AP Unit 3 - Bio185 A&P1 The CNS Brain Page 1 of 20 The...

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Page 1 of 20 The Central Nervous System I. Meninges — A. Dura mater (“tough mother”) 1. Outer layer around brain – fused to bone periosteum around spine – Epidural space filled with adipose, loose connective tissue, blood vessels “epidural block” during labor 2. dural sinuses 3. inner layer 4. Subdural space (little lymphatic fluid to reduce friction) B. Arachnoid (“spidery”) Thin, weblike membrane, no vessels Subarchnoid space filled with Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Shock absorption Transport dissolved gases, nutrients, waste products C. Pia mater (“delicate mother”) Thin, bound firmly to neural tissue Highly vascular Clinical correlates: Epidural & subdural hemorrhages; meningitis II. The Brain – Gross Anatomy A. Ventricles Lined with Ependymal cells 2 lateral ventricles, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle Filled with Cerebralspinal Fluid (CSF) CSF produced by choroid plexus CSF is in constant “communication” with interstitial fluid (ISF) of CNS circulate excess absorbed into blood stream Clinical correlates: Hydrocephalus
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Page 2 of 20 Six Major Brain Regions ( Overview ) a. Cerebrum b. Diencephalon i. Thalamus ii. Hypothalamus iii. Pineal gland (part of Epithalamus) (c.+d.+e. Brain stem) c. Midbrain d. Pons e. Medulla oblongata f. Cerebellum B. Cerebral Hemispheres 1. Anatomy a. Highly folded surface or Cortex gyrus/gyri sulcus/sulci b. Cerebral Hemispheres Longitudinal fissure c. Lobes d. Gray vs. White matter Gray: neuron cell bodies nucleus = group of neuron cell bodies White: axon tracts tract = bundle of axons running same direction e. Corpus callosum 2. a. Hemispheric Lateralization i. “Left brain” Language-based skills (reading, writing, speaking) Math, logic, reason Right side of body ii. “Right brain” Emotion, creativity, intuition Identify familiar objects by touch, smell, taste, feel Left side of body b. Lobes: i. Frontal — personality foresight & judgment
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Page 3 of 20 ii. Parietal — (touch, pain, temp., balance, taste) iii. Temporal — smell interpretation iv. Occipital — c. Primary Sensory Areas vs Association Areas: i. Primary sensory areas : perceive sensation e.g. visual cortex ii. Association areas : integrate sensory info & assign meaning e.g. visual association area d. “Higher order” Integrative Centers: i. Wernicke’s Area (General interpretive area) near sensory association areas, usually LEFT hemisphere especially
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course BIOL 185 taught by Professor Harms during the Fall '07 term at Messiah.

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AP Unit 3 - Bio185 A&P1 The CNS Brain Page 1 of 20 The...

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