Weeks11-12-sho - Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 Weeks...

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Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 – Weeks 11-12 1 It’s not the poison, but the dose that matters – Paracelsus 15 th century s Although we call some substances nontoxic, in fact any chemical can be toxic if you eat, drink, or absorb too much of it. s 50 times the caffeine in a normal human diet could kill you s The oxalic acid found in spinach could lead to kidney damage or death if 10 to 20 pounds were consumed at a single sitting s Water intoxication can occur when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is altered by a rapid intake of water causing the brain to swell and stopping regulatory functions such as breathing. s Some over the counter drugs can lead to accidental overdoses. s during 2004-2005, an estimated 1,519 children aged 2 years or younger were treated in U.S. emergency rooms for overdoses associated with cough and cold medications Review Electrolytes s Strong Electrolytes s soluble ionic compounds in solution or strong acids/bases H 2 O NaCl( s ) s Weak Electrolytes s Weak acids and bases H 2 O HF( g) s Non Electrolytes s Polar Molecular compounds dissolve in solution H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) Colligative Properties Colligative properties s are changes in the properties of a solvent when solute particles are added s depend on the number of solute particles in solution s involve the lowering of freezing point s involve an increase in the boiling point Everyday Uses: Salt on icy roads Antifreeze in your car Homemade ice cream 3
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Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 – Weeks 11-12 2 Freezing Point Lowering and Boiling Point Elevation When 1 mole of solute particles is added to 1000 g of water, the s freezing point water decreases by 1.86 °C (from 0 °C to –1.86 °C) s boiling point water increases by 0.52 °C (from 100 °C to 100.52 °C) The number of moles of particles depends on the type of solute: s nonelectrolytes dissolve as molecules 1 mole of nonelectrolyte = 1 mole of particles in water _____________________________________________________ s strong electrolytes dissolve as ions 1 mole of electrolyte = 2 to 4 moles of particles in water ____________________________________________________ 4 Effect of Solute Particles 5 CaCl 2 is added to icy roads in the winter time.By how much will 111 g of calcium chloride lower the freezing point of water? CaCl
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2010 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Robertson during the Fall '10 term at WVU.

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Weeks11-12-sho - Dr. Robertson-Honecker Chem 111 Weeks...

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