03_mig - 1 2 Migration Terms • Mobility “all types of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 Migration: Terms • Mobility: “all types of movement” • Circulation: “short term, repetitive, or cyclical Migration • • • • • movements” • Migration: “a permanent move to a new location” • Emigration: “migration from” • Immigration: “migration to” Migration Why Migrate? Distribution of Migrants Obstacles to Migration Internal Migration • Net Migration: “the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants” • Immigrants > Emigrants: “net in-migration” • Immigrants < Emigrants: “net out-migration” 3 19th Ravenstein’s Century “Laws” of Migration Why Do People Migrate? • People migrate because of push & pull factors • Most people migrate for economic reasons. • Cultural & environmental factors may also be • • • • 4 • PUSH FACTORS encourage them to leave their current location important, but not as important as economics Most migrants move a short distance, within a country. Long-distance migrants go to major centers of economic activity. Most long-distance migrants are males. Most long-distance migrants are adults, not families with their children. • PULL FACTORS encourage them to come to a new location (usually a particular place) • There are 3 basic kinds of push & pull factors • ECONOMIC • CULTURAL • ENVIRONMENTAL 5 Economic Push-Pull Factors • Resources • Land (for agriculture) • Natural resources (minerals, forests, fish) • Jobs • Availability • Advancement • Government Policies 6 Cultural Push-Pull factors • Political Instability • War and civil war • Prejudice and persecution • Refugees • Political Stability (a pull – not usually a push!) • Slavery • Please note that slavery is not just of historical interest. It is estimated that there are more than 20 million people today living in some form of slavery (bonded labor, forced labor, chattel slavery, etc.). (Source: http://www.antislavery.org/) 1 7 8 Environmental Push-Pull Factors Intervening Obstacles • Migrants can’t always go to the • Health and Disease • Water • Flood • Droughts • Reliability • Amenities • Attractive scenery, beaches, warm winters, etc. Collapse of the Berlin Wall places they want – there may be obstacles in their way. • Intervening obstacles may be either • Environmental • Cultural • In the past, obstacles were mostly physical; today, they are mostly cultural. Tijuana Border Fence Sources: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/image_library/afc/patroling_the_water/patrolling_waters_05.xml http://www.usaid.gov/about/challenge/challenge 2.html 9 10 International Migration: Forced vs. Voluntary Migration: Distance • International migration (usually) involves: • Voluntary: the migrant chooses to move. • Forced: the person migrant has no choice. • Greater distances • Greater cultural differences to deal with • Greater separation from friends and family • Internal migration (usually) involves: • Shorter distances • Fewer cultural differences to deal with • Less separation from friends and family • Because of these differences most migrants have historically been internal, not external. • Traditionally, people who move for economic or environmental reasons are automatically considered to be voluntary migrants. • The category of forced migrants is usually limited to two groups: slaves and refugees. • Since most people move for economic reasons – most migrants are considered to be voluntary. 11 Refugees Today 12 Refugees • Who is a refugee? In the US [under the Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 101(a)(42)]: • The term 'refugee' means: (A) any person who is • According to the US Department of State, as of the end of 2006, there were more than 14 million refugees worldwide. Sources: http://www.state.gov/g/prm/refadm/rls/rpts/2007/92585.htm outside any country of such person's nationality … who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such circumstances as the President … may specify, any person … who is persecuted or who has a wellfounded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Sources: http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/amer_carib/us.htm; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/refugees/2001work.pdf 2 13 14 US Refugees Can Also Include… Who Is Not a Refugee? • In 2006, the Secretary of State added an additional • The US will not admit people as refugees, if they: statement: • “Consistent with section 101(a)(42) of the Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42)), and after appropriate consultation with the Congress, I also specify that, for FY 2006, the