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Chapter_3 - Chapter 3 Processes s Overview q q q q q...

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3.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Chapter 3: Processes Chapter 3: Processes Overview: Process Concept Process Scheduling Operations on Processes Interprocess Communication Communication in Client-Server Systems
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3.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process Concept Process Concept An operating system executes a variety of programs: Batch system – jobs Time-shared systems – user programs or tasks Textbook uses the terms job and process almost interchangeably Process – a program in execution; process execution must progress in sequential fashion A process includes: program counter , representing the current activity Stack, containing temporary data such as method parameters, return addresses, and local variables data section, which contains the global variables heap, memory that is dynamically allocated during runtime.
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3.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process in Memory Process in Memory
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3.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process State Process State As a process executes, it changes its state. A process can be in one of the following states. new : The process is being created running : executing Instructions waiting : waiting for some event to occur ready : waiting to be assigned to a processor terminated : The process has finished execution
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3.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Diagram of Process State Diagram of Process State
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3.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process Control Block (PCB) Process Control Block (PCB) The process control block (PCB), a data structure maintained by the OS for each process, contains the following Information associated with each process: Process state (new, ready, running, …) Program counter, which indicates the next instruction to be executed CPU registers information saved when an interrupt occurs CPU scheduling information such as priority, pointers to scheduling queues, etc Memory-management information includes base limit addresses, page tables, etc. Accounting information: amount of CPU time used I/O status information: list of I/O devices allocated, list of open files, etc.
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3.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process Control Block (PCB) Process Control Block (PCB)
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3.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts CPU Switch From Process to Process CPU Switch From Process to Process
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3.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Process Scheduling Queues Process Scheduling Queues Job queue – set of all processes in the system Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device Processes migrate among the various queues
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3.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005 Operating System Concepts Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues
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3.11
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