Unformatted text preview: 1 2 Migration: Terms
• Mobility: “all types of movement”
• Circulation: “short term, repetitive, or cyclical Migration
• Migration: “a permanent move to a new
• Emigration: “migration from”
• Immigration: “migration to” Migration
Distribution of Migrants
Obstacles to Migration
Internal Migration • Net Migration: “the difference between the number of
immigrants and the number of emigrants” • Immigrants > Emigrants: “net in-migration”
• Immigrants < Emigrants: “net out-migration” 3 19th Ravenstein’s
“Laws” of Migration Why Do People Migrate?
• People migrate because of push & pull factors • Most people migrate for economic reasons.
• Cultural & environmental factors may also be
• 4 • PUSH FACTORS encourage them to leave their
current location important, but not as important as economics
Most migrants move a short distance, within a
Long-distance migrants go to major centers of
Most long-distance migrants are males.
Most long-distance migrants are adults, not
families with their children. • PULL FACTORS encourage them to come to a
new location (usually a particular place) • There are 3 basic kinds of push & pull factors
• ENVIRONMENTAL 5 Economic Push-Pull Factors
• Land (for agriculture)
• Natural resources (minerals, forests, fish)
• Government Policies 6 Cultural Push-Pull factors
• Political Instability
• War and civil war
• Prejudice and persecution
• Refugees • Political Stability (a pull – not usually a push!)
• Please note that slavery is not just of historical interest.
It is estimated that there are more than 20 million
people today living in some form of slavery (bonded
labor, forced labor, chattel slavery, etc.).
(Source: http://www.antislavery.org/) 1 7 8 Environmental Push-Pull Factors Intervening Obstacles
• Migrants can’t always go to the • Health and Disease
• Attractive scenery, beaches, warm winters, etc. Collapse of the Berlin Wall places they want – there may be
obstacles in their way.
• Intervening obstacles may be
• Cultural • In the past, obstacles were
mostly physical; today, they are
Tijuana Border Fence
http://www.usaid.gov/about/challenge/challenge 2.html 9 10 International Migration:
Forced vs. Voluntary Migration: Distance
• International migration (usually) involves: • Voluntary: the migrant chooses to move.
• Forced: the person migrant has no choice. • Greater distances
• Greater cultural differences to deal with
• Greater separation from friends and family
• Internal migration (usually) involves:
• Shorter distances
• Fewer cultural differences to deal with
• Less separation from friends and family
• Because of these differences most migrants
have historically been internal, not external. • Traditionally, people who move for economic or
environmental reasons are automatically considered
to be voluntary migrants.
• The category of forced migrants is usually limited
to two groups: slaves and refugees.
• Since most people move for economic reasons –
most migrants are considered to be voluntary. 11 Refugees Today 12 Refugees
• Who is a refugee? In the US [under the Immigration
and Nationality Act, Section 101(a)(42)]:
• The term 'refugee' means: (A) any person who is • According to the US Department of State, as of the end of
2006, there were more than 14 million refugees worldwide. Sources: http://www.state.gov/g/prm/refadm/rls/rpts/2007/92585.htm outside any country of such person's nationality …
who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable
or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the
protection of, that country because of persecution or
a well-founded fear of persecution on account of
race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular
social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such
circumstances as the President … may specify, any
person … who is persecuted or who has a wellfounded fear of persecution on account of race,
religion, nationality, membership in a particular social
group, or political opinion.
http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/refugees/2001work.pdf 2 13 14 US Refugees Can Also Include… Who Is Not a Refugee? • In 2006, the Secretary of State added an additional • The US will not admit people as refugees, if they: statement:
• “Consistent with section 101(a)(42) of the Act (8 U.S.C.
1101(a)(42)), and after appropriate consultation with the
Congress, I also specify that, for FY 2006, the following
persons may, if otherwise qualified, be considered
refugees for the purpose of admission to the United
States within their countries of nationality or habitual
A. Persons in Vietnam
B. Persons in Cuba
C. Persons in the former Soviet Union
D. In exceptional circumstances, persons identified by a U.S.
Embassy in any location.” • Have a communicable disease of public health significance.
