Chy102-Tutorial 05

Chy102-Tutorial 05 - General Chemistry General Chem. 102...

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1 General Chemistry Chem. 102 for Engineering General Chemistry General Chemistry Tutorial 5
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2 The aufbau principle and the periodic table It is to start at the beginning of the periodic table and add one electron per element to the lowest energy orbital available Hydrogen H (Z=1) n=1, =0, m =0, m s =+1/2 Helium He (Z=2) n=1, =0, m =0, m s =-1/2 Lithium Li (Z=3) n=2, =0, m =0, m s =+1/2 Beryllium Be (Z=4) n=2, =0, m =0, m s =-1/2 Electronic configuration and orbital diagram Quantum numbers are calculated for the last added electron
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3 Boron B (Z=5) n=2, =1, m =-1, m s =+1/2 Carbon C (Z=6) n=2, =1, m =0, m s =+1/2 Nitrogen N (Z=7) n=2, =1, m =+1, m s =+1/2 Oxygen O (Z=8) n=2, =1, m =-1, m s =-1/2 -1 0 +1 m
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4 Neon Ne (Z=10) n=2, =1, m =+1, m s =-1/2 Fluorine F (Z=9) n=2, =1, m =0, m s =-1/2
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5 Building up period 3
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6 Building up period 4 (the first transition series)
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7 Exercise 1 Predict the full and condensed electronic configurations , partial orbital diagrams showing valence electrons , and the number of inner electrons for the following elements: a) Fluorine (F; Z=9) b) Potassium (K; Z=19) c) Mn (Z=25) Hint: The atomic number tells us the number of electrons. In the partial orbital diagrams, we include all electrons after those of the previous noble gas except those in filled inner sublevels. The number of inner electrons is the sum of those in the previous noble gas.
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8 F: Partial orbital diagram Full electron configuration Condensed electron configuration 2s 2p [1s 2 ]2s 2 2p 5 [He]2s 2 2p 5 K: 4s 4p 3d [Ar]4s 1 [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 ]4s 1 Mn: [Ar]4s 2 3d 5 4s 4p 3d [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 ]4s 2 3d 5
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Chy102-Tutorial 05 - General Chemistry General Chem. 102...

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