Essay1 - ESSAY
1:
Man
in
the
Moon
 


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Unformatted text preview: ESSAY
1:
Man
in
the
Moon
 
 I
was
fascinated
looking
at
the
photograph
showing
the
Apollo
 astronaut
on
the
Moon.
I
always
loved
to
look
at
the
Moon,
even
when
I
 was
a
kid.
After
all,
you
cannot
miss
the
Moon,
even
at
night.
I
wished
I
 had
had
the
chance
to
go
myself.
This
would
have
fit
in
well
with
my
 spirit
of
adventure.
I
have
already
visited
many
foreign
countries,
even
 as
far
as
Australia.

 
 The
Moon
raises
the
tides
on
Earth.
No
other
body
in
the
sky
has
a
 deeper
impact
on
life
on
Earth.
The
tides
can
add
up
to
catastrophic
 proportions.
This
threatens
low‐lying
countries
like
the
Netherlands.
 Significant
amounts
of
money
need
to
be
allocated
towards
building
 higher
dykes.
However,
the
levies
failed
in
New
Orleans
during
 Hurricane
Katrina.
Thus,
ultimately,
the
Moon
had
deeply
influenced
 politics,
by
making
the
government
unpopular.
This
raises
the
 important
question
of
whether
celestial
objects
control
human
life,
 which
is
a
field
of
study
often
called
`astrology’.
 
 The
connection
between
celestial
mechanics
and
terrestrial
dynamics
 was
explored
first
by
Newton
with
his
development
of
a
universal
 theory
of
gravitation,
claims
that
the
gravitational
effects
of
the
celestial
 bodies
are
what
accounts
for
astrological
generalizations
are
not
 substantiated
by
scientific
research,
nor
are
they
advocated
by
most
 astrologers.
 
 The
main
beliefs
of
astrology
were
common
in
parts
of
the
ancient
 world
and
are
contained
in
the
Hermetic
maxim
"as
above,
so
below".
 Brahe
used
a
similar
phrase
to
summarize
his
studies
in
astrology:
 suspiciendo
despicio,
"by
looking
up
I
see
downward".
Although
the
 principle
that
events
in
the
heavens
are
mirrored
by
those
on
Earth
was
 once
generally
held
in
most
traditions
of
astrology
around
the
world,
in
 the
West
there
has
historically
been
a
debate
among
astrologers
over
 the
nature
of
the
mechanism
behind
astrology.
The
debate
also
covers
 whether
or
not
celestial
bodies
are
only
signs
or
portents
of
events,
or
if
 they
are
actual
causes
of
events
through
some
sort
of
force
or
 mechanism.
 Most
astrological
traditions
are
based
on
the
relative
positions
and
 movements
of
various
real
or
construed
celestial
bodies
and
on
the
 construction
of
implied
or
calculated
celestial
patterns
as
seen
at
the
 time
and
place
of
the
event
being
studied.
These
are
chiefly
the
 astrological
planets,
dwarf
planets,
the
asteroids,
the
stars,
the
lunar
 nodes,
Arabic
parts
and
hypothetical
planets.
The
frame
of
reference
for
 such
apparent
positions
is
defined
by
the
tropical
or
sidereal
zodiac
of
 twelve
signs
on
one
hand,
and
by
the
local
horizon
(ascendant‐ descendant
axis)
and
midheaven‐imum
coeli
axis
on
the
other.
This
 latter
(local)
frame
is
typically
further
divided
into
the
twelve
 astrological
houses.
Furthermore,
the
astrological
aspects
are
used
to
 determine
the
geometric/angular
relationship(s)
between
the
various
 celestial
bodies
and
angles
in
the
horoscope.
 
