Chapter 2-Research Methods

Chapter 2-Research Methods - Research Methods Matthew...

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Unformatted text preview: Research Methods Matthew Sorley Carleton University “So! How is everybody today?” 1 Key Questions What is the scientific method? What should we consider when designing a What psychology experiment? psychology What methods are available if we want to What describe behaviour? describe How can we become more effective How consumers of research information? consumers 2 The Scientific Method Identify the problem Catherine “Kitty” Genovese Home of 38 bystanders 3 Exercise Write down one reason why you think Write nobody helped (e.g., called police, etc.). nobody Pair up with a colleague and share your Pair response. response. 4 The Scientific Method Various headlines from The New York Times (1964) 5 The Scientific Method Formulate hypothesis John Darley and Bibb Latane if multiple bystanders are present, then a if diffusion of responsibility will decrease each bystander’s likelihood of intervening bystander’s Test hypothesis Design and conduct the study Created “emergency” setting in lab 3 conditions 6 The Scientific Method Analyze data 7 The Scientific Method Draw Draw conclusions conclusions Communicate Communicate results results 8 The Research Article The Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion References 9 Ummm…Future Psychopath? Ummm…Future 10 Ummm (Part Two)…..? Ummm 11 Variables Characteristics that can differ Make a list of several different ways in Make which we differ which Operational definitions How might we operationally define “anxiety?” 12 Sampling Population vs. sample Random sampling Convenience samples 13 Sampling 14 Experimental Methods Control situation Does noise influence Does student’s ability to learn new information? new Independent variable Dependent variable Causal relationships Not all variables can be Not manipulated manipulated 15 Question from Text Website Question A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet researcher will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, what term is used to describe the rats' maze-running performance? maze-running a. correlated variable b. control variable c. dependent variable d. iindependent variable ndependent 16 The Crest Test You have been named research director You for Crest toothpaste for Devise an experiment comparing Crest to Devise Brand X Brand What variables should you use and how What are they being defined and manipulated? are What extraneous variables can you think What of and how can these be controlled? of 17 Issues with Experimentation Internal validity Demand Demand characteristics characteristics Experimenter Experimenter expectancy effects expectancy Blind and double-blind External validity Reliability 18 Descriptive and Correlational Research Correlational Surveys Observational methods Psychological Tests Case Studies Correlational approach 19 Descriptive Research - Surveys Questionnaires Self or group administered Mail an option; online possibilities Interviews Telephone In-person Focus group 20 Issues with Surveys Structured vs. unstructured Open vs. closed-ended questions Reliance on self-reports (+ and -) May require a literate sample Sources of potential bias Can obtain lots of data Can’t make cause and effect statements 21 Descriptive Research Descriptive Observation Observation Naturalistic observation Laboratory observation Non-participant vs. Non-participant participant participant Often used at an early Often stage stage Can observe spontaneous Can behaviour behaviour Researcher bias No firm conclusions about No 22 Observation Observation 23 Descriptive Research - Tests Assessment instruments Used in education, business, military, Used research, helping profession, etc. research, Projective tests and objective tests Standardization and norms 24 Descriptive Research - Tests Rorschach inkblot 25 Descriptive Research - Tests MMPI Scoring Sheet 26 Descriptive Research – Case Descriptive Studies Studies Detailed description May include test and observational data Insight into behaviour Unique or extreme cases 27 Descriptive Research – Case Descriptive Studies Studies “Genie” case study Genie” by Susan Curtiss (1977) (1977) Issues related to Issues generalizability, objectivity objectivity 28 Correlational Approach Search for variables that “go together” Not logistically or ethically possible to Not manipulate the IV manipulate Correlation co-efficient number between -1.00 and +1.00 direction of the association (+ or -) strength of the association (strong, moderate, strength weak) weak) Scatterplots 29 Correlations GPA and SAT scores Correlation Correlation coefficient = 0.61 coefficient Positive correlation Strong 30 Correlations – Cont’d GPA and TV viewing Negative correlation GPA and shoe size Virtually no correlation 31 Correlations – Issues Can't make causal inferences Positive correlation between ice cream Positive sales and number of drownings. Why? sales Only indicates that two variables seem to Only occur together occur 32 Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Institutional Review Boards Contemporary ethics guidelines address: Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception 33 Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Desire to protect and Desire promote welfare of participant; more than simply “do no harm” simply Societal benefits Standards in animal Standards research research 34 Being A Wise Consumer of Research Consumer Look beyond the headlines Ask how numbers were obtained Be cautious about correlations and claims Be of causation of Understand how terms are defined and Understand operationalized operationalized Always search for alternative explanations Recognize how personal biases can Recognize influence interpretations influence 35 Being A Wise Consumer Being Be suspicious of simple answers to Be complex questions complex Question statement about effectiveness of Question treatments, interventions and products by finding comparative basis for effect finding Be open-minded, yet skeptical; most Be conclusions are tentative, so be open to change and revision change Challenge those who use personal opinion Challenge in place of evidence for conclusions in 36 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2010 for the course PSYC PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Matt during the Fall '10 term at Carleton CA.

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