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Unformatted text preview: Sensation and Perception
Matthew Sorley Carleton University 1 Sensation and Perception Sensation “When I enter most intimately into what I When call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception.” observe
- David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature 2 Key Questions What are the parts of the eye and how do they What work together so that we can see? work How can our vision become impaired? What can How we do about it? we How do we perceive distance and depth? What influences how we perceive objects and What their characteristics? their How can our visual system be fooled? How do the parts of the ear work together so that How we can hear sounds? we How can our hearing become impaired? What How can we do about it? can 3 Electromagnetic Spectrum 4 Electromagnetic Spectrum Normal light Ultraviolet light 5 The Human Eye
Vitreous humour Iris Cornea Fovea Pupil Lens Ciliary muscles Sclera Optic nerve Optic disk (blind spot)
6 Retina The Blind Spot 7 The Human Eye 8 Myopia (Nearsighted) Myopia 9 Hyperopia (Farsighted) Hyperopia 10 Lasik Eye Surgery Lasik 11 What Is 20/20 Vision? Snellen charts
12 Cells of the Retina Cells 13 Cells of the Retina
Ganglion cells Bipolar cells Cone Rod Light Light Optic nerve (to brain)
Amacrine Horizontal Photoreceptor layer cells cells Back of the eye 14 What The…? 15 Dark Adaptation Intensity of light to produce vision 0 10 20 30 40
16 Time in dark (minutes) Colour Vision Trichromatic theory Trichromatic (Young & Helmholtz) (Young Red, green, blue Opponent-process Opponent-process theory (Hering) theory Red-green Yellow-blue White-black 17 Negative Afterimage 18 Negative Afterimage 19 Negative Afterimage Negative 20 Negative Afterimage 21 Colour Blindness Trichromat Monochromat Dichromat 22 Visual Perception Feature Detection Form Perception Depth and Distance Perception Perceptual Constancies Perceptual Illusions 23 Form Perception Gestalt Gestalt psychologists psychologists Figure-ground “Circle Limit IV” M.C. Escher
24 More Figure-ground More 25 What Do You See? “Are you really sure that a floor can't also be a ceiling?”
26 Gestalt Principles Similarity Proximity Closure Continuity
27 Gestalt Principles of Form Gestalt Perception Perception Similarity Proximity
28 Gestalt Principle of Closure 29 Gestalt Principle of Continuity 30 What Do We Make of This?
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I X I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
31 Depth Perception Binocular cues Convergence “Catch the ball” Retinal disparity “The preferred eye” Monocular cues
32 Monocular Cues Interposition
33 Monocular Cues Monocular No interposition 34 Monocular Cues Relative size Texture gradient Aerial Aerial perspective perspective Relative clarity 35 Monocular Cues Linear perspective
36 Monocular Cues Light and shadows 37 Monocular Cues Motion parallax
38 Monocular Man-cation! Monocular 39 Monocular Man-cation! Monocular 40 Perceptual Constancies Shape 41 Perceptual Constancies Perceptual Size 42 Visual Illusions Visual 43 Audition 44 Audition Amplitude Decibels (dB) Frequency Hertz (Hz) Transduction 45 The Human Ear 46 Response to Sound Waves 47 Response to Sound Waves 48 Hearing Loss “Blindness cuts people off from things. Deafness Blindness cuts people off from people.” - Helen Keller cuts Conduction deafness Nerve deafness 49 Cochlear Implants 50 ...
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- Fall '10