design strategy to enhance motivation? Job rotation Job sharing Job enrichment Job enlargement 1895) Which of the following is a technique that is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the requirement of a face-to-face meeting? The nominal group technique Dialectical inquiry Brainstorming The Delphi technique 1896) Mr. Afaq is working in a sales department of Star Corporation. He gave a personal report to the general manager. In his report he pointed out that the sales staff are not performing their due responsibilities. Afaq’s attitude is showing which of the following component? Cognitive Affective Behavioral None of the given option The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_(psychology) 1897) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? Finished goods Services Dividends Capital 1898) Which of the following is not one of the types of attitude? Job satisfaction Job Involvement Organizational Behavior page 29 Organizational commitment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.506/713 1899) Which of the following is NOT included in the ways employees can express dissatisfaction? Exit Voice Loyalty Noise page31 1900) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to be pleasant and accommodating in social situations? Extroversion Openness to experience Emotional stability Agreeableness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agreeableness 1901) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Self-awareness Self-management Commitment page 41 Empathy 1902) What effect does stress typically have on mood? Positive Negative Unbiased No effect 1903) It is not possible for Mr. Asim to understand everything he sees, he notices a few of the things, we can say that he engages in: Assimilating Selective perception Halo Effect Target Perception 1904) The most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s _______________. Theories x and y Hierarchy of needs Goal setting theory Equity theory http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.507/713 1905) Our intrinsic desire for personal development is included in Alderfer’s _____________ needs. Existence Relatedness Esteem Growth http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=dF7G0yZ51GgC&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=desire +for+personal+development+is+included+in+Alderfer’s&source=bl&ots=pZ_ZQqszL_&sig =U-NwXpU1gdqEmwg-9IFUevcxxxM&hl=en&ei=MOATI66LNDRccjP9dUE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBQ #v=onepage&q=intrinsic%20desire%20for%20personal%20developmen&f=false 1906) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Reference: Page 64 1907) What sort of plan is a company-established benefit plan where employees acquire stock as part of their benefits? MBO program Gain sharing plan Employee stock ownership plan Piece-rate plan Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock 1908) What happens in the second stage of group development? Close relationships are developed The group demonstrates cohesiveness Intra-group conflict often occurs The job task is performed 1909) Which of the following is one of the drawbacks of group decision making? More knowledge through pooling of group resources More amount of time is required to make a decision page 91 Increased acceptance & commitment due to voice in decisions Greater understanding due to involvement in decision stages http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.508/713 1910) Which of the following is traditionally followed by the formal channels of communication within an organization? Authority chain page 96 Influence chain Transmission chain Social chain 1911) Clarification to employees about how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance, are examples of which function of communication? Information Control Motivation Emotional expression 1912) The _____ network best serves to promote high member satisfaction. Direct Circle Wheel All-channel Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT247&lpg=PT247&dq=networ k+is+best+if+you+are+concerned+with+high+member+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=JFetK0 rVJY&sig=bRfCm92nSZse5_CxrHtrOzjkbY&hl=en&ei=ek8qTLyrMIrRce_s8JQD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved =0CDEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=network%20is%20best%20if%20you%20are%20concern ed%20with%20high%20member%20satisfaction&f=false 1913) A communication channel with greater channel richness is most likely to provide: Greater feedback density Greater filtering capability Greater perceptual wellness Larger amounts of information 1914) The study of organizational behavior is primarily concerned with all of the following dynamics in organizations EXCEPT: Interpersonal Behavioral http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.509/713 Astrology Psychosocial 1915) How do proponents of reinforcement theory view behavior? As a product of heredity As a function of one’s power need As the result of a cognitive process As environmentally caused http://www.slideshare.net/gurdeep1211/ob-8-presentation 1916) Which of the following is true for the people who adopt a thinking style based on logics and rationality? They process information serially They perceive things as a whole They perceive things on the basis of past experiences Their decisions depend upon situation 1917) Sheraz wants to become a surgeon, not only because achieving this goal will give him self-respect and autonomy, but also because he wants a job with high status and recognition from others. Which of Maslow’s needs is Sheraz trying to meet? Self-actualization Social Esteem page 60 Safety 1918) Teams are very useful in which of the following situations? The work to be performed is very basic The tasks are interrelated page 77 No one wants to be accountable The group is homogeneous 1919) All of the following are studied in Organizational Behavior, EXCEPT Human behaviors in organizations International trade laws Organizational culture The relationship between people and organizations 1920) Which of the following behavior of an individual makes a positive contribution to an organization? Motivational behavior http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.510/713 Performance behavior Organizational citizenship Perceptive contribution Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=behavior+of +an+individual+makes+a+positive+contribution+to+an+organization&source=bl&ots=TPoW9j1 daO&sig=YxMi3irDpODS4tR8FcN8lWDxPGk&hl=en&ei=wIkKTOeWIc2t4QbwrPV5&sa=X &oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=behavior%20of %20an%20individual%20makes%20a%20positive%20contribution%20to%20an%20organizatio n&f=false 1921) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction 1922) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive reinforcement 1923) The founder of TL Corporation has to face many difficulties while establishing his company even banks were not ready to grant loan. But he showed persistence and after four years he was able to generate finance by the mortgage of his own house. He was exhibiting which of the following personality trait of Big Five Personality Model? Agreeableness Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Extroversion 1924) Mr. Ahmed started his career as a clerk, now after 6 years of hard work he has earned the position of finance manager. He believes that all his success is because of his own hard work and devotion. Ahmed has: Self-efficacy Internal locus of control http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.511/713 Emotional intelligence High self-esteem page 141 Ref: Internal locus ofcontrol Attributing outcomes to one's own actions 1925) Which of the following is an example of positive emotions? Anger Sadness Pride Disgust 1926) Which one of the following set of skills is best representing the required competencies of managers? Technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills page 9 Leading skills, motivational skills and human skills Organizing skills, interpersonal skills and leading skills Motivating skills, intrapersonal skills and conceptual skills 1927) The rational decision-making approach assumes that decision makers: Have complete information Are motivated by greed Are often distracted by the environment Are subjective 1928) Mr. Ahmad is HR manager in an organization. He has ten employees who directly report to him. They are the part of which of the following group? Command group Task group Friendship group Interest group 1929) Which of the following is a structured approach to decision making that focuses on generating alternatives silently, prevents criticism of alternatives, and uses a voting process to identify group choices? Devil's advocacy The Delphi technique http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.512/713 Dialectical inquiry The nominal group Ref: The nominal group technique “Process to generate ideas and evaluate solutions” A form of structured group decision making that enables everyone to participate and have his/her ideas heard without hostile criticism or distortions. A structured voting procedure is used to prioritize responses to the nominal question. 1930) Which of the following determines requirements of organization conversion process? Machinery, computers and human skills Raw material and capital Finished products and services HR and information system 1931) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 1932) Last year, Ali had taken lunch at a fast food restaurant that caused him food poisoning. Now whenever he passes by the restaurant, he feels nauseous. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning Reinforcement theory 1933) Advertisements are directed at changing a person's: Attitude Value Ethics Custom 1934) Which of the following lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.513/713 Moods Behaviors Values page 28 Customs Importance of Values 1. Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions. 1935) Which of the following statements is NOT true about the difference between men and women when it comes to emotional reactions? Women show greater emotional expression Men express emotions more intensely Men express anger more frequently Ref: Page 40 Women may have a greater need for social approval 1936) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Defining the goal Goal difficulty Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Reference: Page 64 1937) Which of the following is NOT a comparison an employee can use in equity theory? Self-inside Self-goal Other-outside Self-outside http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Bg1oNWWbn2QJ:www.slideshare.net/gu rdeep1211/ob‐8‐presentation+equity+theory+Self‐inside+Self‐goal+Other‐outside+Self‐ outside&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1938) Two-factor theory suggests that dissatisfaction is caused by extrinsic factors. Which of the following is an example of such a factor? Advancement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.514/713 Working condition Achievement Recognition 1939) Which of the following is a direct monetary incentive given by the organizations to its employees? Promotion Gain sharing Flexible work hours Appreciation certificate 1940) When the group energy is focused on the task at hand, the group has moved to the _____________ stage. Storming Norming Maturation Performing http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBONJXoZ4fIC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=When +the+group+energy+is+focused+on+the+task+at+hand,+the+group+has+moved+to+the+per forming+stage&source=bl&ots=ZZ0sAK3f18&sig=1TQXGydq9laKycm1pWpehwdQDMU &hl=en&ei=Xls3TK2UPJCgkQXLkY2cAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& ved=0CBgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=During%20this%20stage%2C%20the%20group%20t urns%20its%20focus%20to%20accomplishing%20the%20task%20at%20hand&f=false 1941) Which of the following statement best defines leadership? Implementing the strategy provided by management Least concerned in bringing organizational change Coordinating and handling day-to-day problems The ability to influence a group in goal achievement page 102 1942) According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader’s behavior is directed toward getting the job done is called: Initiating structure Consideration Maximization Path-goal http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/actions/ohio_state.htm http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.515/713 1943) According to the University of Michigan studies, which of the following is used to define a leader who takes personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates? Situation-oriented Employee-oriented Production- oriented Task-oriented Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations. They took a personal interest in the needs of their employees and accepted individual differences among members 1944) Suggestion boxes, employee attitude surveys, and grievance procedures are examples of: Downward communication Horizontal communication Upward communication Lateral communication http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upward_communication 1945) Which of the following is the most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader? Chain All-channel Wheel Direct http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WFwK9yg6zbwJ:www.docuter.com/vie wer.asp%3Fdocument%3D977118913497f05a152c011233061281%26ch7+Which+of+the+follo wing+is+the+most+effective+communication+network+for+facilitating+the+emergence+of+a+l eader%3F+Chain+All-channel+Wheel+Direct&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1946) Asad telephones his employee, Usman, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock. In the communication process, Asad is: The sender The receiver The channel The encoder 1947) Which one of the following statement is NOT true regarding the relationship between age and job performance? Older workers bring to their job: experience, judgment and strong work ethics Older workers have more commitment to quality http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.516/713 Older workers are perceived as flexible and welcome new technologies Older workers are perceived as lacking flexibility and resistant to new technologies 1948) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called _________. Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT70&lpg=PT70&dq=%22following+a+response+by+the+termination+or+withdra wal+of+something+unpleasant+is+called+%22&source=bl&ots=9vxZmbKY5C&sig=4J7dpZL YBdgCFCHXgOHgKWVXfyo&hl=en&ei=Jl0KTPH1BpeJ4gbuoeiqAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result &ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22following%20a%20respons e%20by%20the%20termination%20or%20withdrawal%20of%20something%20unpleasant%20i s%20called%20%22&f=false 1949) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 1950) Which of the following is least accurate about Ohio-State Study? High-high styles sometimes had negative relationship High-high leaders generally had superior subordinate performance High initiating structure is positively related to grievances High consideration is positively related to manager’s evaluation 1951) Organizations that do not pay attention to diversity may face all of the following problems, Except: Lower productivity Increased tensions among workers Decreased turnover Increased complaints 1952) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.517/713 Extinction 1953) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive reinforcement 1954) Action of a person consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society is called which of the following behavior? Legal behavior Ethical behavior Cognitive behavior Loyal behavior 1955) Which of the following component of an attitude includes beliefs, opinions and information that a person has about the object he observed? Affective Behavioral Cognitive Terminal 1956) The founder of TL Corporation has to face many difficulties while establishing his company even banks were not ready to grant loan. But he showed persistence and after four years he was able to generate finance by the mortgage of his own house. He was exhibiting which of the following personality trait of Big Five Personality Model? Agreeableness Emotional Stability Conscientiousness Extroversion 1957) Which of the following is an example of positive emotions? Anger Sadness Pride Disgust http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.518/713 1958) Which of the following is the study of social system such as families, occupational classes and organizations ? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology 1959) In an interview, the interviewer's first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon: Nonverbal cues of the target Verbal communication by the target The intentions of the target The target's physical appearance 1960) The rational decision-making approach assumes that decision makers: Have complete information Are motivated by greed Are often distracted by the environment Are subjective 1961) In decision making process when managers define their limits and make their decision within the limits, it is called: Bounded rationality Optimal decision making Intuitive decision making Rational decision making 1962) People with which of the following decision making style work well with others and enjoy social interactions? Behavioral Directive Analytical Conceptual 1963) Mr. Zia is directly involved in the production of the automobiles. He is facing low motivation due to repetitive tasks. His manager changes his responsibilities and now he has to perform different tasks. His motivation has increased because of which of the following strategy? Job enrichment Job enlargement Job sharing Job rotation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.519/713 1964) All of the following are examples of downward communication flow EXCEPT: Managers informing employees of procedures Managers pointing out problems that need attention Employees completing attitude surveys Managers telling employees to work more quickly 1965) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? Finished goods Services Dividend Capital 1966) The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institution and organizations is distributed unequally is called: Terminal Values Power Distance Fairness Uncertainty Avoidance 1967) Emotional Responses that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job are called: Felt Emotions Displayed Emotions page 39. Moods Emotional Intelligence Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.520/713 1968) When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transaction, it is called: Alexithymia Felt Emotions Emotional Labor Displayed Emotions page 39 Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. 1969) Asif is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would Attribution Theory describe this behavior? It shows consensus It shows similarity It shows reliability It shows consistency page 48 1970) Amna is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Amna most likely using? Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 1971) What is generally considered to be the single best thing that managers can do to improve performance? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.521/713 Allocate tasks depending on personality Restrict the use of punishment as a means of motivating workers Give abundant opportunities for employee growth Concentrate on intrinsic rewards rather than extrinsic rewards 1972) In equity theory, individuals assess the ________________. Cost-benefit ratio Efficiency-effectiveness trade-off Quantity-quality trade-off Outcome-input ratio page 59 1973) Who sets MBO objectives? The immediate supervisor The superior and subordinate The head of department The employees themselves 1974) Fahad, Zain and Usama work in different departments, but often take lunch together. They are an example of what type of group? Formal Informal Command Task 1975) When the group energy is focused on the task at hand, the group has moved to the _____________ stage. Storming http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.522/713 Norming Maturation Performing http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=pBONJXoZ4fIC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=When +the+group+energy+is+focused+on+the+task+at+hand,+the+group+has+moved+to+the+per forming+stage&source=bl&ots=ZZ0sAK3f18&sig=1TQXGydq9laKycm1pWpehwdQDMU &hl=en&ei=Xls3TK2UPJCgkQXLkY2cAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& ved=0CBgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=During%20this%20stage%2C%20the%20group%20t urns%20its%20focus%20to%20accomplishing%20the%20task%20at%20hand&f=false 1976) Demand on leader is ___________ in a team comprising of 2-7 members. High Highest Low Moderate 1977) Which of the following best demonstrates the effectiveness of self-managed teams? An increase in the number of teams required to manufacture a product A reduction in the number of employees qualified to participate in the teams A significant reduction in response time for resolving customer concerns An increase in the technology budget for connecting team members 1978) Which of the following is NOT true about electronic meeting? Participants type their responses onto a computer screen It can be highly effective under certain conditions Group cohesiveness will be considered high Participants will be honest and anonymous 1979) There is fairly strong evidence that traits can predict _____ more accurately than leadership effectiveness. Leadership emergence http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.523/713 Extraversion in leaders Leadership awareness Leadership competence 1980) The University of Michigan researchers concluded that: Employee-oriented leaders had lower productivity Employee-oriented leaders had higher productivity Production-oriented leaders created lower employee satisfaction Production-oriented leaders created higher employee satisfaction http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=The+University+of+Michigan+researchers+conclud ed+that:+Employee-oriented+leaders+had+lower+productivity+Employeeoriented+leaders+had+higher+productivity+Productionoriented+leaders+created+lower+employee+satisfaction+Productionoriented+leaders+created+higher+employee+satisfaction&source=bl&ots=0lwVCJzBpr&sig=Y KI9f5YIVHHWbdvUW5PTCGVTqSc&hl=en&ei=M888TJjiB8mJcJfawOUD&sa=X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 1981) Which of House’s leaders from path-goal theory are friendly and show concern for the needs of followers? Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented 1982) The charismatic leaders are likely to: Invoke high performance among followers Encourage women to seek leadership positions Motivate followers to become more extroverted Avoid media attention regarding their achievements 1983) Sumeera has been working in a packaging company for last ten years. She is the most senior employee of her department that’s why her manager frequently relies on her judgment. Whenever manger goes out of city for work, he put Sumeera in charge because he knows she will handle work efficiently in his absence. What type of trust relationship is this? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.524/713 Reward-based trust Knowledge-based trust Identification-based trust Deterrence-based trust Ref: • Knowledge-based trust • Trust based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction 1984) Legitimate power is based on which of the following element? Positive rewards Interpersonal trust Structural position Expert knowledge 1985) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of her which of the following power? Formal Expert Referent Information 1986) Which type of conflict will you experience among the multiple roles in your life, like role of a father and a manager? Intergroup Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Interrole Conflict page 124 Intrarole Conflict 1987) All of the following are types of conflict EXCEPT: Task Conflict Person-role Conflict Relationship Conflict Process Conflict 1988) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that functional conflict is: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.525/713 Necessary for effective group performance An indication of the group maturity level Always focused around relationships Make group members static and apathetic 1989) UNO wants to bring in a neutral third party who will facilitate a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. This person is a(n): Mediator page 128 Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant The third party acts as a mediator, taking a neutral stance and helping parties reconcile their differences. 1990) In comparing the organizational design needs of the small organization and the large organization, which of the following is a consideration for the small organization? More formalization More specialization More centralization Flat hierarchy of authority 1991) Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure? High centralization High employee discretion Standardization Bureaucracy 1992) You have eliminated horizontal, vertical, and external barriers within your organization. You are operating as a/an: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.526/713 Boundaryless organization Organizational pyramid Matrix organization Virtual organization http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:XJIiVayZ4ksJ:www.scribd.com/doc/7 220239/Contemporary-OrganizationalDesigns+Boundaryless+organization+eliminates+horizontal,+vertical,+and+external+barriers+w ithin+organization&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 1993) A trucking company routinely makes all of its office staff work for a week in the warehouse area; loading trucks, cleaning trucks, and doing other work which they are capable of. This program is an example of which of the following? Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment Job sharing 1994) Essential elements of TQM include all EXCEPT: Analysis of customer quality needs Benchmarking Rewarding Standards Essential Elements of TQM • A supportive organizational culture • Management commitment and leadership • Provide a sense of direction • Analysis of customer quality needs • Benchmarking • Standards • Strategies to close quality gaps • Training • Quality teams • Progress monitoring and measurement • Exceeding customer expectations http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.527/713 1995) The purpose of --------------- is for an outside consultant to assist a manager, “to perceive, understand, and act upon process events”. Process Consultation Team Building Appreciative Inquiry Sensitivity Training 1996) Once the causes of difficulty have been identified, the groups can move to the _____________ to develop solutions that will improve relations between the groups. Process Consultation Appreciative Inquiry Integration phase Team Building http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA492&lpg=PA492&dq=Once+the+causes+of+difficulty+have+been+ide ntified,+the+groups+can+move+to+the+Integration+phase+to+develop+solutions+that+will +improve+relations+between+the+groups&source=bl&ots=0lwVCHCBsk&sig=e29IsUf4z_ J9XxGcoo43kq9JBok&hl=en&ei=4ow8TNi0B8qLkAX06qiKAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&c t=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Once%20the%20causes%20of %20difficulty%20have%20been%20identified%2C%20the%20groups%20can%20move%20 to%20the%20Integration%20phase%20to%20develop%20solutions%20that%20will%20imp rove%20relations%20between%20the%20groups&f=false 1997) Which type of selection technique is given the most weight? Written test Performance-simulation test Electronic test Interview 1998) The centerpiece of most diversity programs is: Money Employer commitment Training http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.528/713 Human resource personnel 1999) A strong culture can act as a substitute for which of the following? Institutionalization Formalization Socialization Organizational rules http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=kQ71jtW3YvYC&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=A+strong +culture+can+act+as+a+substitute+for&source=bl&ots=cchOjKQgIP&sig=jpU1AEefmU4lPey m6bJKUpMTNKg&hl=en&ei=mI08TPewDMGHkQW3weR7&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul t&resnum=4&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=A%20strong%20culture%20can%20act% 20as%20a%20substitute%20for&f=false 2000) Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces which of the following? Massive changes A dynamic environment An unknown environment A stable environment Ref: So consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when it faces a stable environment 2001) Which of the following is an example of change in the nature of competition? Growth of e-commerce Decline in global oil prices Increased interest in urban living A decrease in interest rates http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.529/713 2002) Which of the following is NOT a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia Five reasons why individuals may resist change are 1. Habit: Life is complex, to cope with having to make hundreds of decisions everyday, we all rely on habits or programmed responses. 2. Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. 3. Economic factors: Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one’s income. 4. Fear of the unknown: Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. 5. Selective information processing: Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it resists change 2003) What term is used for feelings that tend to be less intensive than emotions? Affect Cognition Thoughts Mood http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Y204wolJtFgJ:marrichassociates.com/ BUS_261__Organizational_Behavior_Twelth_Day.ppt+moods+are+feelings+that+tend+to+be+l ess+intensive+than+emotions&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 2004) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of group in organization? Common goal Interaction with one another Accept expectations and obligations Mutually independent 2005) Which of the following refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.530/713 Formal organization Informal organization Business organization Government organization 2006) All of the following are the primary bases of personal power EXCEPT: Referent power Position power Expert power Coercive power 2007) Trying to make someone else accept blame for a problem is an example of which of the following conflict handling intention? Competing Compromising Avoiding Accommodating http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT313&lpg=PT313&dq=Trying+to+make+someone+else+accept+blame+for+a+pro blem+(coflict)&source=bl&ots=9vx1faK_4J&sig=aIYqoSZK04_8oQrfXf1A0mIZ6As&hl=en& ei=e5E8TK7RCJCTkAWt15SFAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CB8Q 6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=trying%20to%20make%20him%20or%20her%20accept%20the%20bl ame%20for%20a%20problem&f=false 2008) At Sawera Manufacturing, Inc., the sales representatives often argue with the production employees because promised orders are often behind the schedule. The production employees claim that the sales representatives frequently fail to submit orders until they are already past due. The sales representatives and the production employees are experiencing which of the following conflict? Competition for scarce resources Intergroup conflict page 124 Interpersonal conflict Representative conflict http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.531/713 2009) When two party’s goals are incompatible, but their interactions are important to meeting their goals, which reaction to conflict is likely to occur? Competition Collaboration Compromise Accommodation http://college.cengage.com/business/moorhead/organizational/6e/students/glossary/index.htm l#C 2010) Which of the following is NOT a personal cause of conflict in organizations? Personalities Perception Authority relationships Communication http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:S0qRK5FuRD4J:www.swcollege.com/ management/nelsonquick/powerpoint/ch13.ppt+personal+cause+of+conflict+in+organizations+Personalities+Percep tion+Authority+relationships+Communication&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 2011) To achieve a compromise approach, one needs to________________. Avoid overt disagreement Value openness and trust Dominate the other conflicting party Give up something of value page 126 Ref: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome 2012) Division of labor is often referred to as which of the following? Departmentalization The organizational chart Specialization The administrative hierarchy http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.532/713 2013) When there is a narrow span of control, to improve the span of control there is likely to be: An increase in the number of workers Less control over production workers More administrative levels Less bureaucracy 2014) Jobs grouped according to traditional business tasks such as marketing, manufacturing, and personnel are departmentalized by: Process Service Function Structure 2015) The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals is: Strategic management Strategy-structure fit Organizational design Organizational reconfiguration http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SKeN0zvtOhMJ:www.slideshare. net/guest3bd2a12/organizational-designpresentation+Organizational+design+process+of+constructing+and+adjusting+an+organizati on's+structure+to+achieve+its+goals&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 2016) An alternative work arrangement in which employees must be present to perform job duties during a required core time but starting and ending work times can vary is called which of the following? Job sharing Compressed workweek scheduling http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.533/713 Task restructuring Flextime http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:SBLpc7H9gTsJ:polaris.umuc.edu/~nhoaglan/CO MM393X/example.pdf+An+alternative+work+arrangement+in+which+employees+must+be+pr esent+to+perform+job+duties+during+a+required+core+time+but+starting+and+ending+work+t imes+can+vary&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjah6NWomz4CumoVdmkvBVqV4pCEdtyBNC3QWnbc71Z9qzwVVYBhx_72oD23KAzOEzzlrcpgStI9zO0GSda4mMXkdvPYv0H6okpD2oE0t2B4fNTtmvB xj3L37p8K86DY-3vjE&sig=AHIEtbSk2JRn-JUnGbr-pl97e98UJFjXMQ 2017) The tools, techniques, and actions used by an organization to transform inputs into outputs are called: An organization's technology The throughput The transformation process Work design http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=CmFjF5tNmuEC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=Technol ogy+(tools,+techniques,+actions+used+to+transform+inputs+into+outputs)&source=bl&ots= XpDLvSG_p6&sig=8oHMHfK9WSyFr7HB5gNLbXG2tVY&hl=en&ei=EYQ9TI7JH8yLk AWOoPyxDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CDUQ6AEwCQ#v=o nepage&q=Technology%20(tools%2C%20techniques%2C%20actions%20used%20to%20tra nsform%20inputs%20into%20outputs)&f=false 2018) Which of the following states the minimum acceptable qualifications that the incumbent must possess to perform the job successfully? Job description Job specification page 164 Job evaluation Job enrichment 2019) Which of the following specifies the relative value of each job in the organization? Job description Job specification Job evaluation page 164 Job enrichment http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.534/713 http://hubpages.com/hub/Job-Description-JD 2020) All of the following are examples of external forces for change EXCEPT: Workforce diversity Globalization Company Crisis Ethical behavior http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:MDtRc4o5LJsJ:managementconsultingcourses.com/ Lesson37OrganizationalChange.pdf+external+forces&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjmmxVNB 9jBnCk46Kw6hwbxQtgp7UBv2O5ykvNCmSTG2OuhXnY5ibebEefpMrJYEXblZrOZ68Wyk3yxLFjAu8ZEO 6cmmacuLjtG0Kqvtcyt2nbouU8Jm6bBNwmdidHDj_Ds_2_u&sig=AHIEtbSESsgO0hNmhb_lsAuO0GtIy hmMrw 2021) Which of the following is not considered as a characteristic of organizations? Social entities Goal oriented Closed system page 12 Deliberately structured Reference: Organizations are: Social entities Goal oriented Deliberately structured Linked to the external environment 2022) Which of the following term is defined as “the right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed”? Select correct option: Chain of command Authority Unity of command Leadership 2023) ___________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment. Select correct option: Psychology Sociology http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.535/713 Corporate strategy Political science 2024) Which of the following is NOT true of charismatic leaders? Select correct option: They have behavior that is unconventional They are willing to take high personal risk They have a vision and the ability to articulate the vision They show consistency with their followers’ behaviors Charismatic Leadership” Four characteristics of the charismatic leader have been identified. They have a vision, are willing to take risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive follower needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary 2025) In attribution theory, what is distinctiveness? Select correct option: Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in different situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations page 48 Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in similar situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in similar situations 2026) Which of the following is the most productive stage in group development? Select correct option: Producing Increasing Maturity Performing http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Stages‐of‐Team‐Development.topicArticleId‐8944,articleId‐ 8904.html 2027) _______________ refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other. Select correct option: Formal organization Informal organization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.536/713 Business organization Government organization 2028) If you wish to emphasize the importance of making decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, the focus of your teaching will also be on which of the following? Select correct option: Utilitarianism Justice Rights page 56 Privilege 2029) Which of the following will influence the method of recruitment and selection used by a company? Select correct option: The size of organization The economic conditions of country The emerging trends in technology The social and ethical demands 2030) What are the three primary determinants of behavior that organizational behavior focuses upon? Select correct option: Individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction Individuals, groups, and job satisfaction Groups, structure, and profit structure Individuals, groups, and structure page 1 2031) The managers of a multinational company are located in Taiwan, India, Brazil, and the United States. Which group decision-making technique seems most reasonable for this organization? Select correct option: A postal service interaction A brainstorming session A nominal group An electronic meeting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.537/713 2032) Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into _____ positions. Select correct option: Unskilled Traditionally female Socially-oriented Professional 2033) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intra-organizational behavior? Positive negotiation Distributive bargaining Integrative bargaining page 132 Equal bargaining Ref: In terms of intra-organizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. 2034) _____ is a measure of how organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. Select correct option: Workforce diversity Affirmative action Organizational culture Operational homogeneity 2035) The employee writes a complaint letter to his manager. Putting his thoughts onto paper is an example of: Select correct option: Encoding Messaging Channeling Cryptography 2036) Mohsin has already presented two excellent reports. The report he has just presented is clearly not as good as the first two reports, yet he is given the same high grade as before. What shortcut has been used in this case? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.538/713 The contrast effect The halo effect Stereotyping Projection 2037) The unity-of-command principle states which of the following? Select correct option: Managers should limit their control to a maximum of ten employees An individual should be directly responsible to only one supervisor Managers should provide direction to employees in a unified fashion Employees should report directly to two supervisors to maintain task balance 2038) People with which type of personality trait commonly make poor decisions because they make them too fast? Select correct option: Type As Type Bs Self-monitors Extroverts 2039) The power that the College Dean has been granted by the University over the faculty is termed as which of the following power? Select correct option: Academic Positional Legitimate Organizational 2040) Which of the following is NOT a factor in the individual perceiver? Attitude Motive Location Perception http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.539/713 Ref: The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations 2041) Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into ___positions. Select correct option: Unskilled Traditionally female Socially-oriented Professional 2042) The CEO of a retail store is developing its business plan. The store will have 200 employees and will serve customers both locally and internationally via a storefront and an Internet catalogue. Which of the following organizational designs is LEAST likely to benefit the goals of this retail store? Select correct option: Matrix Virtual Bureaucracy Simple 2043) A threatened strike action by a labor union to force the management to accept their demands is an example of which of the following power? Select correct option: Referent power Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power 2044) Usually in organizations, who is responsible for managing change activities? Select correct option: Senior management Consultants Managers Employees http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.540/713 2045) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best describes these values? Select correct option: Terminal values Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values 2046) Which of the following techniques most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process? Select correct option: Groupthink Nominal group page92 Brainstorm Electronic meeting http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=most+restricts+discussion+or+interpersonal+commu nication+during+the+decisionmaking+process&source=bl&ots=0lwVDGBvsl&sig=HzYcgmuXbyQMCeBCQ6KVjU6mnE&hl=en&ei=MuY9TKr7MYuUkAWSirWkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resul t&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=most%20restricts%20discussion%20or%2 0interpersonal%20communication%20during%20the%20decision-making%20process&f=false 2047) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? Select correct option: An employee is late because of a flat tire. An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job. An employee was promoted because he was hard working. 2048) Several key dimensions to any organization’s environment have been found. Which of the following is one of these key dimensions? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.541/713 Select correct option: Productivity Complexity Interdependence Collaboration 2049) Which of the following tactics involves an individual in the decision-making process? Select correct option: Ingratiation Exchange Pressure Inspirational appeals 2050) What is the main strength of job rotation? Select correct option: It decreases workload It increases motivation It increases productivity It decreases training costs 2051) Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis? Select correct option: The level of the group The level of the individual The level of the organization The level of the culture 2052) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first? Select correct option: Transmitting Decoding Encoding Understanding http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.542/713 2053) All of the following are true about learning EXCEPT that it : Select correct option: Can have a very short duration Requires a change in behavior Requires some form of experience Affects aptitude Which of the following type of leader is likely to have the most profound effect on his or her followers? Select correct option: Educational 2054) Directive Transformational Transactional http://www.zainbooks.com/books/management/leadership-and-teammanagement_11_transactional-charismatic-and-transformational-leadership.html 2055) Which of the following statements is NOT true? Select correct option: Satisfied employees are likely to be more productive Dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty The most effective way to improve job satisfaction is a raise in pay 2056) Which of the following can be defined as a loss in performance due to low leader expectations? Select correct option: Golem effect Galatea effect Halo effect Marshal effect http://www.yousigma.com/ftogmanagementlingo.html 2057) The degree, to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________. Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.543/713 Job satisfaction Job involvement Job stability Job enrichment 2058) As a manager, one of Ali’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Ali performing, when he does this? Select correct option: Leadership role Monitor role Figurehead role Spokesperson role 2059) Which of the following types of teams would most likely empower its team members to make work-related decisions? Select correct option: Technical Self-managed Problem-solving Management 2060) What do we call the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment? Select correct option: Environmental analysis Social verification Outlook Perception page44 Which of the following factors make it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible? Select correct option: 2061) Temporariness Corporate excess http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.544/713 Advances in corporate strategy Globalization 2062) “Fahad is easy-going at home, but at work he becomes very tense and anxious.” This statement attributes Fahad’s personality more to which of the following? Select correct option: Heredity Environment Situation Locus of control 2063) An individual most likely to engage in political behavior would have all of the following except a/an : Select correct option: High need for power High ability to self monitor High charisma rating Internal locus of control 2064) Which of the following is NOT considered as a driving force of internal change? Select correct option: Organizational crisis Working environment Declining effectiveness Societal pressures People with which type of personality trait commonly make poor decisions because they make them too fast? Select correct option: 2065) Type As Type Bs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.545/713 Self-monitors Extroverts 2066) All of the following are characteristics of the organic model except: Select correct option: Cross-functional teams Narrow spans of control Cross-hierarchical teams Employee discretion The belief that “violence is wrong” is an evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes which of the following component of an attitude? Select correct option: 2067) Cognitive Affective Behavioral Reflective 2068) The management of Chanab Corporation discovers that its market is clearly divided between very different types of clients, with different support needs. To respond to this market diversity, management will probably choose to which of the following type of departmentalization? Select correct option: Requirements Support Customer Matrix 2069) Ineffective planning of workforce would be highlighted by: Select correct option: Recruitment and selection problems The need to out source some of the production A need to offer retraining to current employees An opportunity to increase the use of mechanization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.546/713 2070) Transactional leadership is addressed by all of the following leadership theories EXCEPT: Select correct option: Transformational leadership theory Path-goal theory Fiedler's leadership model The leader-participation model 2071) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best describes these values? Select correct option: Terminal values Instrumental values Theoretical values Social values 2072) Organizing workshops and meetings to explain the changing nature of work is an example of which of the following tactics to overcome resistance? Select correct option: Manipulation and cooptation Education and communication Participation Negotiation How is the satisfying decision maker best characterized? Select correct option: 2073) As using rationality As using bounded rationality As affected by anchoring bias As relying on others to make decisions 2074) A person or group with a direct interest, involvement, or investment in organization is called ____________. Select correct option: Shareholder Stakeholder http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.547/713 Stockholder Patron 2075) Trust and trustworthiness affect a leader’s access to: Dedication and achievement Persuasion and control Power and influence Knowledge and cooperation Trust and Leadership 1. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership. When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. 2. It is evident that it is impossible to lead people who do not trust you. Trust and trustworthiness modulate the leader’s access to knowledge and cooperation. 2076) What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance? Select correct option: The contrast effect Personal bias The halo effect Projection • Halo Effect – A general impression about an individual is based on a single positive characteristic. 2077) Factors other than satisfaction that impact one’s decision to leave a current job include all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Labor market conditions Length of tenure with the organization Expectations about alternative job opportunities Organizational citizenship behavior http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.548/713 2078) The conflict-handling intention of avoiding is ______________ Select correct option: Assertive and uncooperative Assertive and cooperative Unassertive and uncooperative Unassertive and cooperative 2079) Which of the following countries ranks highest in long-term orientation? Select correct option: Afghanistan Bangladesh Russia China Asian countries were more collectivist than individualistic. US ranked highest on individualism. German and Hong Kong ranked highest on quality of life; Russia and The Netherlands were low. China and Hong Kong had a long-term orientation; France and US were low. 2080) One of the shortcuts used to judge others involves evaluating a person based on how he/she compares to other individuals on the same characteristic. What is this shortcut called? Select correct option: Selective perception The contrast effect The halo effect Stereotyping 2081) Which of the following abilities one should have to perform the job of a beach lifeguard? Select correct option: To have strong muscles only To have inductive reasoning skills To have deductive reasoning skills Strong spatial-visualization abilities and body coordination http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.549/713 2082) Sabohi has a job which pays an excellent salary. She has a good relationship with her peers and her supervisors. She also likes the fact that the company policy fits well with what she personally believes, and that she has received considerable recognition for her achievements at the company. Which of these factors is 'MOST likely' responsible for the fact that Sabohi loves her job? Select correct option: High compensation Good nature of peer relationships Good nature of supervisor relationships Recognition for her achievements 2083) Asad is informing employees about the new disciplinary actions approved by the higher management. This is an example of: Select correct option: Upward communication Downward communication Diagonal communication Horizontal communication 2084) Which of the following is one of the most popular ways to group activities? Select correct option: Product Function Geography Process 2085) In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible? Select correct option: Illumination Intentions Behavior Cognition http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:oiHv9uUBAhQJ:www.mehralborz.com/WebPage s/OB/ch08/ref/OB_Ch08_FurtherRef_01.pdf+conflict+become+visible&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl& srcid=ADGEEShd2oD5HTtqgbL4FuJ8xp8yUwXyM5xA2Q76J3pZbiNZSt37fGQn0t7fZ2HLq7czPtz31K_7jCd7AChqNwg6k9 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.550/713 LZ4j96YRe9xXIyLkmWPvx7HYrEn2kKJ4XgdGXcgk5EdsgT6GY&sig=AHIEtbRYsTbZjkT5XGFVefgqOpClKnopg 2086) Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure? Select correct option: Job satisfaction Productivity Absenteeism Raises and promotion 2087) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Select correct option: Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 2088) Ineffective planning of workforce would be highlighted by: Select correct option: Recruitment and selection problems The need to out source some of the production A need to offer retraining to current employees An opportunity to increase the use of mechanization http://www.bized.co.uk/learn/business/qbank/hrm3.htm 2089) Asad, one of your newest employees, is an extravert. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be true? Select correct option: Asad will probably attend the company picnic Asad will be suited to a managerial or sales position http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.551/713 Asad will probably have a large number of relationships Asad will perform well on specialized, detail-oriented tasks 2090) Which is NOT a type of conflict identified by the interactionist view? Select correct option: Organizational Relationship Process Institutional 2091) Transactional leadership is addressed by all of the following leadership theories EXCEPT: Select correct option: Transformational leadership theory Path-goal theory Fiedler's leadership model The leader-participation model 2092) The basis by which jobs are grouped together is termed ___. Select correct option: Bureaucracy Specialization Centralization Departmentalization 2093) Which of the following is the strength of the matrix structure? Select correct option: Economies of scale Social empowerment Ability to facilitate coordination Adherence to chain of command 2094) Culture is most likely to be a liability when: Select correct option: It increases the consistency of behavior http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.552/713 The organization’s environment is dynamic The organization’s management is ineffectual Countercultures are integrated into the dominant cultures 2095) Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior? Select correct option: Motivation Attitude development Conflict Resource allocation 2096) Which of the following term refers to how an organization transfers its inputs into outputs? Select correct option: Production Technology Operations Process 2097) Which of the following option shows the quality of continuing steadily despite of problems or difficulties? Select correct option: Persistence Intensity Direction Meditation http://www.encyclo.co.uk/define/persistence 2098) Hanif is dissatisfied with his job but believes that his supervisor is a good man who will do the right thing. Hanif has decided that if he just waits, conditions will improve. Henry’s approach to this problem is termed as: Select correct option: Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.553/713 2099) The two parties eventually agree to ask M.S Qureshi, an attorney and trusted friend, to help them informally to solve their problem. Sam's role is that of a(n): Select correct option: Mediator Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant 2100) The most important aspect of power is probably that it: Select correct option: Involves control Tends to corrupt people Is counterproductive Is a function of dependency http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu‐ 5YkC&pg=PT290&dq=The+most+important+aspect+of+power+is+probably+that+it+Is+a+function+of+de pendency&hl=en&ei=8S4‐ TMqNNYvQcZPDkaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q= The%20most%20important%20aspect%20of%20power%20is%20probably%20that%20it%20Is%20a%20f unction%20of%20dependency&f=false 2101) While managing political behaviors in organization, the manager requires discouraging: Select correct option: Negotiation Relationships Self interest Dialogue 2102) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Self-awareness Self-management Commitment page 41 Empathy 2103) The basis by which jobs are grouped together is termed ___. Select correct option: Bureaucracy Specialization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.554/713 Centralization Departmentalization 2104) Celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials because the advertisers believe the celebrities have which of the following power? Select correct option: Personal Referent Expert Legitimate 2105) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of his _________power. Select correct option: Referent Formal Expert Personal 2106) Conflict a mother feels between being a friend to their children and also being a disciplinarian explains which of the following type of conflict? Select correct option: Intergroup Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Interrole Conflict Intrarole Conflict 2107) AGA Corporation is going to obtain the ownership or procession of another company. This process will call: Select correct option: Downsizing Rightsizing Reengineering Acquisition http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.555/713 2108) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? Select correct option: An employee is late because of a flat tire. An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job. An employee was promoted because he was hard working. 2109) A bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Specialization tasks Highly routine operating tasks Formalized rules and regulations Decentralized decision making Which of the following will influence the method of recruitment and selection used by a company? Select correct option: 2110) The size of organization The economic conditions of country The emerging trends in technology The social and ethical demands 2111) in which of the following career stage; an individual gets his first job, gets accepted by his peers, learns in this job, and also gains the first tangible evidence of success or failure? Select correct option: Growth stage Exploration stage Establishment stage Maintenance stage http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Y6QRJb40C84C&pg=PA379&lpg=PA379&dq=career+st age++++++++Growth+stage++++++++Exploration+stage++++++++Establishment+stage++++ ++++Maintenance+stage&source=bl&ots=XCJqtZx4Jj&sig=P8dZWC361SuyJl_kYU08gUC3BE&hl=en&ei=Hc9ATKD3PMmvcMTP0NoP&sa=X&oi=book_re sult&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=career%20stage%20%20%2 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.556/713 0%20%20%20%20%20Growth%20stage%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Exploration%20sta ge%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Establishment%20stage%20%20%20%20%20%20%20% 20Maintenance%20stage&f=false 2112) Asad and Saad are working in a company. There occurs a conflict between the two due to different views on some decisions. Both are indulging in what type of conflict? Select correct option: Interpersonal Conflict Interorganizational Conflict Intergroup Conflict Person-role Conflict 2113) Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other is called _________ Select correct option: Verbal comprehension Non verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Memory 2114) Which of the following network structure requires high emergence of leadership? Select correct option: Wheel Chain All-channel Diverse 2115) What is generally the result of groupthink? Select correct option: Higher quality decisions More risky decisions Less critical analysis Unpopular decisions http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.557/713 http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TAaDaezB__8C&pg=PA448&dq=critical+analysi s++groupthink&hl=en&ei=Yeg9TMXwF4WecarwvaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resu lt&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=critical%20analysis%20%20group think&f=false Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: 2116) Job situations with personal responsibility A high degree of risk Overcoming obstacles Personal empowerment 2117) The best definition for centralization is a situation in which decision making is: Select correct option: Pushed down to lower level employees Concentrated at a single point in the organization Completed in each department and then sent to the higher-ups Diffused among a large segment of employees 2118) Which one of the following might not be a functional outcome of the conflict process? Select correct option: Stimulates creativity Increases innovation Relieves tensions Avoids risk http://www.lda-us.com/Articles/7.pdf 2119) Reactive and protective behaviors designed to avoid action, blame, or change are termed as: Select correct option: Political behaviors Defensive behaviors Protectionism Impression management http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.558/713 2120) A bureaucracy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Specialization tasks Highly routine operating tasks Formalized rules and regulations Decentralized decision making 2121) What is/are the key element(s) of motivation? Select correct option: Intensity Direction Persistence All of the given options 2122) Performance evaluations are used as a mechanism for all of the following EXCEPT _____. Select correct option: Human resource planning Determining advancements in positions Monitoring the success of marketing strategies Identifying training and development needs Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you were late back from lunch, he assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were out and you had to walk up 10 flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of _____. Select correct option: 2123) Self-serving bias Selective perception Fundamental attribution error page 49 Inconsistency 2124) Which one of the following problems is most likely to occur in a matrix structure? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.559/713 Loss of economies of scale Decreased employee motivation Employees receiving conflicting directives Decreased response to environmental change 2125) Which of the following would not be considered an organization? Select correct option: Hospital Charity centers Red cross Dairy farmers in Punjab 2126) Which of Hofstede’s dimensions is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured to unstructured situations? Select correct option: Collectivism Power distance Long-term orientation Uncertainty avoidance 2127) Which of the following is NOT a factor in the individual perceiver? Attitude Motive Location Perception Ref: The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations 2128) Agro Farm Products is expanding its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. The sales agents are not happy with this change. In order to overcome their resistance management decides to involve the sales personnel in planning for the change and in stocking appropriate new items to sell to gardeners. Management is choosing which of the following? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.560/713 Participation Negotiation Education and communication Manipulation and cooptation 2129) Which of the following is the term used to refer to establishing effective relationships with key people inside and/or outside an organization? Select correct option: Networking Politicking Interest group Lobbying http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:XFIzQEx2VcYJ:web.ed.ntnu.ed u.tw/~minfei/OBch13.doc+Politicking+establishing+effective+relationships+with+key+p eople+inside+and/or+outside+an+organization&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 2130) Ahmed believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has been used in this case? Select correct option: The halo effect The contrast effect Projection Stereotyping 2131) A threatened strike action by a labor union to force the management to accept their demands is an example of which of the following power? Select correct option: Referent power Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power 2132) How is gain-sharing an improvement on profit sharing? Select correct option: It focuses on productivity gains rather than profits Superior employees can receive incentive even when the organization isn’t profitable http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.561/713 It does not distribute profits, only gains in profits It rewards behaviors that are less influenced by external factors 2133) Which of the following departmentalization achieves economies of scale by placing people with common skills and orientations into common units? Select correct option: Functional Process Product Geographic http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA231&dq=departmentalizati on+achieves+economies+of+scale+by+placing+people+with+common+skills+and+orien tations+into+common+units&hl=en&ei=DcVATLvBHcyvcIvC9M8P&sa=X&oi=book_r esult&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 2134) What is the last step in the Rational Decision-Making Model? Select correct option: Developing alternatives Collecting relevant data Weighing the decision criteria Computing the optimal decision 2135) Which type of conflict will you experience among the multiple roles in your life, like role of a father and a manager? Select correct option: Intergroup Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Interrole Conflict Intrarole Conflict 2136) All of the following are examples of external forces for change EXCEPT: Changing work climate Workforce diversity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.562/713 Globalization Ethical behavior http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:MDtRc4o5LJsJ:managementconsultingcourses.c om/Lesson37OrganizationalChange.pdf+external+forces&hl=en&gl=pk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGE ESjmmxVNB9jBnCk46Kw6hwbxQtgp7UBv2O5ykvNCmSTG2OuhXnY5ibebEefpMrJYEXblZ rOZ68Wyk3yxLFjAu8ZEO6cmmacuLjtG0Kqvtcyt2nbouU8Jm6bBNwmdidHDj_Ds_2_u&sig= AHIEtbSESsgO0hNmhb_lsAuO0GtIyhmMrw 2137) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? Structural inertia Threat to expertise Fear of unknown Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiros hima/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+or ganizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=p k 2138) Which of the following is the individual source of resistance to change? Structural inertia Threat to expertise New social relationships Threatened power http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q0r4rWxqqVsJ:www.unitar.org/hiros hima/sites/unitar.org.hiroshima/files/5_AF08_WSIII_Managing_Organizational_Change.pdf+or ganizational+source+of+resistance+to+change+threatened+power&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=p k 2139) Which of the following is the process of planned change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioral science? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.563/713 Organizational culture Organizational theory Organizational Change Organizational Development http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA504&lpg=PA504&dq=is+the+ process+of+planned+change+and+improvement+of+the+organization+through+application+of+ knowledge+of+the+behavioral+science&source=bl&ots=TPo_3eUheO&sig=4mM27mZ4L0OX DAgHY_tpfx2Xrqo&hl=en&ei=P4Y9TLqbOYGgkQWZzoGlDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=r esult&resnum=5&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false 2140) Which of the following can be termed as organizational development program? Switching from manual to computerized system Technological change Total Quality Management Designing changes for other organization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA504&lpg=PA504&dq=is+the+pr ocess+of+planned+change+and+improvement+of+the+organization+through+application+of+kn owledge+of+the+behavioral+science&source=bl&ots=TPo_3eUheO&sig=4mM27mZ4L0OXD AgHY_tpfx2Xrqo&hl=en&ei=P4Y9TLqbOYGgkQWZzoGlDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=res ult&resnum=5&ved=0CCEQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Total%20Quality%20Management%20 %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&f=false 2141) Which of the following is the process in which data is gathered, analyzed, summarized and returned to those who generated them? Process Consultation Survey feedback Inter-group development Sensitivity Training Survey Feedback Survey feedback techniques can form the basis for a change process. In the process, data are gathered, analyzed, summarized, and returned to those who generated them to identify, discuss, and solve problems. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.564/713 2142) Which of the following performance component is about addressing poor performance and improving good performance? Planning Monitoring page 198 Rewarding Developing 2143) Usman is a production in charge in an organization. His performance can be judged on the criteria of cost of per unit of production or total units produced. Identify the criteria on which his performance has been evaluated. Attitude Traits Individual task outcomes Behavior http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA460&lpg=PA460&dq=Individual+task+outcomes&source=bl&ots=0lwVD Exzul&sig=j3JStL0et7CLtT0T1QsLYaaVTQ&hl=en&ei=F4o9TK7lMdGGkAWG69ikDA&sa=X&oi=book_ result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CDQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Individual%20task%20outc omes&f=false 2144) Mr. Ahmed is responsible to transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions and results. Which managerial role is he playing in organization? Disseminator Spokesperson page 9 Representative Figurehead 2145) Organizational members who intentionally violate established norms that result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both, show: Deviant Workplace Behavior page 42 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.565/713 Emotional Labor Emotional disorder None of the given options 2146) by Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions, as agreed upon most contemporary researchers? Anger Fear Hate page 39 Sadness 2147) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Situation Perceiver Reality Target 2148) When people tend to use intuitive decision making? When a high level of uncertainty exists When facts and figures are available When programmed decions are made When there is no time constraint 2149) Which of the following terms involves making decisions so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number? Utilitarianism Justice Rights http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.566/713 Satisfying Ref : Utilitarian criterion—decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. This view tends to dominate business decision making. 2150) According to attribution theory, which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? An employee is late because of a flat tire. An employee was promoted because of his abilities An employee was fired because he slept on the job. An employee was promoted because he was hard working. 2151) What are the three key elements of motivation? Interest, activity and reward Awareness, effort and outcome Stimulation, progress and achievement Intensity, direction and persistence page 59 Key Elements of Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 2152) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders? Physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization page 60 Safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization Physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.567/713 2153) Hunger, thirst, sex, pay, and physical work environment are examples of which of Alderfer’s needs? Existence Safety Growth Physiological 2154) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers 2155) Which of the following has Not been shown to be a benefit of flextime? Reduced absenteeism Improved productivity Decreased satisfaction Improved promptness 2156) Which of the following statements is true? All command groups are also task groups All task groups are also friendship groups All command groups are also informal groups All informal groups are also command groups 2157) Which of the following is NOT one of the key components of effective teams? Effective work design http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.568/713 Recognized company identity Supportive contextual influences Well-managed team processes 2158) What is generally the result of groupthink? Higher quality decisions More risky decisions Less critical analysis Unpopular decisions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TAaDaezB__8C&pg=PA448&dq=critical+analysis+ +groupthink&hl=en&ei=Yeg9TMXwF4WecarwvaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=critical%20analysis%20%20groupthink&f=f alse 2159) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? Face-to-face interacting groups Brainstorming Delphi technique Nominal group technique 2160) Which group decision-making technique seems most reasonable for the management of a multinational company whose offices are located in China, India, Australia and England? Brainstorming session Nominal group technique Electronic meeting Postal service interaction 2161) Messages conveyed through body movements and facial expressions are called: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.569/713 Non-verbals Physical characteristics Semantics Excitement 2162) Which of the following is the most effective communication network for facilitating the emergence of a leader? Chain All-channel Wheel Direct Ref: Page no.100 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WFwK9yg6zbwJ:www.docuter.com/vie wer.asp%3Fdocument%3D977118913497f05a152c011233061281%26ch7+Which+of+the+follo wing+is+the+most+effective+communication+network+for+facilitating+the+emergence+of+a+l eader%3F+Chain+All-channel+Wheel+Direct&hl=en&gl=pk&strip=1 2163) The relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another is called _______. Attitude Personality Perception Mind-set http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=stable+set+ of+psychological+attributes+that+distinguishes+one+person+from+another&source=bl&ots=TP o_3eWgcW&sig=2dzcA6ITvsBSrw-ejaSYlTlBWcY&hl=en&ei=oI09TJDiD4gkQW2wqiyDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=one page&q=stable%20set%20of%20psychological%20attributes%20that%20distinguishes%20one %20person%20from%20another&f=false 2164) Which of the following managerial roles might include reading trade magazines to learn more about competitors? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.570/713 Disseminator Leader Monitor Spokesperson 2165) A manager performing the role of disseminator is most likely to do which of the following activity? Speak in a Chamber of Commerce's meeting Hire a new Human Resource Manager for the company Inform subordinates about newly founded competitors Develop a new strategic five-year plan for the company 2166) Which of the following variables adversely affects organization's performance? Organizational citizenship Productivity Turnover Job satisfaction 2167) The suspension of a construction employee for one day without pay for not wearing hard hat when instructed strictly, is an example of which of the following method of shaping behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive reinforcement 2168) Which of the following is the set of characteristics that underlines a relatively stable pattern of behavior? Emotions Moods Values Personality http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.571/713 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6894/is_2_7/ai_n28320359/ 2169) The extent to which personality attributes are inherited from our parents or shaped by our environment is called which of the following factors? Individual differences Psychological contributions Nature versus nurture Psychological contract Ref: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RidV6vh08xMC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=The+e xtent+to+which+personality+attributes+are+inherited+from+our+parents+or+shaped+by+our+e nvironment+is+called&source=bl&ots=TPoW9n0leW&sig=eGurCOg44Xe3Oor0PySxQhS0AQ&hl=en&ei=aCULTMWsBtC04QbC7bR2&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&re snum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20extent%20to%20which%20personalit y%20attributes%20are%20inherited%20from%20our%20parents%20or%20shaped%20by%20o ur%20environment%20is%20called&f=false 2170) People with which of the following decision making style work well with others and enjoy social interactions? Behavioral Directive Analytical Conceptual 2171) Which of the following statement is TRUE regarding trait theories? Fit traits to various situations Emphasize the situation in classifying approaches to leadership Suggest leaders are born and not made Focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.572/713 2172) Which of the following determines requirements of organization conversion process? Machinery, computers and human skills Raw material and capital Finished products and services HR and information system 2173) Which of the following can be considered a method of social learning? Classroom Workshop TV commercial Work Manual http://www.slideshare.net/wcfujita/observational-social-learning-theory 2174) The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institution and organizations is distributed unequally is called: Terminal Values Power Distance Fairness Uncertainty Avoidance 2175) Mr. Afaq is working in a sales department of Star Corporation. He gave a personal report to the general manager. In his report he pointed out that the sales staff are not performing their due responsibilities. Afaq’s attitude is showing which of the following component? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.573/713 Cognitive Affective Behavioral None of the given option 2176) Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs deals with satisfying one’s food, shelter and cloth? Physiological Social Esteem Safety 2177) A group which is raising funds from public for a medical research on a disease that can affect the population can be called as: Command group Formal group Task group Interest group 2178) Which of the following statements best describes the goals of Organizational Behavior? To understand the behaviors of people at work To appreciate the behavior of people at work To align behaviors according to the organizational goals To describe, understand, predict, and control human behavior at work http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=To+describ e,+understand,+predict,+and+control+human+behavior+at+work&source=bl&ots=fun4fVCtIm &sig=X6EKo1y6aLN_Yi_Sx4uiXhG0530&hl=en&ei=9dwTMHhHYy4ccLpwNQE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBQ #v=onepage&q=To%20describe%2C%20understand%2C%20predict%2C%20and%20control% 20human%20behavior%20at%20work&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.574/713 2179) Which one of the following is not considered as a part of organizational output? Finished goods Services Dividends Capital 2180) Advertisements are directed at changing a person's: Attitude Value Ethics Custom 2181) Which of the following lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions? Moods Behaviors Values page 28 Customs Importance of Values 1. Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions. 2182) The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, confrontational, and competitive versus modest and tender is called: Assertiveness Future orientation Gender differentiation Power distance 2183) If you believe that outside forces are largely responsible for your fate, you are the person having: External Locus of control Personal Locus of control Internal Locus of control Core locus of control http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.575/713 2184) Why is decision making a perceptual issue? Decision making is generally by consensus Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem There may be more than one way to solve a problem For a decision, a problem must be perceived to exist http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:AMm7Pg2AhoEJ:web.ed.ntnu.edu.tw/~ minfei/OBch5.doc+decision+making+is+a+perceptual+issue+Decision+making+occurs+as+a+r eaction+to+a+problem&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 2185) Which of the following statement is true regarding "intuitive decision making"? A logical process An unconscious process A satisficing process An effective process 2186) Which applicants are usually considered "best" by interviewers? Those with the best qualifications Those who lack any unfavorable characteristics Those who are verbally adept Those whose interview lasts the longest 2187) Hassan derives a great sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship from his relationships with his extended family. Which of Maslow's needs is Hassan fulfilling through these relationships? Self-actualization Esteem Social Physiological 2188) A theory Y manager would assume that employees would ________________. Dislike work Need to be controlled Attempt to avoid work Exercise self direction http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.576/713 2189) What would be the predicted result of overpaying a piece-rate worker, according to equity theory? Quality will increase Quantity will increase Quality will decrease There will be no effect 2190) Which of the following is an example of a piece-rate plan? Stock options Rs20 for each unit produced Productivity bonus Commission 2191) Which of the following helps to explain the current popularity of teams? Easy to manage Less expensive Use employee talents better page 84 Promote socialization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA141&dq=current+popularity +of+teams+Use+employee+talents+better&hl=en&ei=pOo9TLHFC8LIcYC0iKIB&sa=X&o i=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=current%20pop ularity%20of%20teams%20Use%20employee%20talents%20better&f=false 2192) Which of the following best demonstrates the effectiveness of self-managed teams? An increase in the number of teams required to manufacture a product A reduction in the number of employees qualified to participate in the teams A significant reduction in response time for resolving customer concerns An increase in the technology budget for connecting team members 2193) Which of the following teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level? Problem-solving Self-managed Cross-functional Virtual http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.577/713 2194) Which of the following is likely to generate the least innovative alternatives? Face-to-face interacting groups Brainstorming Delphi technique Nominal group technique 2195) When manager marketing is communicating with the manager production, it is called: Upward communication Downward communication Lateral communication Vertical communication http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=KMiYp2jAgbwC&pg=PA62&dq=Lateral+communi cation+Organizational+Behavior&hl=en&ei=p9cTP3KBIT6cPrpoNsE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA #v=onepage&q=Lateral%20communication%20Organizational%20Behavior&f=false 2196) Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication? Filtering Silence Language Selective perception Barriers to effective communication include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions,and language. 2197) Receivers in communication see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. This is called: Filtering Defensiveness Selective perception Selective selection 2198) Messages conveyed through body movements and facial expressions are called: Non-verbals Physical characteristics http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.578/713 Semantics Excitement 2199) Productivity, job satisfaction and turnover are _______. Moderating variables Dependent variables Independent variables Continuous variables 2200) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called _________. Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment 2201) Which emotions are the emotions an individual actually is experiencing, despite what they might apparently show? Felt Displayed Conditional Exposed 2202) In the following steps of rational decision making, which would come first? Generate alternatives Identify criteria Make a choice Implement the decision http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-makingmodels.html The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model 1.Define the problem. 2.Identify decision criteria 3.Weight the criteria 4.Generate alternatives http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.579/713 5.Rate each alternative on each criterion 6.Compute the optimal decision 2203) Which of the following is an advantage of oral communication? Permanent record of oral communication Accurate when passing through many people Chance for timely feedback More likely to be well thought out 2204) The oil company search for oil, refines and converts it into petrol and petroleum products. This statement shows which of the following component of an organization? People Technology Task Structure 2205) CEO of a computer manufacturing organization rewards his employees with computers, vacations or bonuses for meeting personal or organizational goal. He is practicing which of the following method of shaping behavior? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction 2206) Which of the following is a common way for companies to encourage employees to behave ethically? Set examples of employees who behave unethically by terminating them Prosecute unethical employees Issue a code of ethics/conduct and train employees in the ethics of conducting business Administer annual ethics tests to employees 2207) Job satisfaction and employee performance are positively related when: Pay is linked with attendance Non-participative techniques are used http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.580/713 Rewards are valued by employees Employee turnover is high 2208) Suppose you are a member of quality improvement team. Every member in your team gives usual suggestions regarding process improvements. But one of your team member suggests an innovative and totally new idea that is acknowledged by everyone. His idea is noticed because of which of the following external stimulus? Contrast Motion Novelty Intensity 2209) Mr. Shahzad has been performing successfully at work for several months. He believes that he will get a pay raise if he maintains this high level of performance. This belief is an example of which of the following according to expectancy theory? Effort-performance Performance-benefit Performance-outcome Performance-valence 2210) Which of the following determines requirements of organization conversion process? Machinery, computers and human skills Raw material and capital Finished products and services HR and information system 2211) Which of the following can be considered a method of social learning? Classroom Workshop TV commercial Work Manual http://www.slideshare.net/wcfujita/observational-social-learning-theory http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.581/713 If personality characteristics were completely dictated by ______, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. Select correct option: 2212) Job satisfaction Heredity Environment Situations Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the following? 2213) Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html 2214) Which of the following leadership model integrates the expectancy theory of motivation with the Ohio State leadership research? Select correct option: Path-goal Contingency Leader-participation Leader-member exchange Ref : Path-Goal Theory • One of the most respected approaches to leadership is the path-goal theory developed by Robert House. • It is a contingency model of leadership which extracts key elements from the Ohio State leadership research on initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation 2215) Which of the following statements about the determinants of personality is true? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.582/713 Personality appears to be a result of external factors Personality appears to be a result of mainly hereditary factors Personality appears to be a result of mainly environmental factors Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors Ref: Personality refers to a relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors 2216) Alia has just presented her paper and has done a really good job. Why should you not want to present your own paper directly after she does? To avoid the contrast effect To avoid the stereotyping effect To avoid the halo effect To avoid the projection effect Ref: Contrast Effects – Evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics 2217) Which of the following types of teams would most likely be assembled to improve the efficiency of a company’s production process? Cross-functional Problem-solving Self-managed Virtual http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:z2HMAlTtUSYJ:www.biswasan dassociates.com/students/SAMPLEQsforEXAM2.doc+teams+would+most+likely+be+as sembled+to+improve+the+efficiency+of+a+company’s+production+process&cd=1&hl= en&ct=clnk&gl=pk 2218) Why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one? To increase knowledge and information To develop interdependence To reduce dependency To maximize power http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.583/713 Ref• Dependency, then, is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. a. This is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather using just one 2219) Which of the following is LEAST likely to create dependency? Importance Non substitutability Power legitimacy Supply and demand 2220) Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for _____________. Sociologists Anthropologists Social psychologists Operations analysts Sociology: Group dynamics Work teams Communication Power Conflict Inter-group behavior 2221) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT91&lpg=PT91&dq=Attitude s+are+evaluative+statements+of+what+one+believes+about+something+or+someone&sourc e=bl&ots=JFevD0u0G_&sig=kNYH1gSIKe9k6sSOu3EOdgWw50c&hl=en&ei=8jMTJvhHM2HcfSf2aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CDAQ6AEwCA #v=onepage&q&f=false http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.584/713 which of the following is the expected weakness of group decision making? Select correct option: 2222) Less complete knowledge More time will be used to make the decision Employees will be less accepting of the group decision The decision will probably be a lower quality decision Disadvantages 1. Pressure in groups to conform 2. Domination by one forceful member or dominant clique 3. Amount of time required, because group is slower than individual to make a decision 2223) Eden Corp has installed a new email system, but many staff members do not know of its features. Upper management decides to allocate a small portion of the company’s budget to solving this problem. A team that uses rational decision making to arrive at a solution should be aware that this case deviates from the assumptions of the rational decision making model in what way? There are cost constraints page 53 The problem is not clearly defined The options available to the team are not known There are constraints on the options available 2224) Trust and trustworthiness affect a leader’s access to: Dedication and achievement Persuasion and control Power and influence Knowledge and cooperation Trust and Leadership 1. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership. When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. 2. It is evident that it is impossible to lead people who do not trust you. Trust and trustworthiness modulate the leader’s access to knowledge and cooperation. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.585/713 2225) Which of the following statements is true? Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers Ref. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence. However, they have higher rates of unavoidable absence, probably due to their poorer health associated with aging and longer recovery periods when injured. 2226) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of his _________power. Referent Formal Expert Personal Ref.Expert power Obtaining compliance through one's knowledge or information 2227) In the modern work world, where higher-level trust has been largely destroyed because of broken promises, it is likely to be replaced with which of the following type of trust? Reliance-based Dependence-based Knowledge-based Identity-based 2228) The primary change agents in an organization are: Employees Managers Leaders Stakeholders http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=‐ hz3u0oXAWAC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=leaders+are+primary+change+agents+in+an+organization& source=bl&ots=xAe_sg8DGb&sig=uufwqhAxKr7z47sCj5A5_OznaZ0&hl=en&ei=ozc‐ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.586/713 TOPvDs_IccibkKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=l eaders%20are%20primary%20change%20agents%20in%20an%20organization&f=false 2229) “Fahad is easy-going at home, but at work he becomes very tense and anxious.” This statement attributes Fahad’s personality more to which of the following? Heredity Environment Situation Locus of control 2230) Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor? Hierarchy of needs theory Theories X and Y Two-factor theory Expectancy theory 2231) Which of the following term is used to describe broad range of feelings that people experience? Mood Affect Emotion Emotional Intelligence http://www.docstoc.com/docs/6522732/Personality-and-Emotions 2232) One of the shortcuts used to judge others involves evaluating a person based on how he/she compares to other individuals on the same characteristic. What is this shortcut called? Selective perception The contrast effect The halo effect Stereotyping http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.587/713 2233) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT91&lpg=PT91&dq=Attitudes+ar e+evaluative+statements+of+what+one+believes+about+something+or+someone&source=bl&ot s=JFevD0u0G_&sig=kNYH1gSIKe9k6sSOu3EOdgWw50c&hl=en&ei=8jMTJvhHM2HcfSf2aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CDAQ6AEwCA#v= onepage&q&f=false 2234) Which one of the following would NOT be considered a human skill in Katz’s structure? Decision making Communicating Working as part of a team Listening to others 2235) Mr. Zulfiqar, Manager in ABC Company, always assume that employees don't like to work and avoid working whenever possible, So he uses to threaten employees to achieve their goals. Which theory is he applying? Theory Z Theory Y Theory X Goal Setting Theory 2236) Which one of the following is NOT a component of an organization People http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.588/713 Place Structure Task 2237) What is/are the key element(s) of motivation? Intensity Direction Persistence All of the given options 2238) Which of the following terminal values was ranked as the most important by executives? Freedom Self-respect Family security Social security 2239) According to Robert Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess _____________ skills. Technical Leadership Problem-solving Conceptual 2240) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Page 64 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.589/713 Feedback Defining the goal 2241) An OB study would be least likely to be used to focus on which of the following problems? An increase in absenteeism at a certain company A fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant A decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition Excessive turnover in volunteer workers at a non-profit organization 2242) Which of the following is NOT one of the most common types of teams? Problem-solving Interdepartmental Self-managed Cross functional 2243) Which of the following term is used to define tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic? Contrast Effect Halo effect Self-Serving bias Selective Perception 2244) Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for _____________. Sociologists Anthropologists http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.590/713 Social psychologists Operations analysts 2245) Which of the following is LEAST likely to create dependency? Importance Non substitutability Power legitimacy Supply and demand 2246) Hadia is an office worker who processes health insurance forms. She has worked at her present job for three years. Initially she was criticized by her supervisor for careless work, but in the months after that improved considerably. Now she consistently processes her forms without errors and above quota. However she has found her supervisor has not responded to the extra effort she puts in, giving her no praise and no financial reward. Hadia will most likely perceive that there is a problem in which of the following relationships? Rewards-personal goals Performance-reward Effort-performance Rewards-effort 2247) Explaining, measuring and changing behavior of humans or animals are concerned with: Operational analysts Scientists Psychologists Sociologists 2248) Ahmed is responsible to transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions and results. Which managerial role is he playing in organization? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.591/713 Disseminator Spokesperson page 9 Representative Figurehead 2249) The process of forming impression( through combining, integrating and interpreting information) of someone on the basis of previous attitude of ours, stimulus and current mood is called__________________. Select correct option: Selective Perception Mood Behavior Social Perception 2250) Your company’s director of human resources suggests that the problem with the recruitment process is not the interviewers, but rather the fact that the interviewers lack a clear understanding of the traits and skills required for each position. Which type of team would be most likely to assemble to compile a list of the required skills? Select correct option: Virtual team Self-managed team Task force Problem-solving team 2251) The managers of a multinational company are located in Taiwan, India, Brazil, and the United States. Which group decision-making technique seems most reasonable for this organization? A postal service interaction A brainstorming session A nominal group An electronic meeting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.592/713 2252) Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis? The level of the group The level of the individual The level of the organization The level of the culture 2253) What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance? The contrast effect Personal bias The halo effect Projection 2254) If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows: Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Continuity 2255) Using operant conditioning, which of the following is NOT a method that can be used to change behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Counseling Positive reinforcement 2256) Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the following? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.593/713 Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html 2257) Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory? Salary Bonuses Working conditions Responsibility http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two‐factor_theory#Validity_and_criticisms 2258) The study which enables us to learn about human beings, their activities and societies is known as Political Science Sociology Anthropology Organizational Behavior 2259) Mr.Muneeb is responsible for corrective actions when his organization faces important and unexpected disturbance. What management role is he playing? Negotiator Disturbance handler Resource Allocator Dissemenator 2260) Rizwan is low on conscientiousness. This would lead you to suspect that which of the following statements is most likely to be true about Rizwan? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.594/713 He will be easily distracted He will find comfort in the familiar He will be comfortable with solitude He will be nervous, depressed, and insecure 2261) Miss Manaal, HR Executive of XYZ company, rejected all those candidates who graduated from ABC University. It is an example of: Projection Selective Perception Stereotyping Halo effect 2262) ___________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment. Psychology Sociology Corporate strategy Political science 2263) Which of the following is the expected weakness of group decision making? Less complete knowledge More time will be used to make the decision Employees will be less accepting of the group decision The decision will probably be a lower quality decision 2264) Maria is dissatisfied with the way that her manager treats her. She has quit her job and found a new position with another firm. She has expressed her dissatisfaction through _____________ Select correct option: Exit http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.595/713 Voice Loyalty Neglect 2265) Which one of the following is NOT a component of an organization People Place Structure Task 2266) _______________ refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other. Select correct option: Formal organization Informal organization Business organization Government organization 2267) A high score in which dimension of the Big Five model predicts good job performance for all occupational groups? Select correct option: Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=IlYHQuxuWMsC&pg=PA860&lpg=PA860&dq=A+high+Conscienti ousness+predicts+good+job+performance+for+all+occupational+groups&source=bl&ots=RVUkODeOE0 &sig=9mP45j_aQkMdWqHANK8Or7AS97Q&hl=en&ei=wuJATN6oOIvJcfaPsZoP&sa=X&oi=book_result&c t=result&resnum=9&ved=0CC4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q&f=false 2268) Imran is the head of a group at an advertising agency working with artists and designers to come up with effective branding of new products. Why is it particularly important for him to keep his team happy? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.596/713 Select correct option: People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood People are more efficient when they are in a good People are more productive when they are in a good mood People are more creative when they are in a good mood http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA118&dq=People+are+more+creative+when +they+are+in+a+good+mood&hl=en&ei=3ww‐ TMj3MIuqcbGauaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=P eople%20are%20more%20creative%20when%20they%20are%20in%20a%20good%20mood&f=false 2269) Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other is called ___________ Select correct option: Verbal comprehension Non verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Memory 2270) Which of the following is an environmental force that shapes personality? Select correct option: Gender Height Brain size Experience 2271) Which of the following is the expected weakness of group decision making? Select correct option: Less complete knowledge More time will be used to make the decision Employees will be less accepting of the group decision The decision will probably be a lower quality decision http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.597/713 2272) A national culture characteristic describing the extend to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situation and tries to avoid them is called__________________ Select correct option: Short Term Orientation Long Term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Performance Orientation 2273) In attribution theory, what is distinctiveness? Select correct option: Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in different situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in similar situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in similar situations 2274) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Select correct option: Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Feedback Defining the goal 2275) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.598/713 Job situations with personal responsibility A high degree of risk Overcoming obstacles Personal empowerment 2276) Eden Corp has installed a new email system, but many staff members do not know of its features. Upper management decides to allocate a small portion of the company’s budget to solving this problem. A team that uses rational decision making to arrive at a solution should be aware that this case deviates from the assumptions of the rational decision making model in what way? Select correct option: There are cost constraints page 53 The problem is not clearly defined The options available to the team are not known There are constraints on the options available 2277) What trait does a decision maker need to have if they are to fully appraise a problem and even see problems that others are not aware of? Select correct option: Creativity Conceptual style Intuition Individuality 2278) Mr.Muneeb is responsible for corrective actions when his organization faces important and unexp Select correct option: Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.599/713 2279) Which one of the following group types is organizationally determined? Select correct option: Task Work Authority Social 2280) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evid Select correct option: Organizational Intuitive Theoretical Systematic 2281) In East, people like to work in groups and teams to achieve goals. It can be termed as which of the Select correct option: Collectivism Individualism Power Distance Quantity of Life 2282) Protecting the interests of deprived and less powerful is known as__________ Select correct option: Obligation Right Justice Duty 2283) India, Brazil, and the United States. Which group decision-making technique seems most reasona Select correct option: A postal service interaction A brainstorming session A nominal group http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.600/713 An electronic meeting 2284) What term is used for intense feelings that are directed at someone or something? Select correct option: Affect Cognition Thoughts Emotions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9‐ jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=intense+feelings+that+are+directed+at+someone+or+something&source=bl&ots eone%20or%20something&f=false 2285) Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the followin Select correct option: Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html 2286) What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different si Select correct option: Continuity Integrity Stability Distinctiveness 2287) “Fahad is easy-going at home, but at work he becomes very tense and anxious.” This statement at Select correct option: Heredity Environment Situation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.601/713 Locus of control 2288) Achievements, Honesty, Fairness and Concern for other are related with ___________ Values Select correct option: Personal Work Instrumental Terminal 2289) Ahmed believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has bee Select correct option: The halo effect The contrast effect Projection Stereotyping 2290) What does MBO provide for the individual employee? Select correct option: Specific performance objectives Page 71 Precise job descriptions Clear direction and purpose Higher salaries MBO’s appeal lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. 