Chy102-Tutorial 02

Chy102-Tutorial 02 - General Chemistry General Chem. 101...

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General Chemistry Chem. 101 for Engineering General Chemistry General Chemistry Tutorial 2
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Objectives y Atomic theories and the definition of atom. y Law of conservation of mass y Law of definite proportions y Law of multiple proportions y Identify the components of the atom. y Define the term isotope. y Explain the nuclear stability. y Identify the main features of the periodic table. y Identify metals and non metals. y Write nuclear symbols of ions. y What are molecules and ions?
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Dalton’s atomic theory explained three of the basic laws of chemistry, Law of conservation of mass: This states that there is no detectable change in mass in ordinary chemical reaction. (Postulate 2). Law of constant composition: A compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass. (Postulate 3). Law of multiple proportions : The masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the second element are in a ratio of small whole numbers. (Postulate 3).
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Example: In a combustion reaction, 46.0 g of ethanol react with 96.0 g of oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. If 45.0 g of water was produced, how much carbon dioxide is produced? In an ordinary chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed Solution Solution Total mass reacted = total mass produced Mass of ethanol + mass of oxygen = mass of water + mass of carbon dioxide 46.0 g + 96.0 g = 45.0 g + g carbon dioxide 142.0 – 45.0 = 97.0 g carbon dioxide produced O H 3 CO 2 O 3 OH H C 2 2 2 5 2 + +
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Example: A sample of chloroform is found to contain 12.0 g of
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Chy102-Tutorial 02 - General Chemistry General Chem. 101...

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