Memory - Memory Matthew Sorley Carleton University 1 Key...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory Matthew Sorley Carleton University 1 Key Questions Key How are memories formed? How Why do we forget? How accurate are our memories? Where are memories located? How are they Where organized? organized? How can we use our understanding of How memory to improve our reading, studying, and test performance? and 2 Memory Retention of information over time through Retention the following: the Encoding Storage Retrieval Cognitive psychology and the mind as an Cognitive information processor information 3 Three Components of Memory Atkinson-Shiffrin 3-Component Model 4 Three Components of Memory Sensory memory All incoming sensory information Iconic Echoic Limited duration Large capacity 5 Three Components of Memory Short-term memory Selective attention Conscious processing of Conscious information information Limited duration and Limited capacity capacity George Miller’s “7 +/- 2” Chunking IFHCIMYTCBDPBAVMC IFHCIMYTCBDPBAVMC vs. CTVYMCAIBMPHDFBI CTVYMCAIBMPHDFBI 6 Digit Span Test Digit 7 STM as Working Memory STM Alan Baddeley 8 Long-Term Memory Importance for identity Permanent? Unlimited capacity Information organized and indexed 9 What Gets Into LTM? What Encoding issue Level of processing Level theory (Craik & Lockhart) Lockhart) Maintenance Maintenance rehearsal vs. elaborative rehearsal elaborative 10 Encoding into LTM Massed vs. distributed practice Effortful vs. automatic processing 11 Horse, Cabin, Water, Field, Model, Apple, Horse, Heart, Scene, Constitutional, Earth, Bugle, Night, Voice, Ocean, Child Night, 12 Serial-Positioning Effect 80 Proportion correct 70 60 50 40 30 20 Primacy Recency Immediate Delay No recency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Position in original list 13 Prior Knowledge & Encoding Prior Schemas and scripts Chase & Simon 14 Schemas and Expert Knowledge # of elements recalled 25 20 15 10 5 0 Experts (coaches) Novices Logical plays Illogical plays 15 Long-Term Memory Systems Long-Term 16 Long-term Memory Systems Explicit memory Intentionally trying to remember Episodic: Autobiographical Semantic: Facts about the world 17 Long-term Memory Systems Long-term Implicit memory Unintentional Procedural: Skills and actions Priming: Identify stimuli more easily Priming: after we’ve encountered similar stimuli after Classical conditioning effects 18 Storage of Long-Term Memory Storage Hierarchies Semantic networks Neural networks (connectionist or parallel Neural distributed processing) distributed Schemas 19 Hierarchies Hierarchies 20 Semantic Network Semantic Each unit of info is Each a node node Spreading Spreading activation across the network the Closer the node, Closer stronger the association association See why cramming See doesn’t work? doesn’t 21 Neural Networks Neural Connectionist or parallel distributed processing Memory stored throughout brain in connections Memory between neurons between When network is activated, parallel processing When occurs (i.e., different portions of the network operate simultaneously) operate Strengthened via long-term potentiation If two neurons are activated at the same time, If the connection between them may be strengthened strengthened 22 Retrieval Cues Anything that helps people Anything access info from long-term memory is a retrieval cue memory Encoding specificity Encoding principle: Memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those present during encoding encoding Endel Tulving 23 Retrieval Cues Retrieval Context-dependent Context-dependent memory memory Applying encoding Applying specificity to external cues cues Easier to remember info Easier in same environment (or context) in which it was acquired Gooden & Baddeley 24 Retrieval Cues Retrieval State-dependent memory Applying encoding specificity to internal cues Ability to retrieve information enhanced when Ability internal state at retrieval matches our state during encoding during Mood-congruent recall 25 Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve 26 Now in Spanish: Olvidar 27 Forgetting Encoding failure Absentmindedness Decay theory Storage failure Retrieval failure Motivated forgetting; Motivated repression repression Interference 28 Interference 29 Interference 30 Forgetting: Amnesia Retrograde amnesia Memory loss for events that occurred prior to Memory onset of amnesia onset Loss for events that occur after the initial onset Loss of amnesia of Inability to remember the earliest years of Inability childhood 31 Anterograde amnesia Infantile amnesia Korsakoff’s Syndrome, Alzheimer’s Disease Hollywood Remembers Amnesia Hollywood 32 Memory Reconstruction Memory The Persistence of Memory – Salvador Dali 33 Memory Reconstruction Memory Flashbulb memories Significant events that people often recall Significant with more vivid imagery and detail than everyday events…but are they accurate? everyday 34 Memory Reconstruction Eyewitness testimony Powerful form of evidence But are we effective? Misinformation effect: Misinformation distortion of a memory by misleading post-event information information 35 Leading Questions: Leading What’s in a Word? What’s Loftus & Palmer 36 Social Pressure and Children’s Social False Allegations False 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 4 5 6 Leading questions LQ + Influence techniques % yes answers to misleading questions Age (in years) 37 Memory Reconstruction Memory Recovered memories or Recovered false memories? false Role of repression in Role personal trauma personal Childhood sexual abuse Behaviour of therapists Elizabeth Loftus 38 Do you remember your high Do school grades? school 39 Enhancing Memory: Our Context Enhancing Pay attention and minimize distractions Pay (encoding) (encoding) Process material deeply and avoid rote Process memorization (elaborate rehearsal) memorization Spread out and consolidate learning (distributed Spread practice) practice) Practice! (overlearning) Minimize interference 40 Enhancing Memory: Our Context Enhancing Employ mnemonic strategies Acronyms: HOMES, ROY G BIV, EGBDF Imagery: Method of loci 41 ...
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