• Have certain serious physical or mental disorders
• Are a drug abuser or addict, or have violated laws pertaining to controlled
substances. • Renounced US citizenship for tax purposes.
• Have committed a crime of moral turpitude, or been convicted of two or more
• criminal offenses, or been a prostitute within the past ten years.
Have been granted immunity from prosecution.
Intend to practice polygamy in the United States.
Enter the US in violation of immigration laws, or assist another person to do so.
Have been involved in international child abduction.
Intend to enter the US to conduct illegal activities.
Would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences to the US.
Are or have been a member of the communist or any other totalitarian party.
Have engaged in any way in the persecution of others on the basis of race,
nationality, religion, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Sources: http://travel.state.gov/visa/laws/telegrams/telegrams_2778.html
Sources:http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/refugees/qa.htm ; http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/ineligibilities/ineligibilities_1364.html 15 US Refugees, 2003-2009
2003 2004 2005 Global Refugees 2006 Africa 25,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 East Asia 4,000 6,500 13,000 15,000 Eastern Europe 2,500 na na 14,000 na na 2007 na Former USSR na Europe & Central
Asia na • 22,000
na 13,500 9,500 15,000 6,500 Latin America &
Caribbean 2,500 3,500 5,000 5,000 5,000 Near East & South
Asia 7,000 2,000 2,500 5,000 5,500 Unallocated
Reserve 20,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 • Exactly how many refugees there are
is hard to pin down. • The US State Department put the
figure at more than 14,000,000, while
the UN High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR) puts the figure at
about 10,000,000 with an additional
23,000,000 “persons of concern.” • In 2008 the US admitted 60,108 refugees.
• In 2009 the US admitted 74,602 refugees.
Sources: http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2003/May/20-263761.html ; http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2003/May/20-263761.html ;
http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2004/Oct/05-52811.html ; http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/refugees/ ;
http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/amer_carib/us.htm; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/refugees/2001work.pdf ;
http://www.state.gov/g/prm/rls/rpt/2006/73619.htm; http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ois_rfa_fr_2009.pdf • Sources: http://www.state.gov/g/prm/refadm/rls/rpts/2007/92585.htm; http://www.unhcr.org/basics/BASICS/4034b6a34.pdf ;
http://www.unhcr.org/4c11f0be9.html; 17 Migrant Characteristics: Changes?
• In the 19th Century E.G. Ravenstein noted that:
• Most long-distance migrants were male.
• Most long-distance migrants were single adults, not families
with children. • Are these characteristics still true?
• Today, in the US, most international immigrants are women,
not men. • Although most immigrants to the US are still single adults,
an increasing number of immigrants are children (17 years of
age or less). • Why do we see changes?
• Changes in the status of women, changes in the kinds of jobs
available, changes in the transportation system. 16 According to the UNHCR the top
11 sources of refugees, asylum
seekers and internally displaced
persons at the end of 2009 were:
4. DR Congo
The UNHCR also is responsible
for 334,000 Palestinian refugees,
and the UN Relief and Works
Agency is responsible for 4.4
million additional Palestinian
refugees. 18 Global Migration Patterns
• Only 5% of the world’s
population are international
migrants – but that’s still
more than 300 million
• At the global scale, some
regions tend to accept
migrants, and some tend to
be sources of migrants.
• Net out-migration: Asia, Latin • The US has a very high
America and Africa • Net in-migration: North
America, Europe, Oceania proportion of international
migrants – about 25-30 million
people (nearly 10%). 3 19 Net Migration (per 1,000) 20 US Immigration, by Region 21 US Immigration History 22 Why Three Waves? • About 10% of US population today are immigrants
• Since 1820 more than 65 million people have immigrated to
• Two main periods in US immigration
• Colonial to Early 20th Century (mostly European immigrants)
• 1970's to Present (mostly Asian & Latin American immigrants) • Three Waves of European Immigration
• 1607-1840 (90% Great Britain)
• 1870s-1880s (75% North & West Europe)
• 1890s-1924 (75% South & Eastern Europe) • Different parts of Europe passed through the
demographic transition at different times, shifting from
Stage 2 (massive population growth and societal
changes) to Stage 3 (moderate population growth).
