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Lecture13 - Quiz 9 Question Why did the Church feel...

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1 Quiz 9: • Question: Why did the Church feel threatened by Giordano Bruno ʼ s theory of an infinite Universe with an infinitude of worlds? • Answer: Earth/mankind not unique, not pinnacle of creation!? The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 13: Newton) Instructor: Volker Bromm The University of Texas at Austin Department of Astronomy Signature Course UGS 303 (Fall 2009) Isaac Newton: Founding Father of Physics 1642 (Woolsthorpe) – 1727 (London) Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”, 1687) - universal gravity (inverse-square law) - three laws of motion • invented calculus (differentiation and integration) Newton: Timeline and Context • building upon Galileo, Kepler, and Descartes • completes Copernican Revolution! Descartes
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2 Newton: Geography of his Life N D 1642: Birth in Woolsthorpe • born in rural Lincolnshire • father died before his birth ( ʻ posthumous child ʼ ) 1642 – 49: The English Civil War • bitter struggle between King (Charles I Stuart) and Parliament (“Cavaliers” vs “Roundheads”) • King desires to rule without Parliament 1649: Execution of the King • King Charles I (Stuart) beheaded
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3 1642 – 49: The English Civil War • Victory for Parliament • Republic (“Commonwealth”) • Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) - Lord Protector • Anarchy after his death • Army recalls son of former (executed) king from exile 1660: The Restoration • Return of the Stuarts: Charles II (son of behead king) London Coffee-House Culture • New venue for meetings of intellectuals The Royal Society of London • founded 1660: institution to foster exchange of scientific knowledge Gresham College
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4 Philosophical Transactions • published by Royal Society • first scientific journal • a public registry of new scientific ideas
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