following persons may, if otherwise qualified, be considered refugees for the purpose of admission to the United States within their countries of nationality or habitual residence: A. Persons in Vietnam B. Persons in Cuba C. Persons in the former Soviet Union D. In exceptional circumstances, persons identified by a U.S. Embassy in any location.” • Have a communicable disease of public health significance. • Have certain serious physical or mental disorders • Are a drug abuser or addict, or have violated laws pertaining to controlled substances. • Renounced US citizenship for tax purposes. • Have committed a crime of moral turpitude, or been convicted of two or more • • • • • • • • criminal offenses, or been a prostitute within the past ten years. Have been granted immunity from prosecution. Intend to practice polygamy in the United States. Enter the US in violation of immigration laws, or assist another person to do so. Have been involved in international child abduction. Intend to enter the US to conduct illegal activities. Would have potentially serious adverse foreign policy consequences to the US. Are or have been a member of the communist or any other totalitarian party. Have engaged in any way in the persecution of others on the basis of race, nationality, religion, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Sources: http://travel.state.gov/visa/laws/telegrams/telegrams_2778.html Sources:http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/refugees/qa.htm ; http://travel.state.gov/visa/frvi/ineligibilities/ineligibilities_1364.html 15 US Refugees, 2003-2009 2003 2004 2005 Global Refugees 2006 Africa 25,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 East Asia 4,000 6,500 13,000 15,000 Eastern Europe 2,500 na na 14,000 na na 2007 na Former USSR na Europe & Central Asia na • 22,000 11,000 na na 13,500 9,500 15,000 6,500 Latin America & Caribbean 2,500 3,500 5,000 5,000 5,000 Near East & South Asia 7,000 2,000 2,500 5,000 5,500 Unallocated Reserve 20,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 • Exactly how many refugees there are is hard to pin down. • The US State Department put the figure at more than 14,000,000, while the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) puts the figure at about 10,000,000 with an additional 23,000,000 “persons of concern.” • In 2008 the US admitted 60,108 refugees. • In 2009 the US admitted 74,602 refugees. Sources: http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2003/May/20-263761.html ; http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2003/May/20-263761.html ; http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2004/Oct/05-52811.html ; http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/refugees/ ; http://travel.state.gov/visa/laws/telegrams/telegrams_2778.html; http://www.state.gov/g/prm/refadm/rls/rpts/2007/92585.htm; http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/amer_carib/us.htm; http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/refugees/2001work.pdf ; http://www.state.gov/g/prm/rls/rpt/2006/73619.htm; http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ois_rfa_fr_2009.pdf • Sources: http://www.state.gov/g/prm/refadm/rls/rpts/2007/92585.htm; http://www.unhcr.org/basics/BASICS/4034b6a34.pdf ; http://www.unhcr.org/4c11f0be9.html; 17 Migrant Characteristics: Changes? • In the 19th Century E.G. Ravenstein noted that: • Most long-distance migrants were male. • Most long-distance migrants were single adults, not families with children. • Are these characteristics still true? • Today, in the US, most international immigrants are women, not men. • Although most immigrants to the US are still single adults, an increasing number of immigrants are children (17 years of age or less). • Why do we see changes? • Changes in the status of women, changes in the kinds of jobs available, changes in the transportation system. 16 According to the UNHCR the top 11 sources of refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons at the end of 2009 were: 2,887,100 1. Afghanistan 2. Iraq 1,765,200 3. Somalia 678,300 4. DR Congo 455,900 5. Myanmar 406,700 6. Colombia 389,800 7. Sudan 368,200 8. Vietnam 339,300 9. Burundi 397,000 10. Eritrea 209,200 11. Serbia 195,600 The UNHCR also is responsible for 334,000 Palestinian refugees, and the UN Relief and Works Agency is responsible for 4.4 million additional Palestinian refugees. 