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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 why study religion?
Geographers study religion because it is an
essential part of how people live and interact with
each other and with their environment.
Religion has several geographic aspects: the geography of religion Religion is fundamental to many cultures.
Religions vary in their distributions: some are
widespread; others are very limited in distribution.
Religions are important in the organization of space.
Most religions require active participation or loyalty;
adopting one religion usually means giving up all others.
Religions may spread by both relocation and expansion
diffusion. 3 4 food & drink: dry counties religion and culture
Religion directly and indirectly affects
many aspects of culture:
Food and drink
Housing and architecture
Occupations and economics
Laws, customs and politics
Relations between men and women
Birth and death
Land and landscape The relationship between Baptist/Methodist areas and
“dry” counties (counties where alcohol sales are
restricted or forbidden) is striking. 5 classifying religions
We can classify religions based on
several different geographic criteria:
Who may become a member?
o Universalizing vs. Ethnic (and Tribal) What is the focus of worship or devotion?
o Monotheism vs. Polytheism (and Animism) Where is the religion distributed? 6 universalizing vs. ethnic
Universalizing religions seek out new
members – generally speaking,
anybody can become a member.
Ethnic religions are usually the faiths of
particular ethnic groups. Generally
speaking, they don’t want new
members (and sometimes they forbid it
– no outsiders allowed). 1 7 monotheism vs. polytheism 8 distribution of world religions In a monotheistic religion there is only
In a polytheistic religion there can be
In animism there may or may not be
“gods” as such; the whole world is
“animated.” Note that some religions (Islam,
Christianity) are widely distributed,
some (Hinduism) are not. 9 membership us membership Membership figures for
religions are very unreliable –
but it’s usually assumed that
out of the world’s population
of 6 billion there are about:
2 billion Christians.
1½ billion Moslems.
1 billion Hindus.
1/ billion Buddhists.
½ billion members of other
Plus about 1 billion who have no
religious beliefs. 10 In the US today
About 80% of the
About 5% belong to
other major world
About 16% are
“unaffiliated.” To put it another way, out of all
the world’s people, roughly:
1/ are Christians.
1 / are Moslems.
1 / are Hindus.
1 / have no religion.
12 are some other religion.
20 are Buddhists. Source: http://pewresearch.org/pubs/743/united-states-religion 11 taxonomy of religion
Taxonomy is a method for classifying things into an
ordered system of relationships.
Religious groups can be classified using a simple
RELIGION (ex. “Christianity”)
o BRANCH (ex. “Protestant”)
DENOMINATION (ex. “Lutheran”)
• CONGREGATRION (ex. “1st Lutheran Church of Bonita”) “Congregation” is roughly equivalent to “parish,”
“ward,” “coven,” etc.
“Denomination” is roughly equivalent to “sect” – but
“sect” has other connotations – including “cult.” 12 cults?
“Cult” is a loaded
term – and difficult
“Cult” can mean
“great devotion,” or
even membership in
– “the cult of Mary,”
for example. But “cult” can also
The FBI has an
interest in cults (for
and has come up
watch for. 2 13 14 cult characteristics cults and the fbi Cults usually have:
Unique and exclusive religions.
Leaders who focus members’ love, devotion and allegiance onto
themselves. The FBI doesn’t care what a cult
believes – they look for “cultic
relationships” in which “a person …
induces others to become dependent on
him or her for almost all major life
decisions, and inculcates … a belief that
he or she has some special talent, gift
or knowledge.” Not all “cults” are dangerous. Warning signs:
Leaders with a history of violence or psychological problems.
Changes in the leader’s personality.
Inner-circle membership characteristics.
Language of implied violence (active vs. passive cults). Active and passive cults
There is an enormous difference between “God will punish the
wicked” and “God’s chosen people will punish the wicked.” Source: Project Megiddo http://www.fbi.gov 15 16 hearths two very different “cults” Religions, like other
elements of culture, develop
in hearths – centers or
origin from which they may
We can identify three major
religious hearths: Heaven’s Gate video:
atch?v=_0o4Qb_d7Io&NR The Middle East Hearth
(Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
The Northern India Hearth
The East Asia Hearth
Shintoism) Unarius video:
elated Source: http://www.wadsworth.com/religion_d/special_features/popups/maps/schmidt_patterns/content/map_00.html major universalizing religions:
origins and diffusion 17 18 the middle east hearth: judaism
Judaism is an ethnic, monotheistic
There are perhaps 20 million Jews in
the world today; the largest
concentrations are in the United States
and Israel (each over five million).