2291) Which one of the following is NOT implied in the definition of power? Select correct option: Influence http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.602/713 Potential Dependency Actualization 2292) When we rank an individual’s values in order of their __________, we obtain the person’s value system. Select correct option: Intensity Content Context Social needs http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9‐jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA100&lpg=PA100&dq=When+we+rank+an+individual’s+values XuZIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false 2293) Which of the following would be least likely to pose a barrier to cross-cultural communications? Select correct option: Tone difference Word connotations Political correctness Differences among perceptions 2294) If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory states that the behavior shows _____. Select correct option: Consensus http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.603/713 Similarity Reliability Consistency 2295) Which of the following is true of people with a Type A personality? Select correct option: They are generally content with their place in the world They generally feel little need to discuss their achievements They are easy going and relaxed that’s why take no tension of work They have an intense desire to achieve and are extremely competitive 2296) Characteristics such as age, gender and marital status are known as _______________ Select correct option: Psychographic characteristics Biographical characteristics Geographical characteristics Behavioral characteristics 2297) The highest level of trust is exhibited in which of the following type of trust? Select correct option: Reward-based Deterrence-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Ref : highest level of trust is achieved when there is an emotional connection between the parties. This is called identification-based trust 2298) Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving quality and productivity must include ___. Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.604/713 Quality management programs Customer service improvements Employee’s participation Manufacturing simplification 2299) Which of the following network structure requires high emergence of leadership? Select correct option: Wheel Chain All-channel Diverse 2300) Which of the following statement is TRUE about Type B individuals? Select correct option: They are extremely competitive. They have a sense of urgency,impatient and hostile. They are fast workers and prefer quantity over quality They are more relax and easy going. 2301) Which one of the following words is the best synonym for “ability”, as the term is used in organizational behavior? Select correct option: Motivation Capacity Experience Wisdom 2302) Who proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation? Select correct option: Abraham Maslow Jake Herzberg Stephen McClelland Edwin Locke http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.605/713 2303) What trait does a decision maker need to have if they are to fully appraise a problem and even see problems that others are not aware of? Select correct option: Creativity Conceptual style Intuition Individuality http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT134&dq=appraise+a+problem+and+even+ see+problems+that+others+are+not+aware+of&hl=en&ei=Mt9ATI7sN9S2ccvHjZoP&sa=X&oi=book_resu lt&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=fully%20appraise%20and%20understand% 20the%20problem%2C%20including%20seeing%20problems%20others%20can't%20see&f=false Management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling were first classified by: Select correct option: Stephen Covey Henry Mintzeberg Henri Fayol Marry Parker Reference: Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of seven functions: 1.planning 2.organizing 3.leading 4.coordinating 5.controlling 6.staffing 7.motivating 2304) Alia has just presented her paper and has done a really good job. Why should you not want to present your own paper directly after she does? Select correct option: To avoid the stereotyping effect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.606/713 To avoid the halo effect To avoid the contrast effect To avoid the projection effect 2305) The organizations offer employee stock ownership programs to gain which of the following benefit? Select correct option: Increasing employee satisfaction Reducing salaries Reducing stress Increasing productivity 2306) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Select correct option: Self‐awareness Self-management Commitment page 41 Empathy 2307) _______________ creates problem for employees when their job requires to display emotions incompatible with their actual feelings Select correct option: Depression Emotional Labor Stress Anxiety 2308) Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the following? Select correct option: Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.607/713 http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html 2309) Asma has composed a list of concerns along with her suggestions for improving conditions. Asma is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ___. Select correct option: Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect 2310) Mr. Hussain is a salesperson. He remembers the names of his customers easily because he is able to retain and recall past experience. He is able in which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability? Select correct option: Memory Number Aptitude Deductive Reasoning Perceptual speed 2311) Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions? Select correct option: Planning Staffing Organizing Leading 2312) As a manager, one of Ali’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Ali performing, when he does this? Select correct option: Leadership role Monitor role Figurehead role Spokesperson role http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.608/713 2313) Maslow's Need theory was widely recognized by practicing managers during: Select correct option: 1950s and 1960s 1960s and 1970s 1970s and 1980s 1980s and 1990s 2314) When your superior offers you a raise if you will perform additional work beyond the requirements of your job, he/she is exercising which of the following power? Select correct option: Legitimate Coercive Reward Personal 2315) Which of the following factors make it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible? Select correct option: Temporariness Corporate excess Advances in corporate strategy Globalization 2316) The process of forming impression( through combining, integrating and interpreting information) of someone on the basis of previous attitude of ours, stimulus and current mood is called________________. Select correct option: Selective Perception Mood Behavior Social Perception 2317) Which of the following network structure requires high emergence of leadership? Select correct option: Wheel Chain All-channel Diverse http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.609/713 2318) A national culture characteristic describing the extend to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situation and tries to avoid them is called________________ Select correct option: Short Term Orientation Long Term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Performance Orientation 2319) Which of the following statements is true? Select correct option: Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers page 17 Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers 2320) What do we call it when we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he/she belongs? Select correct option: Stereotyping Categorizing Halo effect Prototyping 2321) According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, highest performance is reached when goals are set to which level? Select correct option: Impossible but inspirational Difficult but attainable Only marginally challenging Easy and attainable 2322) Suspending an employee for dishonest behavior is an example of which method of shaping behavior? Select correct option: Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment Positive reinforcement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.610/713 2323) The more consistent a behavior, the more the observer is inclined to ___. Select correct option: Attribute it to interpretation Attribute it to internal causes Attribute it to consensus Attribute it to external causes 2324) Rater Errors comprised of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: Central Tendency Leniency Mis-perception Harshness 2325) The degree, to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________. Select correct option: Job satisfaction Job involvement Job stability Job enrichment 2326) Job satisfaction is best described as __________. Select correct option: A result A value An attitude A discipline 2327) Which of the following statement is TRUE about Type B individuals? Select correct option: They are extremely competitive. They have a sense of urgency,impatient and hostile. They are fast workers and prefer quantity over quality They are more relax and easy going. 2328) Asma has composed a list of concerns along with her suggestions for improving conditions. Asma is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ___. Select correct option: Exit Voice http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.611/713 Loyalty Neglect 2329) In East, people like to work in groups and teams to achieve goals. It can be termed as which of the following cross cultural values: Select correct option: Collectivism Individualism Power Distance Quantity of Life 2330) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of _____________study. Select correct option: Organizational Intuitive Theoretical Systematic 2331) Which one of the following group types is organizationally determined? Select correct option: Task Work Authority Social 2332) Mr.Muneeb is responsible for corrective actions when his organization faces important and unexpected disturbance. What management role is he playing? Select correct option: Negotiator Disturbance handler Resource Allocator Dissemenator 2333) Protecting the interests of deprived and less powerful is known as__________ Select correct option: Obligation Right Justice Duty 2334) The managers of a multinational company are located in Taiwan, India, Brazil, and the United States. Which group decision-making technique seems most reasonable http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.612/713 for this organization? Select correct option: A postal service interaction A brainstorming session A nominal group An electronic meeting 2335) What term is used for intense feelings that are directed at someone or something? Select correct option: Affect Cognition Thoughts Emotions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9‐ jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=intense+feelings+that+are+directed+at+someone+or+so mething&source=bl&ots=0lwVFEFzro&sig=WQEoqCKFE4JQIUZqMoFDZxvvIdg&hl=en&ei=fLZATJj hDIPfcbnNncIP&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=intense%20feelings%20that%20are%20directed%20at%20someone%20or%20something&f=f alse 2336) Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the following? Select correct option: Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html 2337) Explaining, measuring and changing behavior of humans or animals are concerned with: Select correct option: Operational analysts Scientists Psychologists Sociologists 2338) Which of the following is NOT consistent with rational decision-making? Select correct option: Consistency Value-maximizing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.613/713 Restraints Ranking of criteria 2339) Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure? Select correct option: Job satisfaction Productivity Absenteeism Raises and promotion 2340) In the modern work world, where higher-level trust has been largely destroyed because of broken promises, it is likely to be replaced with which of the following type of trust? Select correct option: Reliance-based Dependence-based Knowledge-based Identity-based 2341) The belief that “violence is wrong” is an evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes which of the following component of an attitude? Select correct option: Cognitive Affective Behavioral Reflective 2342) An organization has started sending its people to training to help them develop more effective leadership styles. The organization is actually in supporting which of the following? Select correct option: Trait theories Behavioral theories Fiedler’s contingency model The reflection effect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.614/713 2343) Which one of the following is NOT included in the 4-Ps of Continuous Improvement: Select correct option: Product Place People Processes 2344) Mr.Adnan is an effective and good manager because he has the ability to handle emotions of employees.Which element of Emotional intelligence is Mr.Adnan equipped with? Select correct option: Social Skill Empathy Self Motivation Self Managemen 2345) A national culture characteristic describing the extend to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situation and tries to avoid them is called________________ Select correct option: Short Term Orientation Long Term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Performance Orientation 2346) In the communication process, which of the following steps occurs first? Select correct option: Transmitting Decoding Encoding Understanding 2347) Transactional leadership is addressed by all of the following leadership theories EXCEPT: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.615/713 Select correct option: Transformational leadership theory Path-goal theory Fiedler's leadership model The leader-participation model 2348) Which of the following is NOT a step involved in rational decision making model Select correct option: Selecting the best alternative Evaluating the alternatives Evaluating the Problem Defining the problem 2349) Organizational part having legitimacy and official recognition is called Select correct option: Non Governmental Organization Formal Organization International Organization Informal Organization 2350) Emotional intelligence appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand which of the following? Select correct option: Social Interaction Commitment Charisma Leadership Skills http://www.articlesbase.com/human‐resources‐articles/emotional‐intelligence‐999892.html http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.616/713 2351) Which of the following type of leader is likely to have the most profound effect on his or her followers? Select correct option: Educational Directive Transformational Transactional http://www.zainbooks.com/books/management/leadership‐and‐team‐management_11_transactional‐ charismatic‐and‐transformational‐leadership.html 2352) A person or group with a direct interest, involvement, or investment in organization is called _________ Shareholder Stakeholder Stockholder Patron 2353) Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions, as agreed upon by most contemporary researchers? Anger Fear Hate page 39 Sadness 2354) Which of the following is an environmental force that shapes personality? Select correct option: Gender Height Brain size Experience 2355) Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory? Select correct option: Goal specificity Equity among co-workers Feedback Defining the goal 2356) Rater Errors comprised of the following EXCEPT: Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.617/713 Central Tendency Leniency Mis-perception Harshness 2357) The highest level of trust is exhibited in which of the following type of trust? Select correct option: Reward-based Deterrence-based Knowledge-based Identification-based Ref : highest level of trust is achieved when there is an emotional connection between the parties. This is called identification-based trust 2358) Which of the following theories was proposed by Douglas McGregor? Select correct option: Hierarchy of needs theory Theories X and Y Two-factor theory Expectancy theory 2359) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? Select correct option: Reward-satisfaction relationship Satisfaction-performance relationship Rewards-personal goals relationship Effort-satisfaction relationship http://www.citeman.com/434‐expectancy‐theory/ 2360) Which of the following is ‘NOT’ one of the most common reasons people join groups? Select correct option: Security Status Equity Power http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.618/713 http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Maharonga-188014-leadership-skillsmaharonga-uc-debate-club-ucdc-dragonboy-darong-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ 2361) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Select correct option: Culture shock Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country 2362) How is the satisfying decision maker best characterized? Select correct option: As using rationality As using bounded rationality As affected by anchoring bias As relying on others to make decisions 2363) What term is used for intense feelings that are directed at someone or something? Select correct option: Affect Cognition Thoughts Emotions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9‐ jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=intense+feelings+that+are+directed+at+someone+or+somethin g&source=bl&ots=0lwVFEFzro&sig=WQEoqCKFE4JQIUZqMoFDZxvvIdg&hl=en&ei=fLZATJjhDIPfcbnNncIP &sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=intense%20feelings% 20that%20are%20directed%20at%20someone%20or%20something&f=false 2364) In Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, the individual's sense of belonging and love is classified in which of the following needs? Select correct option: Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.619/713 Safety Needs Social Needs 2365) _______________ creates problem for employees when their job requires to display emotions incompatible with their actual feelings Select correct option: Depression Emotional Labor Stress Anxiety 2366) If personality characteristics were completely dictated by ______, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them. Select correct option: Job satisfaction Heredity Environment Situations 2367) The primary change agents in an organization are: Select correct option: Employees Managers Leaders Stakeholders http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=‐ hz3u0oXAWAC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=leaders+are+primary+change+agents+in+an+organi zation&source=bl&ots=xAe_sg8DGb&sig=uufwqhAxKr7z47sCj5A5_OznaZ0&hl=en&ei=ozc‐ TOPvDs_IccibkKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBzgK#v=onep age&q=leaders%20are%20primary%20change%20agents%20in%20an%20organization&f=false 2368) Asim telephones her employee, Nadeem, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock. In the communication process, Asim is: Select correct option: The sender The receiver The channel The encoder 2369) Which of the following is not considered as a characteristic of organizations? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.620/713 Social entities Goal oriented Closed system page 12 Deliberately structured Reference: Organizations are: Social entities Goal oriented Deliberately structured Linked to the external environment 2370) _______________ creates problem for employees when their job requires to display emotions incompatible with their actual feelings Select correct option: Depression Emotional Labor Stress Anxiety 2371) The process of forming impression( through combining, integrating and interpreting information) of someone on the basis of previous attitude of ours, stimulus and current mood is called________________. Select correct option: Selective Perception Mood Behavior Social Perception 2372) Which of the following is NOT a key component of emotional intelligence? Select correct option: Self‐awareness Self-management http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.621/713 Commitment page 41 Empathy 2373) In attribution theory, what is distinctiveness? Select correct option: Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in different situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations page 48 Whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in similar situations Whether an individual displays different behaviors in similar situations 2374) Which of the following is LEAST likely to create dependency? Select correct option: Importance Non substitutability Power legitimacy Supply and demand 2375) According to Robert Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess ___________ skills. Select correct option: Technical Leadership Problem-solving Conceptual 2376) How is gain-sharing an improvement on profit sharing? Select correct option: It focuses on productivity gains rather than profits Superior employees can receive incentive even when the organization isn’t profitable It does not distribute profits, only gains in profits It rewards behaviors that are less influenced by external factors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.622/713 2377) Mr.Junaid rated Mr.Jibran high in his job evaluation because both belong to same area and graduated from the same University. It is an example of: Select correct option: Central Tendency Halo effect Similar-to-me effect Misperception 2378) Which of the following leadership behaviors are identified by the path-goal theory? Select correct option: Supportive, employee-oriented, laissez-faire and participative Achievement-oriented, supportive, humanistic, and directive Participative, achievement-oriented, directive, and supportive Directive, participative, supportive, and laissez-faire 2379) Mr.Nasir usually achieves high goals and perform well in difficult tasks because he believes in his abilities. It shows which of the following personality characteristic of Mr. Nasir in organization? Select correct option: Self Efficacy Locus of Control Self Monitoring Self Esteem 2380) Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis? Select correct option: The level of the group The level of the individual http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.623/713 The level of the organization The level of the culture 2381) Protecting the interests of deprived and less powerful is known as__________ Select correct option: Obligation Right Justice Duty 2382) Organizational part having legitimacy and official recognition is called Select correct option: Non Governmental Organization Formal Organization International Organization Informal Organization 2383) Mr.Ajmal is considered as one of the most organized and self-disciplined employee of XYZ company. He is exhibiting which of the following dimension of the Big five model of personality? Select correct option: Agreeableness Open to Experience Conscientiousness Emotional Stability 2384) The primary change agents in an organization are: Select correct option: Employees Managers Leaders Stakeholders http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=‐ hz3u0oXAWAC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=leaders+are+primary+change+agents+in+an+organization& source=bl&ots=xAe_sg8DGb&sig=uufwqhAxKr7z47sCj5A5_OznaZ0&hl=en&ei=ozc‐ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.624/713 TOPvDs_IccibkKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=l eaders%20are%20primary%20change%20agents%20in%20an%20organization&f=false 2385) Asma has composed a list of concerns along with her suggestions for improving conditions. Asma is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ___. Select correct option: Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect 2386) How many determinants of human behavior in an organization are studied in Organizational Behavior(OB)? Select correct option: 1 2 3 4 2387) _________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment. Select correct option: Psychology Sociology Corporate strategy Political science 2388) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? Select correct option: Reward-satisfaction relationship Satisfaction-performance relationship Rewards-personal goals relationship Effort-satisfaction relationship http://www.citeman.com/434‐expectancy‐theory/ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.625/713 2389) Which of the following is the most productive stage in group development? Select correct option: Producing Increasing Maturity Performing http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Stages‐of‐Team‐Development.topicArticleId‐8944,articleId‐ 8904.html 2390) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of his _________power. Select correct option: Referent Formal Expert Personal 2391) Job satisfaction is best described as __________. Select correct option: A result A value An attitude A discipline 2392) Workers in Pakistan are entitled to receive pension, medical facilities and gratuity come under: Select correct option: Human Rights Moral Rights Legal Rights Personal Rights 2393) Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries? Select correct option: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.626/713 Anthropology Psychology Political science Operations research http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2282509/CHAPTER‐1‐WHAT‐IS‐ORGANIZATIONAL‐BEHAVIOR 2394) Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory? Select correct option: Salary Bonuses Working conditions Responsibility http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two‐factor_theory#Validity_and_criticisms 2395) What is the term used for the situation where employees are allowed to pick and choose from among a menu of benefit options? Select correct option: Flexible pay Benefit menu options Flexible benefits Benefit participation Ref: Flexible benefits schemes enable employers to allow staff to select the benefits that suit them… http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/benefits/flex_bens.html 2396) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures one’s actions Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT91&lpg=PT91&dq=Attitudes+ar e+evaluative+statements+of+what+one+believes+about+something+or+someone&source=bl&ot s=JFevD0u0G_&sig=kNYH1gSIKe9k6sSOu3EOdgWw50c&hl=en&ei=8jMhttp://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.627/713 TJvhHM2HcfSf2aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CDAQ6AEwCA#v= onepage&q&f=false 2397) Determining how tasks are to be grouped is part of which management function? Planning Leading Controlling Organizing 2398) Which one of the following would NOT be considered a human skill in Katz’s structure? Decision making Communicating Working as part of a team Listening to others 2399) Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions? Planning Staffing Organizing Leading http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.628/713 2400) The process of forming impression( through combining, integrating and interpreting information) of someone on the basis of previous attitude of ours, stimulus and current mood is called__________________. Selective Perception Mood Behavior Social Perception 2401) Using operant conditioning, which of the following is NOT a method that can be used to change behavior? Negative reinforcement Punishment Counseling Positive reinforcement 2402) If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory states that the behavior shows _____. Consensus Similarity Reliability Consistency Ref: Consensus occurs if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way 2403) Which one of the following is NOT included in the 4-Ps of Continuous Improvement: Product http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.629/713 Place People Processes 2404) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Perceiver Target Reality Situation 2405) The Big Five Model of Personality contains all of the following dimensions EXCEPT: Extroversion Introversion Emotional stability Agreeableness 2406) What does consensus refer to in attribution theory? There is general agreement about a perception http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.630/713 Different people perceive a situation similarly Different people respond the same way in the same situation All people behave precisely the same way in certain situations 2407) What is/are the key element(s) of motivation? Intensity Direction Persistence All of the given options 2408) Imran is the head of a group at an advertising agency working with artists and designers to come up with effective branding of new products. Why is it particularly important for him to keep his team happy? People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood People are more efficient when they are in a good People are more productive when they are in a good mood People are more creative when they are in a good mood http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA118&dq=People+are+more+cr eative+when+they+are+in+a+good+mood&hl=en&ei=3wwTMj3MIuqcbGauaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ #v=onepage&q=People%20are%20more%20creative%20when%20they%20are%20in%20a %20good%20mood&f=false 2409) Ali migrated from Pakistan to a foreign country. He is disorientated by the country’s customs and has difficulty in adapting it. He also feels homesickness. What is Ali experiencing? Culture shock page 14 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.631/713 Foreign culture Alien culture Adventure Ref: Culture shock can include homesickness, and citizens living abroad tend to buy national newspapers or frequent stores or restaurants similar to those in the home country. 