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Lecture10 - Quiz 7 Signature Course UGS 303(Fall 2009...

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1 The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 10: Tycho/Kepler I) Instructor: Volker Bromm The University of Texas at Austin Department of Astronomy Signature Course UGS 303 (Fall 2009) Quiz 7: • Question: Why was it necessary to first argue that the Earth is not at rest, but instead is rotating, to account for the apparent daily motion of the stars , before being able to contemplate an infinite Universe, where the stars are spread out throughout infinite space? • Answer: If the Earth does not rotate, the (fixed) stars must to account for the observations. If the stars were then spread out throughout infinite space, their rotational speeds would increase with increasing distance from the Earth. At infinite distance, the speed would have to be infinite as well, which is impossible! Quiz 7: • Rotational speeds: Earth speed Between Epochs: Renaissance – Baroque (1550-1650) El Greco (1541-1614) Lucas Cranach (1515-1586) • Crisis in Europe: Religious conflict (Catholic vs Protestant)
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2 Europe: Deeply divided into multiple confessions Reformation vs Counter Reformation • Reformation: - Bible in vernacular • Counter Reformation: - Council of Trent (1545-63) • Sola Scriptura Counter Reformation: The Jesuits • Intellectual avantgarde against Reformation - eventually: arch-enemies of Galileo (~1633) Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648) • Utterly devastated Germany (1/2 of population dies)
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3 Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679) : Apologist of Absolutism homo lupus homini (Man is a wolf to man) • Need strong, absolute state to keep society in check and to preserve peace! Innovation: The Dutch Invent the Telescope around 1600 • soon to be used by Galileo Innovation: The Dutch Invent the Microscope • inception of microbiology Hugo Grotius (1583 - 1645) : The Law of Nations De iure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) • concept of Natural Law: man has certain unalienable rights • man is fundamentally sociable
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4 The Making of the New Astronomy: Tycho and Kepler
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