18 Global Migration Patterns • Only 5% of the world’s population are international migrants – but that’s still more than 300 million people. • At the global scale, some regions tend to accept migrants, and some tend to be sources of migrants. • Net out-migration: Asia, Latin • The US has a very high America and Africa • Net in-migration: North America, Europe, Oceania proportion of international migrants – about 25-30 million people (nearly 10%). 3 19 Net Migration (per 1,000) 20 US Immigration, by Region 21 US Immigration History 22 Why Three Waves? • About 10% of US population today are immigrants • Since 1820 more than 65 million people have immigrated to the US • Two main periods in US immigration • Colonial to Early 20th Century (mostly European immigrants) • 1970's to Present (mostly Asian & Latin American immigrants) • Three Waves of European Immigration • 1607-1840 (90% Great Britain) • 1870s-1880s (75% North & West Europe) • 1890s-1924 (75% South & Eastern Europe) • Different parts of Europe passed through the demographic transition at different times, shifting from Stage 2 (massive population growth and societal changes) to Stage 3 (moderate population growth). • Wilbur Zelinsky’s migration transition model points out that massive international migration occurs during Stage 2. • We can chart the social and economic changes associated with the demographic transition that affected Europe in the 19th Century by looking at the sources of US immigrants. 23 Immigration Since the 1970s 24 Recent US Immigration Flows • Most immigrants to the US today come from • Less developed countries • Asia • 1960s – 40,000/year • 1990s – 300,000/year • Primary sources today: China, Philippines, India, Vietnam • Latin America • • • • 1950s – 60,000/year 1960s – 130,000/year 1990s – between 400,000 to nearly 2,000,000/year Primary sources today: Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador 4 25 Undocumented Immigration 26 Migrant Destinations in the US • Recent migrants • No one knows how many immigrants are in the US without proper permits and documentation -- estimates range from three million to thirty million! • Best guess – about 12 million people? • Major sources of undocumented migrants • Mexico • Central America, Asia, Europe • About half of all undocumented migrants enter illegally; the rest enter legally and just "overstay" visas. • Recent legislation (post 9/11) is intended to monitor visas. tend to locate in certain areas: • ¼ in California • ¼ in New York & New Jersey • ¼ Florida, Texas and Illinois • Why here? • Jobs • Chain migration Source: http://www.migrationinformation.org/DataTools/maps.cfm Image source: http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0516/p01s02-ussc.html# 27 US Immigrant Destinations 28 Obstacles to Immigration • In the past, the major obstacles to immigration were physical – travel was difficult and dangerous, and usually involved long journeys over hazardous terrain. • Today, travel technology has made it much faster and easier to travel long distances, and the major barriers to migration are mostly cultural: • Getting permission to enter a new country. • Attitudes toward migrants. • Until 1924 immigration to the US was almost unlimited – if you wanted to come, you could come. • Today, the US (and all developed countries) put limits on the number of immigrants they are willing to take. US Immigration Laws: Selected Highlights, 1776-1924 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 29 1790 — Residence requirement (2 years) 1819 — Reporting to Federal government; Sustenance rules for ship's passengers 1864 — Secretary of State given control of immigration 1875 — Entry of prostitutes & convicts prohibited 1882 — Chinese Exclusion Act; Persons convicted of political offenses, lunatics, idiots, persons likely to become public charges also excluded; Head tax imposed 1888 — Expulsion provisions adopted 1891 — Bureau of Immigration established 1903 — Polygamists and radicals added to exclusion list 1906 — Knowledge of English required (for citizenship – not for entry) 1907 — Head tax increased; People with physical or mental defects excluded; "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan 1917 — Illiterates, "persons of psychopathic inferiority," men entering for immoral purposes, alcoholics, stowaways and vagrants added to exclusion list 1921 — Temporary annual quotas set by nationality 1924 — Permanent quotas; Border Patrol established Source: see http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis , “Immigration Legal History” 30 Intelligence Testing, World War I: Justifying the Quota System • Since people from Eastern and Southern Europe were shown by "objective" testing to all be "morons," immigration quotas were established limiting migration from those