• Wilbur Zelinsky’s migration transition model points
out that massive international migration occurs during
• We can chart the social and economic changes
associated with the demographic transition that affected
Europe in the 19th Century by looking at the sources of
US immigrants. 23 Immigration Since the 1970s 24 Recent US Immigration Flows • Most immigrants to the US today come from
• Less developed countries
• 1960s – 40,000/year
• 1990s – 300,000/year
• Primary sources today: China, Philippines, India, Vietnam • Latin America
• 1950s – 60,000/year
1960s – 130,000/year
1990s – between 400,000 to nearly 2,000,000/year
Primary sources today: Mexico, Cuba, Dominican
Republic, El Salvador 4 25 Undocumented Immigration 26 Migrant Destinations in the US
• Recent migrants • No one knows how many immigrants are in the US without proper permits
and documentation -- estimates range from three million to thirty million!
• Best guess – about 12 million people?
• Major sources of undocumented migrants
• Central America, Asia, Europe
• About half of all undocumented migrants enter illegally; the rest enter
legally and just "overstay" visas.
• Recent legislation (post 9/11) is intended to monitor visas. tend to locate in
• ¼ in California
• ¼ in New York
& New Jersey
• ¼ Florida, Texas
and Illinois • Why here?
• Chain migration Source: http://www.migrationinformation.org/DataTools/maps.cfm Image source: http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0516/p01s02-ussc.html# 27 US Immigrant Destinations 28 Obstacles to Immigration
• In the past, the major obstacles to immigration were
physical – travel was difficult and dangerous, and
usually involved long journeys over hazardous terrain.
• Today, travel technology has made it much faster and
easier to travel long distances, and the major barriers to
migration are mostly cultural:
• Getting permission to enter a new country.
• Attitudes toward migrants. • Until 1924 immigration to the US was almost unlimited
– if you wanted to come, you could come. • Today, the US (and all developed countries) put limits
on the number of immigrants they are willing to take. US Immigration Laws:
Selected Highlights, 1776-1924
• 29 1790 — Residence requirement (2 years)
1819 — Reporting to Federal government; Sustenance rules for ship's passengers
1864 — Secretary of State given control of immigration
1875 — Entry of prostitutes & convicts prohibited
1882 — Chinese Exclusion Act; Persons convicted of political offenses, lunatics,
idiots, persons likely to become public charges also excluded; Head tax imposed
1888 — Expulsion provisions adopted
1891 — Bureau of Immigration established
1903 — Polygamists and radicals added to exclusion list
1906 — Knowledge of English required (for citizenship – not for entry)
1907 — Head tax increased; People with physical or mental defects excluded;
"Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan
1917 — Illiterates, "persons of psychopathic inferiority," men entering for immoral
purposes, alcoholics, stowaways and vagrants added to exclusion list
1921 — Temporary annual quotas set by nationality
1924 — Permanent quotas; Border Patrol established
Source: see http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis , “Immigration Legal History” 30 Intelligence Testing, World War I:
Justifying the Quota System • Since people from Eastern
and Southern Europe were
shown by "objective" testing
to all be "morons,"
immigration quotas were
established limiting migration
from those regions.
