lecture02_umn - Lecture 2 The state of Physics and...

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Lecture 2 •The state of Physics and Chemistry at the turn of the 20th Century •What is Quantization? •The First Quantum Assumptions Blackbody Radiation The Photoelectric Effect Heat Capacity of Perfect Crystals Hydrogen Emission Spectrum September 11, 2009
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State of physics around 1900 •Many physicists felt that all of the key laws describing the manner in which the Universe worked had essentially been discovered . •The bridge between physics and chemistry was beginning to be made solid. •Gibbs (United States) and Boltzmann (Austria) had forged links between chemistry and classical and statistical thermodynamics, respectively. •The power of thermodynamic formulae to rationalize the behavior of gases, liquids, and solids had a tremendous impact on chemistry.
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Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839 –1903) Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906)
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What is Quantization? •Something quantized is (i) quantifiable and (ii) can only take on a certain number of discrete values. •Most populations of things—where we have a definition that says something either "is" or "is not" the thing in question—are quantized to whole numbers. •Quantization need not be limited to whole numbers. •By contrast, there are many things that are not quantized, which is to say that they are quantifiable, but that they can take on any of a continuous range of values within some infinite interval.
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Not quantized quantities Most physical quantities in classical physics are not quantized. Mass, Velocity, Energy (which can be converted to work or heat) can take on any value Consider some of the classical equations of physics: (2-1) (2-2) F force, m mass, a acceleration, W work and d distance No restriction on the values that these quantities can take on Let us now consider the first quantum assumptions F = m " a W = F " d
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Blackbody Radiation
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