2410) Sana is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Sana most likely using? Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 2411) All of the following are Decision-making styles EXCEPT: Analytical Conceptual Ethical Behavioral 2412) Which of the following term is used to define tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic? Contrast Effect Halo effect Self-Serving bias Selective Perception 2413) Dissatisfied customers have _____________ effect on employee's job satisfaction. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.632/713 Negative Positive Neutral No 2414) What is the term used for the situation where employees are allowed to pick and choose from among a menu of benefit options? Flexible pay Benefit menu options Flexible benefits Benefit participation Ref: Flexible benefits schemes enable employers to allow staff to select the benefits that suit them… http://www.employeebenefits.co.uk/benefits/flex_bens.html 2415) The most important aspect of power is probably that it: Involves control Tends to corrupt people Is counterproductive Is a function of dependency http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu‐ 5YkC&pg=PT290&dq=The+most+important+aspect+of+power+is+probably+that+it+Is+a+function+of+de pendency&hl=en&ei=8S4‐ TMqNNYvQcZPDkaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q= The%20most%20important%20aspect%20of%20power%20is%20probably%20that%20it%20Is%20a%20f unction%20of%20dependency&f=false 2416) Which of the following is NOT a step involved in rational decision making model http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.633/713 Selecting the best alternative Evaluating the alternatives Evaluating the Problem Defining the problem 2417) Mr. Zulfiqar, Manager in ABC Company, always assume that employees don't like to work and avoid working whenever possible, So he uses to threaten employees to achieve their goals. Which theory is he applying? Theory Z Theory Y Theory X Goal Setting Theory 2418) Which of the following terminal values was ranked as the most important by executives? Freedom Self-respect Family security Social security 2419) Miss Manaal, HR Executive of XYZ company, rejected all those candidates who graduated from ABC University. It is an example of: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.634/713 Projection Selective Perception Stereotyping Halo effect 2420) When diversity is not managed properly, there is a potential for _____________. Higher creativity Communication benefits Labor cost inequities Higher turnover http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=YqOEiC9J5n4C&pg=PT30&lpg=PT30&dq=When+diversity+is+not +managed+properly,+there+is+a+potential+for&source=bl&ots=JFevD0tVJ0&sig=LSSiI5tMI7nCzXd6Fjka‐ lVCZl0&hl=en&ei=bi0‐TJyjKY2wcam‐ xKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=When%20diversi ty%20is%20not%20managed%20properly%2C%20there%20is%20a%20potential%20for&f=false 2421) Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory? Reward-satisfaction relationship Satisfaction-performance relationship Rewards-personal goals relationship Effort-satisfaction relationship http://www.citeman.com/434‐expectancy‐theory/ http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.635/713 2422) Which one of the following is NOT included in the 4-Ps of Continuous Improvement: Product Place People Processes 2423) Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you were late back from lunch, he assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were out and you had to walk up 10 flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of _____. Self-serving bias Selective perception Fundamental attribution error page 49 Inconsistency 2424) A management function of a manager in which he/she maintains a network of outside contacts who provides favors and information is: Select correct option: Monitor Leader Liaison Entrepreneur 2425) Your physician has advised you to take a series of medications. You comply because of his _________power. Select correct option: Referent Formal Expert Personal 2426) Why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one? Select correct option: To increase knowledge and information To develop interdependence To reduce dependency To maximize power http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.636/713 2427) The power that the College Dean has been granted by the University over the faculty is termed as which of the following power? Select correct option: Academic Positional Legitimate Organizational 2428) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of _____________study. Select correct option: Organizational Intuitive Theoretical Systematic 2429) Which of the following is ‘NOT’ one of the most common reasons people join groups? Select correct option: Security Status Equity Power http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Maharonga-188014-leadership-skillsmaharonga-uc-debate-club-ucdc-dragonboy-darong-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ 2430) What is generally considered to be the single "BEST" thing that managers can do to improve performance? Select correct option: Set specific, challenging goals Allocate tasks depending on personality Give abundant opportunities for employee growth Concentrate on intrinsic rewards 2431) Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions, as agreed upon by most contemporary researchers? Select correct option: Anger Fear Hate page 39 Sadness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.637/713 2432) Which of the following is a reason that the study of organizational behavior is useful? Select correct option: Human behavior is not random Human behavior is not consistent Human behavior is rarely predictable Human behavior is often not sensible 2433) Hadia is an office worker who processes health insurance forms. She has worked at her present job for three years. Initially she was criticized by her supervisor for careless work, but in the months after that improved considerably. Now she consistently processes her forms without errors and above quota. However she has found her supervisor has not responded to the extra effort she puts in, giving her no praise and no financial reward. Hadia will most likely perceive that there is a problem in which of the following relationships? Select correct option: Rewards-personal goals Performance-reward Effort-performance Rewards-effort 2434) Which of the following abilities one should have to perform the job of a beach lifeguard? Select correct option: To have strong muscles only To have inductive reasoning skills To have deductive reasoning skills Strong spatial-visualization abilities and body coordination 2435) The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth is known as __________: Select correct option: Job Satisfaction Job Enrichment Job Specification Job Involvement page 29 2436) What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different situations? Select correct option: Continuity Integrity Stability http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.638/713 Distinctiveness 2437) Ahmed believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has been used in this case? Select correct option: The halo effect The contrast effect Projection Stereotyping 2438) All of the following are Decision-making styles EXCEPT: Select correct option: Analytical Conceptual Ethical Behavioral 2439) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of group in organization? Common goal Interaction with one another Accept expectations and obligations Mutually independent 2440) Jobs in which success demands stamina, leg strength and manual dexterity require management to identify an employee’s which characteristics? Physical abilities page 21 Motor abilities Mental abilities Emotional abilities 2441) Which of the following communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee? Vertical Wheel All-channel page100 Chain http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.639/713 2442) When all communication is channeled through one person, which of the following communication network exists? All-channel Chain Horizontal Wheel page100 2443) Formal guidelines and authority hierarchies are examples of which function of communication? Control Agreement Motivation Information http://managementconsultingcourses.com/Lesson13Communication.pdf 2444) Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow? Suggestion boxes Disscussing problem with boss Feedback on job performance Letters to your boss 2445) The means by which a communication is passed is called: Medium Instrument Conductor Transmission 2446) On the Leadership Grid, a manager who has a medium concern for both, people and production is a (n): Team manager Country club manager http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.640/713 Middle of the road manager Authority-obedience manager http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Int‐Loc/Leadership‐Theories‐and‐ Studies.html 2447) If a leader’s main concern is accomplishing his/her group’s tasks, the University of Michigan studies label this leader as: Production-oriented Laissez-faire Consideration-oriented Employee-oriented 2448) Which of the following are the two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies? Emotional and rational Autocratic and democratic Initiating structure and consideration Employee-oriented and production-oriented page 107 2449) If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are _____. Educated Trained Born page 106 Authoritarian Ref • Trait theories assumption: Leadership is basically inborn, therefore we could select the right leaders. 2450) The main difference between a leader and a manager is: Managers seek change and leaders don't Leaders are thought of as better people because they don't punish Leaders are advocates for change, and managers for the status quo Managers are concerned with people, and leaders with events 2451) Which of the following techniques most restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.641/713 Groupthink Nominal group page92 Brainstorm Electronic meeting http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=most+restricts+discussion+or+interpersonal+co mmunication+during+the+decisionmaking+process&source=bl&ots=0lwVDGBvsl&sig=HzYcgmuXbyQMCeBCQ6KVjU6mnE&hl=en&ei=MuY9TKr7MYuUkAWSirWkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=r esult&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=most%20restricts%20discussion%2 0or%20interpersonal%20communication%20during%20the%20decisionmaking%20process&f=false 2452) Which of the following is a tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion? Group conformity Group shift Groupthink page 136 Social loafing http://allpsych.com/dictionary/g.html 2453) What is generally the result of groupthink? Higher quality decisions More risky decisions Less critical analysis Unpopular decisions http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=TAaDaezB__8C&pg=PA448&dq=critical+analysis++groupthink& hl=en&ei=Yeg9TMXwF4WecarwvaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA# v=onepage&q=critical%20analysis%20%20groupthink&f=false 2454) Which of the following is true about virtual teams? There is an absence of verbal cues There is limited social context People collaborate online All of the given options http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.642/713 2455) Which of the following helps to explain the current popularity of teams? Easy to manage Less expensive Use employee talents better page 84 Promote socialization http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA141&dq=current+popularity+of+teams+Us e+employee+talents+better&hl=en&ei=pOo9TLHFC8LIcYC0iKIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnu m=3&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=current%20popularity%20of%20teams%20Use%20employee %20talents%20better&f=false 2456) Which of the following statements concerning tenure is NOT true? Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity Tenure and satisfaction are positively related Tenure is a good variable in explaining turnover Tenure and organizational investment are negatively related http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=qWVe5zu5YkC&pg=PT66&lpg=PT66&dq=Tenure+does+not+appear+to+be+a+good+predictor+of+e mployee+productivity&source=bl&ots=9vx1g8LV5A&sig=0HIdt8YIaWqk7yp0WeQHvkeb5Q&hl=en&ei=8Ms9TLCdKY2gkQXZwpmkDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&res num=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 2457) What other name is the two-factor theory known by? Theories X and Y Motivator-Hygiene Theory page 60 Hierarchy of Needs Theory Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Theory 2458) Which of the following method is used for strengthening desirable behavior? Negative Reinforcement Neutral Reinforcement Pleasant Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=PLxI0xTMCEoC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=of+the+following+meth od+is+used+for+strengthening+desirable+behavior&source=bl&ots=SQKAWmEyZ9&sig=fWWumAP1EN http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.643/713 1imnCl‐ vthDThJolM&hl=en&ei=Pdk4TICSNoXCrAeE0d2DCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0 CB0Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 2459) How does McClelland define the need for affiliation? Drive to excel, to strive to succeed Need to make others behave in a novel way Desire for friendship and mutual understanding page 63 The desire to control & influence their behavior 2460) Who developed ERG theory? Mcclelland Maslow Alderfer page 61 Ouchi Clayton Alderfer’s existence-relatedness-growth (ERG) theory is also a need theory of work motivation. 2461) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs arranges those needs in which of the following orders? Physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization page 60 Safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization Physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization 2462) What are the three key elements of motivation? Interest, activity and reward Awareness, effort and outcome Stimulation, progress and achievement Intensity, direction and persistence page 59 Key Elements of Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 2463) Amna is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Amna most likely using? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.644/713 Prototyping Contrast effect Halo effect Projection page 49 • Projection – Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people 2464) Asma is experiencing conveyance problem for her college pick and drop. She decides to use the rational decision-making model to decide what to do. What might be the next step she takes if she follows this model? Define the problem Identify the decisions criteria Evaluate other available alternatives Select the best alternative http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-makingmodels.html The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model 1.Define the problem. 2.Identify decision criteria 3.Weight the criteria 4.Generate alternatives 5.Rate each alternative on each criterion 6.Compute the optimal decision 2465) The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process? Situation Perceiver Reality Target 2466) What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB? The perceptions people form about each other http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.645/713 The perceptions people form about their employer The perceptions people form about society The perceptions people form about external reality http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9jcsiS8RSoC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=most+relevant+application+of+perception+conc epts+to+OB&source=bl&ots=0lwVDHACvo&sig=aqP41WMlk07mN32jrqWaZZ78IL0&hl =en&ei=OAwTOztEZCTkAWWlbzQDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AE wAg#v=onepage&q=most%20relevant%20application%20of%20perception%20concepts%2 0to%20OB&f=false 2467) Imran is the head of a group at an advertising agency working with artists and designers to come up with effective branding of new products. Why is it particularly important for him to keep his team happy? People are more conscientious when they are in a good mood People are more efficient when they are in a good People are more productive when they are in a good mood People are more creative when they are in a good mood http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA118&dq=People+are+more+creative+w hen+they+are+in+a+good+mood&hl=en&ei=3ww‐ TMj3MIuqcbGauaIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage &q=People%20are%20more%20creative%20when%20they%20are%20in%20a%20good%20mood&f =false 2468) Which of the following statement is true regarding Big five Model? The Big Five traits are related to intrinsic motivational factors The Big Five traits are related to extrinsic motivational factors The Big Five traits are related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors page 34 The Big Five traits have no relationship to motivational factors 2469) The degree to which people value relationships and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare for others is called: Quantity of life Quality of life page 26 Long-term orientation Social Loafing 2470) All of the following are sources of the values EXCEPT: http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.646/713 External Reference Groups Role Models Achievement page 25 Teachers Sources of values – Parents. – Friends. – Teachers. – Role models. – External reference groups. 2471) Values like working hard, being creative and honest are the means which lead towards achieving organizational goals. Which of the following term best described these values? Terminal values Instrumental values page 25 Theoretical values Social values 2472) Which of the following is NOT one of the scales to measure job satisfaction? Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire The Faces Scale The mentor scale page 30 Descriptive Index 2473) Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called----------------. Positive reinforcement Extinction Negative reinforcement Punishment 2474) Last year, Ali had taken lunch at a fast food restaurant that caused him food poisoning. Now whenever he passes by the restaurant, he feels nauseous. This is an example of which of the following learning theory? Classical conditioning Social learning Operant conditioning http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.647/713 Reinforcement theory 2475) Which of the following are identified as new managerial functions? Planning and organizing Leading and controlling Directing and monitoring TQM and continuous improvement page 8 2476) Mr. Ahmed is responsible to transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions and results. Which managerial role is he playing in organization? Disseminator Spokesperson page 9 Representative Figurehead 2477) The greatest contribution of which one of the following to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations? Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social Psychology http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vtzqtPUPakEC&pg=PA5&dq=OB+is+through+their +study+of+group+behavior+in+organizations,+particularly+formal+and+complex+organizat ions&hl=en&ei=NxoTM2GE8q2cZ698aIB&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA #v=onepage&q=OB%20is%20through%20their%20study%20of%20group%20behavior%20 in%20organizations%2C%20particularly%20formal%20and%20complex%20organizations& f=false 2478) If a manger is responsible to define goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and matching activities accordingly, then which one of the following functions is he/ she performing. Planning Organizing Leading http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.648/713 Controlling Planning requires a manager to: Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels) Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2479) Two areas that are influencing and impacting corporations and managers today are the rapid pace of change and A) demographic increases. B) complexity of the work environment. C) organizational culture changes. D) managerial ineptness. 2480) The field of organizational behavior examines such questions as the nature of leadership, effective team development, __________, and ___________. A) interpersonal conflict resolution; motivation of individuals B) organizational control; conflict management C) motivation of individuals; planning http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.649/713 D) planning; development 2481) ____________ is attributed with developing the scientific management perspective. A) Elton Mayo B) Robert Owens C) Frank Gilbreth D) Frederick Taylor 2482) Which perspective is hailed as being responsible for launching research into such topics as leadership effectiveness and group dynamics? A) Human relations approach B) Scientific management C) Contingency approach D) Hawthorne effect 2483) Of the four building block skills, which one is frequently considered to be the largest behavior management challenge? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.650/713 A) The ability to inspire employees B) The ability to analyze situations correctly C) Personal flexibility and adaptability D) Outstanding perceptual skills 2484) Which of these skills is considered to be the cornerstone of the four building block skills? A) Personal flexibility B) Self-insight C) Perceptual skills D) Leadership capabilities 2485) Which of these approaches argues that there is no single best way to manage behavior? A) Hawthorne B) Scientific Management http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.651/713 C) The cornerstone skill D) Contingency 2486) The area of "knowledge foundation" deals with the importance of A) understanding organizational behavior. B) the behavior management process. C) development of solutions for achieving behavioral goals. D) identification of the causes of behavior. 2487) Which of these steps of the behavior management process involves implementation of selected strategy, monitoring for effectiveness, and performing necessary adjustments? A) Step three B) Step two C) Step four D) Step one http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.652/713 2488) ________ is/are a key trend that is having a significant impact on behavior management today. A) Information technology B) Reverse discrimination C) Decreasing the amount of training for managers D) Stay-at-home mothers 2489) What is contributing to organizations taking a look at employee groups that had previously been overlooked, ignored, or shutout? A) Current discrimination laws B) Government monetary incentives C) New behavior management theories D) Economic pressures 2490) One way businesses can benefit from diversity in the work force is http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.653/713 A) B) increased popularity. increased understanding of the marketplace. C) increased employee satisfaction. D) minimizing EEOC/AA investigations. 2491) A) One drawback to the technology of today is it can actually accelerate the speed at which crises can strike a nation. B) it can keep employees too busy to stay in touch with their employers and organizations. C) D) and faxes. it can decrease waste and efficiency in organizations. it can reduce the need for familiar methods of communication such as telegraph 2492) The percentage of employees who work 50 or more hours per week has risen by _____ over the past twenty years. A) 25% http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.654/713 B) 40% C) 30% D) 37.5% 2493) During the last thirty years, the percentage of dual-career married couples has grown by A) 24 percent. B) 96 percent. C) 60% percent. D) 36% percent. 