 The
claim
of
astrology
to
predict
future
trends
and
developments,
or
 predictive
astrology,
is
based
on
two
main
methods
in
western
 astrology:
astrological
transits
and
astrological
progressions.
In
 astrological
transits
the
ongoing
movements
of
the
planets
are
 interpreted
for
their
significance
as
they
transit
through
space
and
the
 horoscope.
In
astrological
progressions
the
horoscope
is
progressed
 forward
in
time
according
to
set
methods.
In
vedic
astrology
the
focus
is
 on
planetary
periods
to
infer
the
trend
while
transits
are
used
to
time
 significant
events.
Most
western
astrologers
no
longer
try
to
forecast
 actual
events,
but
focus
instead
on
general
trends
and
developments.
By
 comparison,
vedic
astrologers
predict
both
trends
and
events.
Skeptics
 respond
that
this
practice
of
western
astrologers
allows
them
to
avoid
 making
verifiable
predictions,
and
gives
them
the
ability
to
attach
 significance
to
arbitrary
and
unrelated
events,
in
a
way
that
suits
their
 purpose.
 
 In
the
past,
astrologers
often
relied
on
close
observation
of
celestial
 objects
and
the
charting
of
their
movements.
Modern
astrologers
use
 data
provided
by
astronomers
which
are
transformed
to
a
set
of
 astrological
tables
called
ephemerides,
showing
the
changing
zodiacal
 positions
of
the
heavenly
bodies
through
time.
 
 The
Moon
is
a
rock
like
Earth.
It
also
has
a
solid‐body
surface,
where
 people
can
walk
on.
One
of
the
main
questions
of
our
industrial
world
 today
is:
Can
we
overcome
the
scarcity
of
raw
materials?
Maybe
we
can
 begin
to
mine
minerals
and
metals
on
celestial
bodies
in
the
Solar
 System,
such
as
the
Moon.
The
Moon
has
a
lot
of
chemical
compounds,
 such
as
regolith.
 
 Almost
the
complete
Moon
surface
is
covered
with
regolith,
bedrock
 being
exposed
on
very
steep‐sided
crater
walls
and
the
occasional
lava
 channel.
This
regolith
has
been
formed
over
the
last
4.6
billion
years
by
 the
impact
of
large
and
small
meteoroids
and
the
steady
bombardment
 of
micrometeoroids
and
solar
and
galactic
charged
particles
breaking
 down
surface
rocks
and
boulders.
 
 The
impact
of
micrometeoroids,
sometimes
travelling
faster
than
 60,000
mph
(96,000
km/h),
generates
enough
heat
to
melt
or
partially
 vaporize
dust
particles.
This
melting
and
refreezing
welds
particles
 together
into
glassy,
jagged‐edged
agglutinates.
 
 The
regolith
is
generally
about
4‐5
meters
thick
in
mare
areas
and
10‐15
 m
in
older
highland
regions.
Below
this
true
regolith
is
a
region
of
 blocky
and
fractured
bedrock
created
by
larger
impacts
which
is
often
 referred
to
as
the
"megaregolith".
 
 The
term
lunar
soil
is
often
used
interchangeably
with
"lunar
regolith"
 but
typically
refers
to
the
finer
fraction
of
regolith,
that
which
is
 composed
of
grains
one
centimeter
in
diameter
or
less.
Some
have
 argued
that
the
term
"soil"
is
not
correct
in
reference
to
the
Moon
 because
soil
is
defined
as
having
organic
content,
whereas
the
Moon
has
 none.
However,
standard
usage
among
lunar
scientists
is
to
ignore
that
 distinction.
"Lunar
dust"
generally
connotes
even
finer
materials
than
 lunar
soil,
the
fraction
which
is
less
than
30
micrometres
in
diameter.
 
 The
physical
and
optical
properties
of
lunar
regolith
are
altered
through
 a
process
known
as
space
weathering,
which
darkens
the
regolith
over
 time,
causing
crater
rays
to
fade
and
disappear.
 
 During
the
early
phases
of
the
Apollo
Moon
landing
program,
Thomas
 Gold
of
Cornell
University
and
part
of
President's
Science
Advisory
 Committee
raised
a
concern
that
the
thick
dust
layer
at
the
top
of
the
 regolith
would
not
support
the
weight
of
the
lunar
module
and
that
the
 module
might
sink
beneath
the
surface.

 
 REFERENCES
 
 [1]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrology
 [2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regolith#On_the_Moon
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/18/2010 for the course UGS 303 taught by Professor Foster during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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