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Science - Science Science is a method for learning about...

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Science Science is a method for learning about the world Assumes an objective reality Cause and effect relations Assumes we do not have direct knowledge of the objective reality Noumenon - reality Phenomenon - what we perceive This is literally meant to be true!!!!!!! The idea is essentially the same as what was portrayed in, The Matrix We live in a world generated by our mind (phenomena) On way to demonstrate this is that we can insert images, music, voices or even smells into this world using imagination (note there are large individual differences in the abilities to do these things) When we interact with the noumenon it seems like we can perceive it directly but this is because there is usually a close correspondence between noumenon and phenomenon Anorexia Example Anorexics see themselves as fat while others see them as too thin, who is right?? For this we can take physical measurements to decide, e.g., we can weigh them and compare their weight to the weight of other people of the same height and build Bad hair example What if someone dislikes their haircut while others think it looks good??? No way to physically measure this, but we can still study it Logical empiricism Empiricism Get data from the world Observation and measurement Logical The use of rules to draw conclusions from facts Logic thinking according to rules any set of rules can make a logical system rules that produce intelligent conclusions are the ones of interest Logic provided the oldest cognitive model use of the rules take knowledge (knowledge level) act on it with the rules (cognitive level) produce new knowledge (knowledge level) Deduction When people say logic they usually mean deduction Combine the facts according to the rules to get new truths Rules - assumed to be true Usually based on axiom arguments Axioms - a self evident or universally recognized truth Facts - assumed to be true Data - from measurement or observation Assumptions - things that might plausibly be true Categorical logic examples
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Inclusion rule - if every A is included in B, then any C included in A is included in B Everyone who is A is B Everyone who is C is A So everyone who is C is B ---------- Everyone who is A is B At least one person who is C is A So at least one person who is C is B Exclusion rule - If no A is included in B, then any C included in A is excluded from B No one who is A is B Everyone who is C is A So no one who is C is B ---------- No one who is A is B At least one person who is C is A So at least one person who is C is not B Propositional logic examples Affirming the antecedent If P then Q P So Q Denying the consequent If P then Q Not Q So not P Syllogism If P then Q If Q then R So if P then R Disjunctive syllogism P or Q Not P So Q Are we good at deduction?
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