geo104 weather notes

geo104 weather notes - Geology Weather Notes Outline Our...

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Unformatted text preview: Geology Weather Notes Outline Our atmosphere Convections cells Cyclones and anticyclones Santa Ana warm winds(warm dry winds) Rain fall in California Deserts(east more so than west) Habitable planet-vast planet-planet dominated by water-atmosphere rich in H20-atmosphere rich in O2-warm temperatures What drives the weather?-state of atmosphere Sun(center of our solar system) Oceans( without oceans no hurricanes) Atmosphere(Clouds) Rotation of earth Uneven solar absorption(tries to warm up at equator) Characteristics of atmosphere 1.Solar radiation Strongest at equator(more solar energy at equator) What do we need to reflect energy? Ice Why is solar radiation the strongest around equatorial regions? because the Earths surface faces the incoming radiation at a right angle, so a lot of energy is absorbed. A) at polar regions-farther from sun-sun-low angle, large area B)at equatorial regions Closer to sun Sun-high, angle, small area Heat=not very much at the pole/equatorial regions yes! Why dont equatorial regions blow away? And polar oceans freeze over?.. Ocean currents/transfer heat Ocean currents Atmospheric circulation-----distribute heat around on Earth--- 2.Composition N2~78% nitrogen O2~21% oxygen Both equal~99% Ar~0.9% argon (others are measured in parts per million) CO2~ 0.04% (very small fraction) 3.Temperature Temperature decreases with the altitude in the TROPOSPHERE- Lower 12km of atm.--all weather 4. Density Warm air less dense rises Cold air denser sinks 5.Water vapor Warm air humid, less dense Cold air dry, denser 6.Pressure We define pressure as the weight of the air on an area. Low pressure(L)-light column of air (air rises) High pressure(H)-heavy column of air (air sinks) (Today, for ex, it is High pressure b/c molecules are sinking down) Rule: Air always moves from High to Low>>>>>thus WINDS Surface pressure How does air pressure change with Altitude? Most of the air is close to the surface. 50% of air lies below this altitude. Define: Convection cell--?????? From wiki: A convection cell is a phenomenon of fluid dynamics that occurs in situations where there are density differences within a body of liquid or gas . The convection usually requires a gravitational field but in microgravity experiments, thermal convection has been observed without gravitational effects being needed. [1] Fluids are materials that exhibit the property of flow . Both gases and liquids have fluid properties, and in sufficient quantity, even particulate solids such as salt, grain, and gravel show some fluid properties. When a volume of fluid is heated, it expands and becomes less dense and thus more buoyant than the surrounding fluid. The colder, denser fluid settles underneath the warmer, less dense fluid and forces it to rise. Such movement is called convection , What is hot is less dense therefore it rises , if it is cold it is more dense so it sinks ....
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geo104 weather notes - Geology Weather Notes Outline Our...

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