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Weeks11-12-sho - Dr Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 Weeks 11-12...

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Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 – Weeks 11-12 1 It’s not the poison, but the dose that matters – Paracelsus 15 th century square4 Although we call some substances nontoxic, in fact any chemical can be toxic if you eat, drink, or absorb too much of it. square4 50 times the caffeine in a normal human diet could kill you square4 The oxalic acid found in spinach could lead to kidney damage or death if 10 to 20 pounds were consumed at a single sitting square4 Water intoxication can occur when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is altered by a rapid intake of water causing the brain to swell and stopping regulatory functions such as breathing. square4 Some over the counter drugs can lead to accidental overdoses. square4 during 2004-2005, an estimated 1,519 children aged 2 years or younger were treated in U.S. emergency rooms for overdoses associated with cough and cold medications Review Electrolytes square4 Strong Electrolytes square4 soluble ionic compounds in solution or strong acids/bases H 2 O NaCl( s ) square4 Weak Electrolytes square4 Weak acids and bases H 2 O HF( g) square4 Non Electrolytes square4 Polar Molecular compounds dissolve in solution H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) Colligative Properties Colligative properties square4 are changes in the properties of a solvent when solute particles are added square4 depend on the number of solute particles in solution square4 involve the lowering of freezing point square4 involve an increase in the boiling point Everyday Uses: Salt on icy roads Antifreeze in your car Homemade ice cream 3
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Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 – Weeks 11-12 2 Freezing Point Lowering and Boiling Point Elevation When 1 mole of solute particles is added to 1000 g of water, the square4 freezing point water decreases by 1.86 °C (from 0 °C to –1.86 °C) square4 boiling point water increases by 0.52 °C (from 100 °C to 100.52 °C) The number of moles of particles depends on the type of solute: square4 nonelectrolytes dissolve as molecules 1 mole of nonelectrolyte = 1 mole of particles in water _____________________________________________________ square4 strong electrolytes dissolve as ions 1 mole of electrolyte = 2 to 4 moles of particles in water ____________________________________________________ 4 Effect of Solute Particles 5 CaCl 2 is added to icy roads in the winter time.By how much will 111 g of calcium chloride lower the freezing point of water?
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Weeks11-12-sho - Dr Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 Weeks 11-12...

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