Science - Science Science is a method for learning about...

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Science ˔ Science is a method for learning about the world ˔ Assumes an objective reality ˓ Cause and effect relations ˔ Assumes we do not have direct knowledge of the objective reality ˓ Noumenon - reality ˓ Phenomenon - what we perceive ˔ This is literally meant to be true!!!!!!! ˓ The idea is essentially the same as what was portrayed in, The Matrix ˓ We live in a world generated by our mind (phenomena) ˓ On way to demonstrate this is that we can insert images, music, voices or even smells into this world using imagination (note there are large individual differences in the abilities to do these things) ˓ When we interact with the noumenon it seems like we can perceive it directly but this is because there is usually a close correspondence between noumenon and phenomenon ˓ Anorexia Example ˙ Anorexics see themselves as fat while others see them as too thin, who is right?? ˙ For this we can take physical measurements to decide, e.g., we can weigh them and compare their weight to the weight of other people of the same height and build ˓ Bad hair example ˙ What if someone dislikes their haircut while others think it looks good??? ˙ No way to physically measure this, but we can still study it ˔ Logical empiricism ˓ Empiricism ˙ Get data from the world ˙ Observation and measurement ˓ Logical ˙ The use of rules to draw conclusions from facts ˔ Logic ˓ thinking according to rules ˓ any set of rules can make a logical system ˓ rules that produce intelligent conclusions are the ones of interest ˔ Logic provided the oldest cognitive model ˓ use of the rules ˙ take knowledge (knowledge level) ˙ act on it with the rules (cognitive level) ˙ produce new knowledge (knowledge level) Deduction ˓ When people say logic they usually mean deduction ˓ Combine the facts according to the rules to get new truths ˙ Rules - assumed to be true ˔ Usually based on axiom arguments ˔ Axioms - a self evident or universally recognized truth ˙ Facts - assumed to be true ˔ Data - from measurement or observation ˔ Assumptions - things that might plausibly be true ˔ Categorical logic examples
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˔ Inclusion rule - if every A is included in B, then any C included in A is included in B ˓ Everyone who is A is B ˓ Everyone who is C is A ˓ So everyone who is C is B ˓ ---------- ˓ Everyone who is A is B ˓ At least one person who is C is A ˓ So at least one person who is C is B ˔ Exclusion rule - If no A is included in B, then any C included in A is excluded from B ˓ No one who is A is B ˓ Everyone who is C is A ˓ So no one who is C is B ˓ ---------- ˓ No one who is A is B ˓ At least one person who is C is A ˓ So at least one person who is C is not B ˔ Propositional logic examples ˔ Affirming the antecedent ˓ If P then Q ˓ P ˓ So Q ˔ Denying the consequent ˓ If P then Q ˓ Not Q ˓ So not P ˔ Syllogism ˓ If P then Q ˓ If Q then R ˓ So if P then R ˔ Disjunctive syllogism ˓ P or Q ˓ Not P ˓ So Q ˔ Are we good at deduction? ˓ That is, do we have these types of rules in us and can we apply them to problems
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2010 for the course FYSM FYSM taught by Professor Jeff during the Spring '10 term at Carleton CA.

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Science - Science Science is a method for learning about...

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