regions. Source: http://www.comnet.ca/~pballan/MAJOR.htm 5 31 Recent US Immigration 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Temporary Migration for Work 2006 Immediate relatives of US citizens 346,350 439,972 483,676 331,286 417,815 436,231 580,483 Family-sponsored preferences 235,092 231,699 186,880 158,796 214,355 212,970 222,229 Employment-based preferences 106,642 178,702 173,814 81,727 155,330 246,878 159,081 56,091 96,870 115,601 34,362 61,013 112,676 99,609 Asylees 6,837 11,111 10,197 10,402 10,217 30,286 116,845 Diversity 50,920 41,989 42,820 46,335 50,084 46,234 44,471 Other 39,070 58,559 46,368 40,634 49,069 37,098 43,546 Total 841,002 1,058,902 1,059,356 703,542 957,883 1,122,373 1,266,264 Refugees 32 • Notice that family-related migrants are usually the largest group. • Also note that no more than 7% of all visas may be issued to people from any • In Western Europe there are millions of “guest workers” – people mostly from the Middle East, Asia and North Africa, who have migrated temporarily for employment, but who are not considered permanent migrants. • Today guest workers make up a significant percentage of the population of many European countries. • Despite your book’s assurances, the legal and social status of guest workers is fairly marginal – and their status (and the status of their children) remains controversial. one country (this does not affect refugees or asylum seekers). Source: http://www.dhs.gov/ximgtn/statistics/publications/yearbook.shtm 33 Guest Workers in Europe 34 Economic Migrants vs. Refugees • Economic migrants are not the same as refugees – at • Guest workers least, not when it comes to the law. (and other resident foreigners) are a significant fraction of the population in many European countries: • All countries who are signatories to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (including the US) have agreed to give refugees special status (they may not take them in permanently, but they won’t send them back where they came from). • No country has an obligation to take in economic migrants. • Economic Migrants or Refugees? • Germany 8.9% • France 5.6% • Netherlands 10.6% • Cuba: Refugees? (“wet-foot/dry-foot” policy) • Haiti: Only economic migrants? • Vietnam: Refugees? 35 36 Anti-Irish, Anti-Catholic US Attitudes Toward Immigrants • Historically, US attitudes toward immigrants have often been hostile: • Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic • Anti-Polish, anti-Jewish • Anti-Chinese, anti-Japanese • Anti-Mexican, anti-Cuban, etc. • Historically, a number of US politicians have used anti-immigrant slogans as part of their campaigns. Anti-Slavic (Polish, etc.) Anti-Japanese (WWII) Sources: http://sickpigs.com/index.php/2009/03/16/10-anti-irish-cartoons-from-back-in-the-day-happy-st-paddys-day-youfilthy-mic-bastards/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ganges1876.jpg; http://immigration.change.org/blog/view/10_historical_anti-immigrant_quotes_that_sound_familiar 6 37 Internal Migration 38 Interregional Migration: The US • People migrate within a particular country • The population of the US for pretty much the same reasons they migrate from one country to another – mostly for economic reasons. • Internal migration is usually easier than international migration. • There are two main types of internal migration • Interregional • Intraregional has been spreading westward since Colonial times. • Expansion beyond the Appalachians in late 18th and early 19th centuries, into the Plains in the 19th century, and expanding settlement in the South in the 20th century, have all shifted the “mean center of population.” Edgar Springs, Missouri Just what is a “mean center?” 39 Interregional Migration: Examples 40 Interregional Migration in the US • Brazil • Encouraging migration from the coast to the interior. • Indonesia • Encouraging migration from Java to less populated islands. • Russia (Soviet Union) • Combination of forced and voluntary migration. • India • Limits migration into some States. • European Union • Most migrants moving from South to North, looking for better jobs. 41 Intraregional Migration • Intraregional migration – migration within a single region – is one of the most important kinds of migration (but tends to get ignored). • Movement from cities to suburbs • In 1800 5% of the US population lived in suburbs •Counterurbanization • Today 75% of the •Movement from urban to rural US population areas – “back to the land” lives in suburbs •Small numbers, but possibly a significant trend. 7 ...
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