Source: http://www.comnet.ca/~pballan/MAJOR.htm 5 31 Recent US Immigration
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Temporary Migration for Work 2006 Immediate relatives of
US citizens 346,350 439,972 483,676 331,286 417,815 436,231 580,483 Family-sponsored
preferences 235,092 231,699 186,880 158,796 214,355 212,970 222,229 Employment-based
preferences 106,642 178,702 173,814 81,727 155,330 246,878 159,081 56,091 96,870 115,601 34,362 61,013 112,676 99,609 Asylees 6,837 11,111 10,197 10,402 10,217 30,286 116,845 Diversity 50,920 41,989 42,820 46,335 50,084 46,234 44,471 Other 39,070 58,559 46,368 40,634 49,069 37,098 43,546 Total 841,002 1,058,902 1,059,356 703,542 957,883 1,122,373 1,266,264 Refugees 32 • Notice that family-related migrants are usually the largest group.
• Also note that no more than 7% of all visas may be issued to people from any • In Western Europe there are millions of “guest
workers” – people mostly from the Middle East, Asia
and North Africa, who have migrated temporarily for
employment, but who are not considered permanent
• Today guest workers make up a significant percentage
of the population of many European countries.
• Despite your book’s assurances, the legal and social
status of guest workers is fairly marginal – and their
status (and the status of their children) remains
controversial. one country (this does not affect refugees or asylum seekers).
Source: http://www.dhs.gov/ximgtn/statistics/publications/yearbook.shtm 33 Guest Workers in Europe 34 Economic Migrants vs. Refugees
• Economic migrants are not the same as refugees – at • Guest workers least, not when it comes to the law. (and other resident
foreigners) are a
of the population
in many European
countries: • All countries who are signatories to the 1951
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
(including the US) have agreed to give refugees special
status (they may not take them in permanently, but they
won’t send them back where they came from).
• No country has an obligation to take in economic
• Economic Migrants or Refugees? • Germany 8.9%
• France 5.6%
• Netherlands 10.6% • Cuba: Refugees? (“wet-foot/dry-foot” policy)
• Haiti: Only economic migrants?
• Vietnam: Refugees? 35 36 Anti-Irish, Anti-Catholic US Attitudes Toward Immigrants
• Historically, US attitudes toward
immigrants have often been hostile:
• Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic
• Anti-Polish, anti-Jewish
• Anti-Chinese, anti-Japanese
• Anti-Mexican, anti-Cuban, etc.
• Historically, a number of US politicians
have used anti-immigrant slogans as part of
their campaigns. Anti-Slavic (Polish, etc.) Anti-Japanese (WWII) Sources: http://sickpigs.com/index.php/2009/03/16/10-anti-irish-cartoons-from-back-in-the-day-happy-st-paddys-day-youfilthy-mic-bastards/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ganges1876.jpg; http://immigration.change.org/blog/view/10_historical_anti-immigrant_quotes_that_sound_familiar 6 37 Internal Migration 38 Interregional Migration: The US • People migrate within a particular country • The population of the US for pretty much the same reasons they
migrate from one country to another –
mostly for economic reasons.
• Internal migration is usually easier than
• There are two main types of internal
• Intraregional has been spreading
westward since Colonial
• Expansion beyond the
Appalachians in late 18th
and early 19th centuries,
into the Plains in the 19th
century, and expanding
settlement in the South in
the 20th century, have all
shifted the “mean center
of population.” Edgar
Missouri Just what is a
“mean center?” 39 Interregional Migration: Examples 40 Interregional Migration in the US • Brazil
• Encouraging migration from the coast to the interior. • Indonesia
• Encouraging migration from Java to less populated islands. • Russia (Soviet Union)
• Combination of forced and voluntary migration. • India
• Limits migration into some States. • European Union
• Most migrants moving from South to North, looking for
better jobs. 41 Intraregional Migration
• Intraregional migration
– migration within a
single region – is one of
the most important
kinds of migration (but
tends to get ignored).
• Movement from
cities to suburbs
• In 1800 5% of the
lived in suburbs
• Today 75% of the
•Movement from urban to rural
areas – “back to the land”
lives in suburbs
•Small numbers, but possibly a
significant trend. 7 ...
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- Fall '10
- Geography, Immigration to the United States, Human migration, migrants