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testtttt 03:06 What does Appadurai think Huntington’s flaw was? Basing civilizations on geography What were Huntington’s four phases of historical conflict? Conflict between princes, emperors, monarchs, etc. Conflict between nations Conflict between ideologies Conflict between civilizations (culture, religion) What is a civilization? Broadest level by which people identify themselves culturally, highest cultural  grouping of people Western European Islam Slavic-Orthodox Hindu Latin American Japanese Confucian Maybe African Why do civilizations clash according to Huntington? Basic and fundamental differences (beliefs about women’s rights, etc.) World is becoming smaller place
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Local identities starting to weaken, religion filling gap West is in period of great change (peak of power in 1993, many countries de- Westernizing now) Cultural characteristics= harder to change/compromise than things like  political/economic differences (economic regionalism is increasing) Explain micro and macro levels. Micro:  adjacent groups along faults lines b/w civs struggle over control of  territory/each other… ex) Muslims in France, dress code? Macro:  states from different civs compete for relative military and economic  power, struggle over control of inernationational institutions and third parties  and competitively promote their particular political and religious values What is kin country syndrome? Groups within the same civilization= allies and support each other against  groups from different civilizations What are torn countries? Torn countries are countries that struggle to identify themselves with  civilizations… ex) Turkey… Islam or W. European? What is Huntington’s hypothesis for the future? West and Islam will clash Internantional relations will be increasingly de-Westernized Clashes b/w civs will be more frequent and more violent What are Huntington’s implications for the future? Members of Western civilization should unite Try to turn groups within Islamic civilization against each other and Islam and  Confucians against each other Explain what Said means when he talks about a “cartoon-like world.” Said thinks that Huntington simplifies the West vs. Islam situation way too  much. Explain the plurality of civilizations- Said. Within civilizations there are many differences.  You can’t talk about “the  western civilization” because there is no western civilization.
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What is Lebonization? Culture pitted against culture, people against people, tribe against tribe
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