State dependent memory

State dependent memory - Encoding Specificity in Cued 1...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Encoding Specificity in Cued Running Head: ENCODING SPECIFICITY IN CUED RECALL Encoding Specificity in Cued Recall and Context Recognition. Alexandra L. Hamilton University of Kentucky 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Encoding Specificity in Cued Abstract The main comparison concerned the relationship between the retrieval cue or recognition context and input cue. The presumed encoding of the to-be-retrieved or to-be-recognized item was either semantically the same as or different from its encoding during input. This experiment demonstrated small examples of encoding specificity. Although it was predicted that "same" cues would be superior to "different" cues, the results presented scores with little variation. The study was conducted under a typical free-responding output condition with the predicted elimination of the resulting effects under a forced-choice procedure. Therefore this data suggest that criterion biases may be the source of the effect, or that forced responding led to extended item processing. Although the hypothesis was not supported, knowledge was gained about the use of memory aids and for future research opportunities on encoding specificity. 2
Background image of page 2
Introduction Tests of episodic memory can be divided into recall or recognition types based on the nature of the cues or information provided. In recall tests, participants are provided with a partial description of the targets (i.e., the information to be retrieved) and are then asked to generate the targets. For example, in a word list free-recall test participants may be asked to generate all the words on a list that was presented at the beginning of the experiment. Working at the University of Toronto in the early 1970s, psychologist Endel Tulving introduced a distinction between two basic forms of declarative memory that he named episodic and semantic. Episodic memory refers to memory of events that an individual has experienced personally in a specific place and at a particular time; in contrast, semantic memory refers to knowledge about the world that individuals share with other members of their culture, including the knowledge of a native language and facts learned in school. This particular experiment focuses on episodic memory, which is typically subdivided into two further categories, recollection and familiarity. Recollection refers to memories of a past event that include specific associations and contextual details, whereas familiarity refers to the sense that we experienced an event at some point in the past, even though no specific associations or contextual details come to mind. Different episodic memory tests discriminate according to the type of information targeted. When we remember past events, we usually remember not only what happened (item information) but also where, when, and how it happened (context information). Although item and context information tend to be intermixed in natural retrieval situations, in this experiment each one will be examined separately. 3
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 14

State dependent memory - Encoding Specificity in Cued 1...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online