2494) Two mechanisms by which the perception process takes place include internal processes and _____________. A) external influences B) central tendencies C) skill assessment D) process intensity http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.655/713 2495) External influences on perception include _____________. A) self-disclosure B) self-enhancing tactics C) the halo effect D) the figure-ground effect 2496) George Garrett of Holshow Insurance frequently speaks of his personal friendship with the State Insurance Commissioner when he attends organizational meetings. George is demonstrating which direct attempt at shaping others' perceptions? A) Self-presentation B) Self-enhancing tactics C) Audience extraction D) Personal constructs 2497) Which impression management method incorporates such areas as "brown nosing" and flattery? A) Self-enhancing B) Stereotypes C) Other-enhancing D) Personal constructs 2498) Which of the following is suggested to help reduce unwanted impression management? A) Rely on "gut instinct" B) Reduction of ambiguity C) Personal flexibility and adaptability http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.656/713 D) Outstanding perceptual skills 2499) When Alex Morton's consulting firm developed an elaborate logo and name for the organization, it was engaging in a form of ____________. A) business promotion B) coercion C) public relations D) corporate impression management 2500) Sometimes referred to as a self-fulfilling prophecy, ___________ is a process that recognizes our perceptions can impact the way we interact with others to the point we elicit behaviors that are in line with our own perceptions. A) audience extraction B) audience selectivity C) personal constructs D) halo effect 2501) Which term refers to our own unique understanding of how the work world operates? A) Audience selectivity B) Culture clash C) Personal constructs D) Halo effects http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.657/713 2502) Wanda Wall, the manager for Tax Troubles, Inc., generally supervises the 28 employees of her firm effectively. However, she consistently makes assumptions about certain employees such as they all prefer things like fried chicken because they are from the south. Which term is the most accurate descriptor of her behavior? A) Gossip B) Stereotyping C) Slander D) Personality What can managers do to increase the accuracy of their perceptions? A) Be more observing B) Lower your profile C) Recognize your own biases D) All of the above 2503) Whenever Gary Williams handles a situation that results in an erroneous or ineffective decision being made, he usually blames the other organizational members for supplying him with inaccurate information. This form of behavior is best identified as application of a(n) _______. A) internal attribution B) attribution theory of behavior C) behavior management process D) external attribution http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.658/713 2504) What is a key piece of information that we gather about an employee's behavior when using behavior to assign cause? A) The consistency of the behavior over time B) The significance of the behavior in relation to everyone else C) The impact the behavior will have on the work place D) The cost anticipated to modify the employee's behavior over time 2505) Which of the following is considered an attribution error? A) The halo effect B) Personal constructs C) The actor-observer effect D) All of the above 2506) In a survey of 1,300 middle managers, ________ % ranked knowledge and effort as being the most important contributing factors to their achievement of success. A) 25 B) 81 C) 37 D) 67.5 2507) Which of the following is/are suggested to help combat biases and more effectively manage behavior? A) Encourage subordinates to consider internal explanations for their own behaviors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.659/713 B) Be aware that everyone has the tendency to take credit for success and avoid blame for failure C) Try to do a full search for information D) All of the above 2508) When perception patterns occur repeatedly, there is a tendency to form a/an _______ about something or someone. A) bias B) preconceived notion C) attitude D) stereotypical view 2509) Stephanie Stucky works as a human relations specialist and is considered a top performer in the firm. According to Stephanie, her performance motivation is derived from the fact that the pay matches her expectations, she has a significant amount of autonomy in the performance of her duties, and the workload is challenging, without being overwhelming. Stephanie's consistent performance level can be said to demonstrate which of the following? A) Job rotation B) Job enlargement C) Job satisfaction D) Self-actualization 2510) Ben Barringer has been receiving substantial pressure from the members of his work team to remain with the Omega Computer Inc. despite enticing offers from other http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.660/713 companies. Ben has decided to remain with Omega mostly in part due to the encouragement of his fellow workers. It can be stated that Ben has experienced: A) continuance commitment. B) normative commitment. C) affective commitment. D) coercive commitment. 2511) All of the following are methods managers can utilize to promote employee job satisfaction except which one? A) Conduct an attitude survey B) Recognize and reward good performance C) Learn the specific facets of the job that may bring about worker dissatisfaction D) Assume high performers are well satisfied in their job 2512) An employee's emotional attachment to and identification with the firm is ___________. A) continuance commitment B) normative commitment C) organizational citizenship behavior D) affective commitment 2513) Jack Jackson of Quality Carpets has been seriously considering a career change. However after much contemplation, Jack has concluded the stress and emotional aspects of leaving the firm surpass any gains he would acquire at a new organization. Jack is experiencing: A) external influence commitment. B) continuance commitment. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.661/713 C) normative commitment. D) ineffective commitment. 2514) Organizational citizenship behaviors can best be defined as: A) an employee's unwillingness to offer suggestions to the organization. B) an employee's strict adherence to organizational objectives. C) an employee's willingness to go above the normal call of duty. D) all of the above. 2515) Jane is always the first person to lend a hand to her coworkers and never fails to brag about the organization to outsiders. By engaging in such behavior, she is exemplifying: A) the actor-observer affect. B) stereotypical behavior. C) affective commitment. D) organizational citizenship behavior. 2516) Alexis Alexander has an MBA degree from Yale. However, it seems that even though she has worked for the same firm for 6 years with an exemplary record, she cannot climb any higher on the corporate ladder. It can be said that Alexis is most probably experiencing: A) glass ceiling. B) stereotyping. C) continuance commitment. D) perception fallacies. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.662/713 2517) Which group currently represents the largest minority group? A) Hispanics B) Native Americans C) African-Americans D) Physically challenged 2518) The 1990 ADA law was designed to benefit which group of individuals? A) Women B) Physically challenged C) African-Americans D) Older workers 2519) Which of the following is/are way(s) for organizations and managers to promote or recognize diversity? A) Partnership with local educational institutions B) Provide training programs C) Development and encouragement of networks and support groups D) All of the above 2520) Which of the following is considered to be a problem with diversity programs? A) Worries over reverse discrimination repercussions B) General resistance C) The actor-selector effect http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.663/713 D) Support of top management 2521) Which of the following is/are factor(s) that improve the chance of making diversity programs successful? A) Address the concerns of the majority group B) Make diversity a part of the overall business goal C) Use diversity training carefully D) All of the above 2522) Which of the following is/are considered advantage(s) for organizations that have a successful diversity program in place? A) Increased worker productivity B) Decreased worker turnover C) Ability to make better organizational decisions due to the involvement of a more diversified work force offering different perspectives D) None of the above 2523) The _________ are perspectives of motivation that identify specific needs that energize behavior. A) content theories of motivation B) process theories of motivation C) equity theory and OB mod theory D) expectancy theories http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.664/713 2524) _________ is attributed with the development of the Two-Factor Theory of motivation. A) Abraham Maslow B) David McClelland C) Frederick Herzberg D) Stacy Adams 2525) Hygiene factors are similar to the _____________ needs identified by the Hierarchy of Needs. A) higher order B) three-tiered C) lower order D) none of the above 2526) Which of the following is a limitation of the equity theory? A) It does not address the issue of perceived fairness. B) It offers no remedy to increase motivation. C) fairness. D) When you feel treated unfairly, you will be motivated to restore a sense of Who we should compare ourselves to is not clearly identified. 2527) Which of the following is a strategic way in which employees strive to reduce inequity? A) Focus specifically on the behavior in question and attempt to alter it. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.665/713 B) Maintain the same comparison person as before. C) Changing their inputs and/or outcomes D) None of the above. 2528) At Bradley Sanders' motorcycle firm, in the last six months, 60 of 80 employees have been terminated while 53 job applicants have been hired to replace them. This type of process is best described by the term ____________. A) negative reinforcement B) motivation C) inequity D) churning 2529) Which theory is considered to deal with consequences? A) Reinforcement Theory B) Two-Factor Theory C) Equity Theory D) Hierarchy of Needs Theory 2530) Which of the following is/are a recommendation(s) to prevent the potential side effects of punishment? A) Focus specifically on the behavior in question. B) Always punish in private. C) Specify alternative behaviors that will prevent mistakes from being repeated. D) All of the above. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.666/713 2531) Signs detailing lengthy work expectations and obligations that hung in the employee lounge of Spender Textile, constantly offend Brian to the point he repeatedly called off from work. These signs were replaced with new, more complex messages every day. His manager recognized this negative behavior and had the offending signs removed from the employee lounge. The manager's action of removing that which was reinforcing negative employee behavior is called: A) punishment. B) extinction. C) hygiene factors. D) perception. 2532) Which motivation theory focuses on establishing future performance targets? A) Goal theory B) Reinforcement theory C) Equity theory D) None of the above 2533) Jackson is a line worker for the local clothing manufacturer. Even though he does not possess an official title or a private office, Jackson is more than willing to give his complete dedication to assisting the organization in achieving its mission of producing a quality product. This willingness to pursue an organizational goal is a demonstration of _____________. A) motivation B) positive reinforcement C) goal commitment D) goal setting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.667/713 2534) Sandy Bennett is employed at Stained Glass, Inc. She has been assigned the task of creating 400 perfect bottles per hour. The maximum every achieved by any employee in the history of the firm was 25. This virtually unachievable goal that she has been assigned has been designed to encourage the employees to "do things differently” rather than in the usual fashion. This is called _________. A) stretch targets B) intrinsic factors C) hygiene factors D) none of the above 2535) Which of the following is/are suggested for a successful management by objectives program? A) Establish a time frame for achievement B) Establish performance targets C) Prioritize goals D) All of the above 2536) Which theory of motivation starts with an assumption that employees are rational? A) Goal setting theory B) Expectancy theory C) Reinforcement theory http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.668/713 D) 2537) Herzberg's Two-Factor theory The desired "performance” of skill acquisition is attributable to ___________. A) expectancy theory B) reinforcement theory C) skill-based pay programs D) none of the above 2538) Jennie has held the position as manager of Creative Cosmetics for 7 years. She is well respected by her subordinates and she, in turn, respects them also. Jennie is certain to seek the opinion of her subordinates for many of the decisions she must make. This process of ensuring subordinate understanding and agreeance is referred to as: A) bounded rationality. B) acceptability. C) reliability. D) conformity. 2539) ________ focus on the quality and extent of information that goes into a decision. A) Information-processing methods B) Rational-economic approaches C) Delphi techniques D) Expected-value models http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.669/713 2540) Which of these focuses on the decision options themselves rather than on the information that goes into the decision? A) Quantitative model B) Rational-economic model C) Expected-value model D) Decision-choice model 2541) _________ are agreed upon and common ways of interacting, perceiving, and deciding. A) Situational factors B) Stereotypes C) Scripts D) Personal constructs 2542) When Daniel is making a decision for his trucking firm, he favors just analyzing the facts of the situation without dealing with any extraneous information. His style of decision-making is one in which those who use it do not mess around with lots of information. This style is called the: A) behavioral style. B) directive style. C) analytic style. D) conceptual style. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.670/713 2543) Bianca utilizes a style of decision-making that examines the various facets of the situation rationally. She is able to successfully address any issues of uncertainty that may manifest. This style of decision-making is known as: A) analytic style. B) conceptual style. C) behavioral style. D) directive style. 2544) Which term is best defined as shortcuts that we learn over time and that reduce our necessary thinking work and free us for other tasks? A) Brainstorming B) Groupthink C) Heuristics D) Conjunction fallacy 2545) Which one of the following is considered to be a relative to the base rate heuristics such as representativeness? A) Administrative model B) Groupthink C) Personal constructs D) Conjunction fallacy 2546) Robert Zembower directs the Training Specialists of Dayton, Inc. When he makes a decision, Robert consistently favors ones that will provide a smaller, but certain positive gain versus the decisions that offer the chance for a larger return without as much certainty. Robert's style of decision-making is referred to as ________. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.671/713 A) anchoring B) framing C) escalation-of-commitment D) perception. 2547) Which term refers to the tendency for our judgments to be unduly affected by the starting point of a decision? A) Bounded rationality B) Anchoring C) Escalation-of-commitment D) Groupthink 2548) Tom and Jason are the managers for the Brinkman Processing. They are consistent in the fact that they continue to support decisions, which have proven to be erroneous. This style of decision-making is best known as _________. A) escalation-of-commitment B) brainstorming C) regression to the mean D) Delphi technique 2549) Which of the following refers to a situation in which pressures for cohesiveness and togetherness act to remove all the benefits typically offered by group decisionmaking? A) Bounded rationality B) Brainstorming http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.672/713 C) Groupthink D) Nominal group technique 2550) Which of the following is considered a drawback to group decision-making? A) Increased amount of knowledge and information B) Slower than individual decision-making C) More access to creative decisions D) None of the above 2551) Which of the following is/are predicted symptom(s) of groupthink? A) Rationalization B) Morality of actions C) Self-censorship D) All of the above 2552) Which of the following is/are rules to follow during the process of brainstorming? A) Encourage piggybacking B) Present the illusion of unanimity C) Try to do a full search for information D) Group monitoring 2553) Jena Murphy's consulting firm employs 65 professional individuals. She allows her employees to outline their own work schedules and only requires that each employee report to work on Monday and Friday from 9 a.m.until 3 p.m. Ms. Murphy is utilizing a(n) http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.673/713 A) compressed employee work schedule. B) flexible employee work schedule. C) job enlargement approach. D) ineffective employee benefit system. 2554) Jim Duncan's job as loader operator for Raynor Coal Company permits him to work 10 hours per day, Monday through Thursday. This demonstrates Raynor's utilization of a(n) A) flexible work schedule. B) organizational culture. C) compressed work schedule. D) staffing development. 2555) Four months ago, Taylor Construction needed three employees to rebuild the electrical boxes for their customers due to the various tasks involved. After successfully retraining the employees, a single employee can now handle all facets of this job. This is an example of: A) job enlargement. B) job rotation. C) shoddy workmanship. D) job enrichment. 2556) ________ involves making fundamental changes in the way work actually gets done. A) Job enrichment B) Job rotation C) Job enlargement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.674/713 D) Job restructuring 2557) Which terms best describes the extent to which a job allows employees to work on a complete product or service from the beginning to the end? A) Task significance B) Task feedback C) Skill variety D) Task identity 2558) Thomas Pike is the manager of a large automobile repair shop. He has decided his employees would be more productive if he combined several of the assigned tasks into a single job, which required new and different skills to be utilized by the employee. Effective implementation of this idea in his firm is a demonstration of: A) personal flexibility. B) job rotation. C) effective decision-making. D) vertical job loading. 2559) Horizontal job loading can best be associated with or described by: A) more tasks, no additional skills. B) more tasks, more skills. C) same number of tasks, more skills. D) less tasks, more skills. 2560) Which group of individuals is best identified as having a low degree of authority, voluntary membership, and requiring a high degree of management involvement? A) Self-managed team B) Cross-functional team http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.675/713 C) Quality circle D) Virtual team 2561) Allen Kyle uses a group comprised of between 5-20 members of his organization to get jobs performed in the fastest and most efficient way possible. Mr. Kyle usually permits this group to have a moderate amount of authority over their work and allows the group itself to determine the mission it will pursue. As the organization's manager, he has little involvement in directing the group. Which type of group is most probably formed at this organization? A) Virtual team B) Cross-functional team C) Self-managed work team D) Advisory team 2562) According to an executive survey, which of the following is considered to be one of the most prominent obstacles encountered when an organization desires to start selfmanaged teams? A) Information technology B) Insufficient training. C) Lack of management involvement D) Inexperienced employees 2563) Which team is associated with high use of the various forms of today's information technology such as videoconferencing and e-mail? A) Cross-functional team B) Self-directed team C) Quality team http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.676/713 D) 2564) Virtual team All of the following identifies characteristics of an effective team player except: A) appropriate technical skills. B) good communication skills. C) maintaining an individualist attitude. D) ability to trust other members and management. 2565) Certain employees of Miramar Corporation are undergoing a new outdoor-based training program, lasting for several days. They are being assigned difficult physical tasks that will require teamwork in order for them to be successfully accomplished. Which of the following is the best descriptor for this training? A) Outward Bound B) Upward Reaching C) Reach for the Stars D) Rising Forward 2566) Which of the following is not a suggestion for building a high-performance team? A) Develop a clear set of rules B) Encourage the team to rely on previous knowledge C) Set specific and challenging goals D) Acknowledge team contributions 2567) Which of the following is not suggested to help establish a motivating pay system for teams? A) Prepare to tweak the system whenever necessary http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.677/713 B) Spend time reflecting on and reexamining the system C) Allow team members to help develop the appraisal system D) Develop a complex system for compensation 2568) William Stahl of Overland Express, Inc. manages a staff of fifty employees. He is considered to be an excellent leader by his subordinates. He strives to help his subordinates as well as continually attempts to build cooperation and loyalty among them. By engaging in such actions, Mr. Stahl is demonstrating: A) relationship-oriented behavior. B) change-oriented behavior. C) task-oriented behavior. D) ineffective employee-management behavior. 2569) Developing and communicating an inspiring vision for the future as well as acting to improve strategic decisions are indicative of possession of _________ in a manager. A) change-oriented behavior B) task-centered behavior C) relationship-oriented behavior D) staffing development behavioral skills. 2570) The perspectives that suggest leaders must match their behaviors to the demands of the situation currently at hand is known as: A) need hierarchy theories. B) leader-substitutes theories. C) situation-contingency theories. D) situation-centered perspectives. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.678/713 2571) Sharon Winner is the manager for Realities, Inc. in Los Angeles. Her style of leadership with her subordinates involves consultation, coaching, and supportiveness. This style is best referred to as: A) delegating. B) selling. C) participating. D) telling. 2572) Gabriella Green believes in allowing her employees to have responsibility for work completion. Gabriella does not provide much, if any, direction for the work and provides very little in the way of emotionally supporting the employees throughout the work process. This style of leadership is best known as _________. A) participating B) delegating C) selling D) telling 2573) Angela Walker recently finished her undergraduate degree in business administration at the early age of 19. The "Perfect Pitch" telecommunications firm in Atlanta immediately recruited her. She was very anxious to accept the firm's offer and looked forward to the challenges of her first job. It is best understood that Angela would benefit from a manager that engages in the ____________ style of leadership due to her lack of experience and skills. A) participative B) delegating C) selling D) telling 2574) The most appropriate style of leadership that is suggested for subordinates who are thought to be at the M4 stage of maturity is ________________. A) participating B) delegating http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.679/713 C) telling D) selling 2575) When Brad Jones challenges his subordinates with his high expectations of them as well as holding them to very high performance standards, he is demonstrating a/an ________ style of leadership. A) achievement-oriented B) supportive C) participative D) directive 2576) Which of the following is the best-suggested leadership style for a manager to possess when the subordinates are lacking in self-confidence and are anxious and the tasks are repetitive as well as boring? A) Directive B) Supportive C) Participative D) Achievement-oriented 2577) When Greg Jenkins views his least preferred co-worker in a negative manner regardless of what the employee does, it can be said that Greg is demonstrating a(n) _______ style of leadership. A) achievement-oriented http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.680/713 B) relationship-oriented C) task-oriented D) manipulative-oriented 2578) Charismatic leaders can influence subordinates in which of the following ways? A) Personal identification B) Self-efficacy C) Both A & B D) None of the above 2579) Mark Majors is considered to be self-absorbed and fundamentally insecure in his managerial position. He attempts to manipulate his subordinates and has a significant lack of concern for their welfare. The term that most closely identifies Mark's leadership style is ________. A) narcissistic B) directive C) supportive D) charismatic 2580) Which of the following is/are considered characteristic(s) of narcissistic leaders? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.681/713 A) Impulsive behavior B) Poor administrative practices C) Engaging in excessive impression management D) All of the above 2581) All of the following are steps in the transformational leadership process except: A) recognizing the need for change. B) institutionalizing change. C) maintaining the current vision D) creating a new vision for the future. 2582) Brian Dorsey, manager for The Perfect Climate, Inc., expresses his optimism and faith in his subordinates and willingly delegates authority in order that they may help achieve the organization's mission. Brian is utilizing behavioral suggestions offered for managers who wish to be classed as a ________ leader. A) transformational B) relationship-oriented C) decisive D) charismatic 2583) Gary Williams has been employed at Simon & Smith Contracting for six years. His supervisor has noted that Gary will always accomplish any tasks such as status report http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.682/713 compilation that he has been assigned. The supervisor also has noted that Gary fails to apply his maximum effort to the assignments and seems to be unenthusiastic about the task. Which of the following best indicates the response Gary is demonstrating? A) Compliance B) Commitment C) Resistance D) Complacency 2584) Abigail Simpson manages the twelve engineers assigned to her department at Excellent Engineering, Inc. Ms. Simpson consistently makes requests clearly and politely to her subordinates. In addition, she genuinely seems to be sensitive to the perceptions and concerns of the staff. It can be stated that Abigail is engaging in the use of ________. A) expertise B) legitimate authority C) control over rewards D) referent power 2585) _________ involves the presentation of facts and data in a logical manner that is designed to convince the subject that a certain request is the best way to proceed and will result in a positive outcome. A) Consultation B) Inspirational appeal C) Ingratiation D) Rational persuasion http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.683/713 2586) When Benjamin Wood enlists the help of others to exert pressure and persuasion on one of his subordinates in order to get the worker to behave in a particular manner, he is engaging in which of the following influence tactic? A) Pressure B) Personal appeals C) Coalition formation D) Rational persuasion 2587) If a manager attempts to appeal to the subordinate's aspirations, desires, or beliefs when making a request of the subordinate, the manager is most probably engaging in the influence tactic of ________. A) inspirational appeals B) ingratiation C) personal appeals D) consultation 2588) Which of the following influence tactic is most frequently used to target superiors and most commonly is used to make an initial request? A) Ingratiation B) Coalition formation C) Exchange D) Rational persuasion 2589) Empathize and sympathize with any problems a request may cause and stressing the target's unique skills and abilities to carry out the request are considered general tips for using which influence tactic effectively? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.684/713 A) Ingratiation B) Personal appeals C) Consultation D) Legitimating 2590) Jim Jenkins directs a department of ten employees at Mason's Distribution Center. He is known to be persistent with task requests and checking on the progress of the task frequently. Which of the following best identifies the influence tactic utilized by Jim? A) Personal appeals B) Coalition formation C) Pressure D) Consultation 2591) Which of the following terms is best defined by stating it involves the use of power and influence tactics for personal benefit? A) Political seasoning B) Coalition formation C) Legitimate authority D) Organizational politics 2592) Which of the following is considered to be a contributing factor to the likelihood political behavior will be used? A) Corporate doublespeak B) Personality http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.685/713 C) Preoccupation with organizational image D) Negative self-image 2593) Which of the following is best identified by the ability to adapt to a range of social situations and still feel comfortable? A) Interpersonal adaptability B) Interpersonal perception C) Persuasive influence D) Impression management 2594) When Thomas Haller attempts to make himself appear in a favorable light to his superiors, he is engaging in _________. A) other-focused tactics B) self-focused tactics C) organizational politics D) Machiavellian tendencies 2595) Dave Davidson manages the five accountants at Star & Stein Accounting Firm. He consistently tries to pin the blame for any task failures on the junior staff members directly involved with the task. It can be stated that Mr. Davidson is engaging in the political tactic of _______. A) scapegoating B) information manipulation C) positive image management http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.686/713 D) negative image management 2596) Will Williamson makes a point to express his admiration for his superiors and offers to do unsolicited personal favors for them. Will is engaging in ______. A) negative image management B) positive image management C) other-focused tactics D) self-focused tactics 2597) Daniel Jackson attempts to lull his opponents into a false sense of security in order to get them to let down their guard. The term which best describes Daniel's action is ______. A) sandbagging B) self-focused tactics C) scapegoating D) image management 2598) Jennie Smith, the manager of the marketing department for Fresco Enterprises, is finding herself engaged in a conflict situation with the manager of the accounting department for the firm. Jennie is under time constraints for concluding a project and needs to have a decision to the CEO within two days. She approaches the accounting manager with a plan to cut her project expenses while asking that department to expedite the funding for advertisements. Jennie's style of conflict resolution in this situation is most probably the _______ style. A) forcing B) accommodating http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.687/713 C) compromising D) avoidance 2599) Allen Kyle has a very aggressive personality with little regard for the sensitivities of others. He is known to actively engage in open confrontation with the managers of his firm and shouts loudly to command the attention of the members attending the corporate meetings. He resorts to stating “I am the owner so it must be done the way I want it to be done” whenever he stands to lose an argument. It is best indicated that Allen possesses a _________ style of conflict resolution. A) collaborating B) compromising C) accommodating D) forcing 2600) Debra Williamson demonstrates her concern for the employees she manages at Gunther Fabricating by consistently giving in to their ideas or suggestions. It is rare for Debra to challenge any employee's request. The best descriptor for her style of conflict resolution is most probably _________. A) accommodating B) forcing C) avoidance D) collaboration 2601) Japan as well as __________, another collective culture, does not utilize the forcing style of conflict resolution, as it does not agree with their overall philosophy on successful conduct. A) Australia http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.688/713 B) Korea C) Argentina D) United States 2602) Which of the following item (s) is/are considered effective managerial suggestions for resolving or reducing conflict? A) Separation of the parties in conflict B) Appointment of a conflict stimulator C) Restrict information to only the managers involved D) Allow the conflict to play through 2603) The managers and employees of Great Mountain Landscaping have become complacent in their positions. They have practically ceased to generate new ideas and lack inspiration for their jobs. In order to battle this problem, Great Mountain has enlisted the services of an outside firm in order to stimulate a controlled conflict environment within the organization. The hired assistance is most probably called a conflict __________. A) integrator B) agitator C) stimulator D) instigator 2604) Which term best fits the description of “pressures, demands, and strains” that can go hand-in-hand with job duties and responsibilities? A) Stress B) Conflict http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.689/713 C) Obligation D) None of the above 2605) Examples of stressors include corporate layoffs, new job assignments, and ________. A) corporate wellness programs B) adequate communication C) corporate mergers D) insightful managers 2606) Jason Sanders is undergoing a great deal of stress at his job. He is unsure exactly how to prioritize his tasks in order to successfully complete his assignments. Jason performs several duties during the course of a day and finds that the accomplishment of one duty directly competes or interferes with the successful accomplishment of another duty. It can be said that Jason is most probably experiencing __________. A) role ambiguity B) cultural differences C) organizational barriers D) role conflict 2607) Martin Manchez was recently hired on at the Applegate Industrial Firm. He is very unsure exactly what the new job requires of him and has no information as to what resources he may utilize to accomplish his assignments. Martin is feeling a significant amount of dissatisfaction and uncertainty about his new job. It is indicated that Martin is most probably experiencing _________. A) role conflict B) role ambiguity C) stress http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.690/713 D) All of the above 2608) Which of the following is best described by “aggressive, take-charge individuals who rarely letdown and mostly play to win in situations”? A) Type B personality B) Integrator C) Type A personality D) Effective managers 2609) Michelle Martinez is a registered nurse at a state psychiatric facility. She constantly complains of feeling exhausted and has been experiencing problems with concentration while on duty and in her family life. This in turn has resulted in her loss of enthusiasm for the job and has produced a feeling of personal underachievement in Michelle. Michelle is most probably experiencing ________. A) burnout B) stress C) role conflict D) role ambiguity 2610) James has made several changes at his organization that are designed to better accommodate the needs of the employees. For instance, James has established an on-site child and elder day care center. In the three months this center has been functional, the organization has seen a 15% decrease in employee absenteeism. It can be stated that James' organization has recently established a successful __________. A) corporate wellness program B) family-supportive policy C) employee assistance program http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.691/713 D) jobs redesign policy 2611) Which one of the following items is best identified as a program that provides access to professional help for employees who are experiencing problems such as alcohol abuse or emotional difficulties? A) Jobs Redesign Program B) Family-Supportive Program C) Employee Assistance Program D) Corporate Wellness Program 2612) The ABC Corporation is devoted to helping its employees fare better with their personal health-related issues. ABC offers the employees 24-hour access to an on-site fitness and exercise facility and provides routine screening for blood pressure and cholesterol levels for the workers and their families. It can be stated that the ABC has a/an _________ in place at the organization. A) corporate wellness program B) family-supportive policy C) decisive management techniques D) employee assistance program 2613) Surveys, suggestion boxes, and employee newsletters are considered to be ______ types of communication. A) downward B) upward C) grapevine http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.692/713 D) lateral 2614) The form of communication that typically involves interactions between individuals possessing equal power is best referred to as ______________ communication. A) upward B) downward C) horizontal D) vertical 2615) Randy Trumble and Patrick Bell are managers of two different departments of Krazy Enterprise in St. Louis. When these two gentlemen engage in business communications with each other, it is most probably ____________. A) lateral communication B) upward communication C) grapevine communication D) downward communication 2616) Which of the following terms best identifies the informal, unofficial form of communication found within most organizations? A) Gossip B) Lateral communication C) Horizontal communication D) Grapevine http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.693/713 2617) Which of the following statements is/are considered to be suggestions for the proper use of informal communications? A) An open discussion of the worst-case scenario B) Disavow any downsides to decisions C) Restrict information to only the managers involved D) Maintain and encourage rumors 2618) When Raj engages in open sharing of information with the involved parties and discusses timetables that are applicable to important and upcoming events with the individuals involved in the project, it can be stated that he is engaging in: A) upward communications. B) proper suggested uses of informal communications. C) the grapevine. D) effective use of horizontal communication. 2619) Which of the following most clearly fits into the category of being a "most lean" media form of communication? A) Teleconferencing B) Face-to-face contact C) Bulletin boards D) Voice mail 2620) Markham Grimes' office is located in the outer building of a twenty building complex. He frequently encounters problems with his communications to the finance department located in the most inner building of the complex. The communication http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.694/713 problem encountered by Markham is one involving physical distance and is best referred to as a __________. A) structural barrier B) organizational barrier C) hierarchical barrier D) interpersonal barrier 2621) Riya has noted that she experiences communication difficulties with the male members of her staff. Quite frequently, her intended messages and directives are unclear or misinterpreted by her subordinate male staff. This is an indication of experiencing which structural barrier? A) Status B) Cultural differences C) Organizational structure D) Gender 2622) Which of the following item(s) is considered to be a/an interpersonal barrier(s) to effective communication? A) Corporate doublespeak B) Gender C) Cultural differences D) All of the above 2623) The term which best describes the use of language aimed at turning bad news into good news and shifting the blame for the problem is __________. A) paralanguage http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.695/713 B) external communication barrier C) self-preservation D) doublespeak 2624) A suggested method to help overcome organizational barriers to effective communication is A) utilize face-to-face communication more frequently. B) become a better listener. C) engage in better, not more communication. D) keep messages as simplistic as possible. 2625) Which of the following is considered a method to help overcome personal barriers to effective communication? A) Impulsive behavior B) Poor administrative practices C) Engaging in excessive impression management D) Improvement of listening skills 2626) Which of the following item(s) identifies strategies utilized by leading companies for improving communication within the organizations? A) Communication is decentralized and informal. B) There is a close match between saying and doing. C) There is an emphasis on face-to-face communication. D) All of the above. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.696/713 2627) When Daniel Greene, CEO for a top clothing manufacturer in the United States, accomplishes what he states will be accomplished and communicates, most often, to his staff via face-to-face communication, he is demonstrating utilization of: A) impression management. B) excellent corporate communication. C) decisive management techniques. D) charismatic leadership. 2628) _____________ structures have effort put into placing all the jobs needed to produce and sell a product within the same group of employees. A) Customer-based B) Product-based C) Geographic-based D) Matrix 2629) Which of the following is considered to be a positive of a customer-based structure? A) Customer lessons learned by one group may need to be relearned by another B) Serving all customers efficiently may be an impossible task to accomplish. C) Customers are given top priority. D) Provides a natural focal point for bringing people and teams together. group. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.697/713 2630) Power distribution can refer to how the organization is __________. A) vertically differentiated B) laterally differentiated C) relationship-centered D) flatly structured When the First National Bank of Winslow incorporated changes to their operational methods, such as increasing the number of employees directly reporting to one manager, they were in essence modifying the _________ within their organization. A) relationship-oriented behavior B) delegation C) span of control D) matrix structure A firm that is involved in a fast-changing industry may find that a _______ structure to be more beneficial. A) centralized B) taller C) formal D) decentralized 2631) Which of the following terms best describes the act of providing lower level management with the opportunities to develop their skills and expertise? A) Participation B) Delegation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.698/713 C) Dumping D) Segregation 2632) Randall Minnich is engaging in ________ when he gives his employees responsibility and control over their assigned jobs. A) direction management B) dumping C) delegation D) supportive leadership 2633) Which structural concept is basically referring to the number of rules, policies, and procedures that exist within the organization? A) Formalization B) Bureaucracy C) Functional D) Vertical differentiation 2634) A bureaucracy is actually an extremely _________ organizational form. A) organic B) mechanistic C) informal D) formal 2635) When the size of an organization increases, which of the following is anticipated to be observed within that organization? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.699/713 A) The organization becomes taller B) The organization becomes more informal C) The organization experiences less functional specialization D) The organization becomes more centralized 2636) Which of the following is considered a benefit of the effects of technology on organizations? A) There is less need for leadership from upper management B) The increased skill abilities of employees C) The stabilization of economic conditions D) The generation of various types of interdependence among people and tasks 2637) In which form of structure do employees perform more specialized job functions and the predominant firm goal is efficiency? A) Formal B) Bureaucracy C) Organic D) Mechanistic 2638) In which of the following forms of structure are jobs less specialized and more broadly defined while power is more decentralized? A) Organic B) Flat C) Mechanistic D) Formal http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.700/713 2639) In the ABC Corporation, information flows largely from upper management and there is a great deal of formality in how tasks are accomplished. The best classification for an organization with this form of structure would be ________. A) loose B) mechanistic C) organic D) informal 2640) Which of the following structural approaches seem to be the most effective in a relatively unstable business environment? A) Customer-based B) Mechanistic C) Organic D) Formal 2641) Which of the following terms is best identified by stating it involves the firm's overall values, beliefs, and behaviors? A) Artifacts B) Assumptions C) Mission statement D) Corporate culture 2642) Of the following items, which would be considered a positive effect of an organization having a definable culture in place? A) Reduction of destructive infighting http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.701/713 B) Built-in resistance to change C) Maintenance of standard performance levels D) Easier adaptability during mergers 2643) When the employees of Learning-for-all Corporation speak of their deceased founder, Leonard Learning, they are engaging in the use of _________ to communicate its culture to others. A) myths B) rituals C) stories D) symbols 2644) A common theme found within an organization's life stories is/are ________________ A) Will I get fired? B) Aren't we great? C) Beyond the call of duty. D) All of the above. 2645) Items such as a desired parking space or use of the corporate jet are actually ________ that communicate the culture of the organization. A) rituals B) symbols C) nonverbal language D) ceremonies http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.702/713 2646) When Yashmi was awarded a promotion to upper management level during a ceremony held in her honor, she was experiencing a __________. A) rite of passage B) symbolic display of appreciation C) lateral progression D) horizontal communication. 2647) Which of the following is considered a general step for developing a useful corporate mission statement? A) Teleconferencing with benchmark firms B) Employee involvement C) Definition of priorities D) None of the above 2648) The process of learning organizationally useful behaviors is better known as _______. A) socialization B) orientation C) hierarchical integration D) interpersonal segmentation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.703/713 2649) Individuals who are utilized by organizations to assist newcomers with their integration into the firm are referred to as __________. A) guides B) mentors C) socialization specialists D) effective managers 2650) A(n) _______________ culture characterizes those businesses in which people put a lot on the line and simultaneously receive fast feedback. A) fearlessness B) persistence C) adaptive D) process 2651) The business of real estate is an example of a ________ culture. A) one-shot B) fearlessness C) persistence D) process 2652) A culture in which feedback about the business is rather slow and there really is not much risk involved is ___________. A) the process culture http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.704/713 B) a progressive culture C) the persistence culture D) a fearlessness culture 2653) Which type of culture involves a tremendous amount of risk, has a very slow feedback rate, and is exemplified by the oil business? A) Persistence culture B) Fearlessness culture C) The progressive culture D) One-shot culture 2654) Which of the following item(s) can be considered warning sign(s) of a need to change culture? A) Poor group relations B) Adequate morale C) Long-term vision D) All of the above 2655) Which of the following is/are considered a key(s) to facilitating culture change within an organization? A) Impression management B) Excellent corporate communication C) Understanding the culture before making changes http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.705/713 D) 2656) Charismatic leadership The Triad countries include the United States, the European Union, and _______. A) Japan B) Brazil C) China D) Australia 2657) In phase 2 of a firm's international expansion, the firm is usually considered to be a/an _________ firm that has expanded its sales abroad. A) multinational B) domestic C) international D) foreign 2658) Which of the following legal systems have: community orientation, a set of rules based on customs, and legal outcomes evaluated relative to the group? A) Islamic Law B) Common Law C) Asian Systems D) Sub-Saharan African Law 2659) The legal system that possesses the common characteristics of a large degree of bureaucracy and minimal emphasis on personal/individual rights is ___________. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.706/713 A) Communist/Socialist Law B) Civil Law C) Asian Systems D) Sub-Saharan African Law 2660) Factors to assist with the classification and rating of political risks across countries include _________. A) import restrictions B) stability of the political system C) per capita income D) all of the above 2661) An example of an external economic risk is _________. A) tariffs B) threat of kidnapping of expatriates C) presence of roads and ports D) ability to hire foreign nationals 2662) An organization facing significant international expansion difficulties due to regulations regarding the environmental impact of the business can be said to be experiencing ________. A) domestic economic risk B) external economic risk C) political/economic risk D) environmental impact risk http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.707/713 2663) The _________ approach to managing risk includes the direct approach of longterm agreements and promotion of host goals. A) defensive/reactive B) linking/proactive C) defensive/linking D) reactive/linking 2664) The number one countries considered to be the most and least risky areas in which to conduct business (respectively) are _______ and ________. A) Singapore, China B) Nigeria, Canada C) Ecuador, Luxembourg D) Ireland, Vietnam 2665) An indirect defensive/reactive approach to managing risk is/are _______. A) home country government pressure B) lobbying of foreign governments C) joint ventures D) All of the above 2666) ________ can impact international business operations by its affect on business hours, holidays, and days of rest. A) Paralanguage B) Communication barriers http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.708/713 C) Religion D) Cultural knowledge 2667) Which work-related value dimension is best identified by the extent to which the primary focus is on assertive acquisition of money and power versus the quality of life and one's interpersonal relationships? A) Individualism-Collectivism B) Masculinity-Femininity C) Uncertainty avoidance D) Power distance 2668) Which of the following value dimension has a focus that looks at the value of the self versus the group? A) Uncertainty avoidance B) Masculinity-Femininity C) Power distance D) Individualism-Collectivism 2669) The model of value differences was first designed by ________. A) Abraham Maslow B) Geert Hofstede C) Frederick Taylor D) Frederick Hertzberg 2670) Which of the following is/are considered a/an consequence(s) of organizational failure to manage American expatriation? http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.709/713 A) Wasted relocation costs B) Effective performance C) Career progression D) All of the above 2671) When an industrial organization installs specialized equipment to monitor potentially hazardous emissions due to environmentalist pressure, they are in essence experiencing change that is ________. A) unplanned B) temporary C) planned D) guided by upper-level management. 2672) Decentralization of power, team structure, and flattening of the hierarchy are examples of which type of organizational change? A) People change B) Strategic change C) Structural change D) Technological change 2673) ________________ change is identified with retrenchment, stability, and growth posture. A) Technological B) Organizational C) Structural D) Strategic http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.710/713 2674) Which of the following is considered to be a source of resistance to organizational change at the individual-level? A) Firm inertia B) Selective perception C) Threats to power structures D) Job restructuring 2675) When an organization fails to change a processing method that has been proven to be less effective than newer methods now available, it can be stated that the organization is dealing with __________. A) company inertia B) habit C) fear of the unknown D) fear of economic threats 2676) George White is demonstrating resistance to the new operating methods incorporated at the organization he works for. Which of the following is an action that Mr. White would be likely to engage in? A) Promotion of the new methods to coworkers B) Acquisition of skills pertinent to the new methods C) Attempting to delay the change D) Discussion of the new methods and the job requirements with supervisors 2677) When Thomas Alexander realized he would face a possible demotion when the Phoenix Organization began its change process, he became resistant to the idea of change. It can be stated his resistance was most probably attributable to fear of _________. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.711/713 A) uncertainty B) inadequate work skills C) insecurity D) loss of power 2678) Which of the following methods for responding to resistance to change offers the advantages of building a commitment to the change and allowing valuable information to be obtained? A) Manipulation/co-optation B) Negotiation/agreements C) Facilitation/support D) Involvement/participation 2679) When Frank Foote attempts to eliminate resistance to change at his organization by only letting out information very selectively, he is in essence practicing ________. A) manipulation B) coercion C) co-optation D) facilitation 2680) Mary never fails to seek out the opinion and ideas of individuals at the organization that she really has no need of obtaining an opinion from. Her method of responding to resistance to change is known as _______. A) manipulation B) co-optation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.712/713 C) negotiation D) facilitation 2681) The type of leader most apt to utilize coercion methods of responding to resistance to change is _________. A) autocratic B) democratic C) narcissistic D) insecure 2682) All of the following identifies recommendations for reducing resistance to change except ________. A) plan for the change B) initiate the change without offering support C) make the change an experiment D) be willing to negotiate 2683) An example of an interpersonal technique that can promote change is which of the following? A) Sensitivity training B) Manipulation C) Coercion D) Process consultation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net Page No.713/713 2684) When a change agent's job entails interviewing all parties about the relations among people, including interpersonal stumbling blocks and problems, this technique to promote change is known as ________. A) facilitation and support B) team-building techniques C) process consultation D) manipulation and co-optation 2685) Which of the following is not suggested to help in evaluating change efforts? A) Specify the criteria to be affected B) Develop goals for the program at the outset C) Incorporate an evaluation component from the start D) Do not specify the criteria or measures that should be affected by the change effort http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online