Two of the world’s largest religions,
Christianity and Islam, can be said to
have been “developed” from Judaism. 3 19 judaism: origins and development 20 basic beliefs of judaism Based on internal evidence, the earliest records have been dated to c.
4,000 BCE in the region of the Fertile Crescent God is the creator of all that exists; He is incorporeal and is to be
worshipped as absolute ruler of the universe.
The Jews are God's chosen people.
God has communicated to the Jewish people through prophets.
God monitors people’s activities; He rewards good deeds punishes evil.
Judaism affirms the inherent goodness of the world and its people as
creations of God.
The 613 commandments found in Leviticus and other books of the Bible
regulate all aspects of Jewish life; The Ten Commandments are a brief
synopsis of the Law.
The Messiah will arrive in the future and gather Jews once more into
the land of Israel. There will be a general resurrection of the dead at
that time. The Jerusalem Temple, destroyed in 70 CE, will be rebuilt. Patriarchal period – Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
3,300 years ago – Moses, exodus from Egypt
3,000 years ago – united Jewish kingdom
Disunity – kingdoms of Israel and Judah
721 BCE Israel defeated by Assyria; population exiled
587 BCE Judah defeated by Babylon; population exiled
522 BCE Judah’s population returns from exile
444 BCE Torah (written law – probably Deuteronomy) “discovered”
198 BCE Syrian occupation; Helenization; Maccabees revolt; independent
63 BCE Rome arrives; kingdom becomes part of the Empire
70 CE Revolt against Rome; defeat; temple destroyed
130 CE Second revolt and defeat; diaspora For the next 1,800 years, Jews in Europe, the Middle East and North
Africa experienced periods of tolerance and persecution.
19th Century, founding of both Conservative and Reform Judaism
1948 CE founding of Israel After: http://religioustolerance.org/jud_desc.htm 21 the middle east hearth: christianity christianity: origins and development
Roots in Judaism: the “historical Jesus”; Jerusalem-based until 70 CE.
Paul and the Roman Empire
Paul encourages non-Jews to become Christians.
Christianity spreads through the Empire – periodic persecution.
Constantine (274-337 CE)
Conversion; Edict of Milan 313 CE (Christianity became Empire’s religion).
First Nicean Council 325 CE – Nicene Creed.
Constantine moves capital of the Empire to Constantinople 330 CE.
Eastern & Western Christianity
800 CE Rome crowns Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor.”
1054 CE Rome and Constantinople excommunicate each other.
1204 Crusaders sack Constantinople.
1453 Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople.
1517 CE Martin Luther posts 95 “theses” questioning Catholic practices.
Printing press, rise of nationalism assist “protest movement.”
1545 CE Council of Trent begins “counter-reformation.”
1618-1648 Thirty Years’ War; 20% of German population killed; Treaty of
Westphalia establishes boundaries between Catholic & Protestant in Europe.
Rise of science, the Enlightenment, Rationalism.
20th Century Movements: Evangelic movement; Ecumenical movement. Christianity is a universal, monotheistic
There are roughly two billion Christians
around the world; it is the dominant
faith in the Americas, Europe, and
Australia, and has significant numbers
of adherents in Asia and Africa. 23 the nicene creed 22 24 diffusion of christianity in europe I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth,
and of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten
of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of
very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father,
by whom all things were made.
Who, for us men for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was
incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man;
and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was
buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures;
and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father;
and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead;
whose kingdom shall have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who
proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the
Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.
And I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge
one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of
the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. 4 25 branches of christianity 26 christian branches in europe There are three main branches of Christianity: Protestant
Catholicism, and Eastern
Orthodoxy are dominant
in different regions of
Europe—a result of many
In particular, the
patterns that exist today
are largely a result of the
1648 Treaty of
Westphalia, which ended
the Thirty Years War. Roman Catholic o About 50% of all Christians; over one billion people.
o Dominant in Western and parts of Eastern Europe, Latin America,
parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Protestantism o About 24% of all Christians.
o Dominant in Northern Europe, North America, Australia and parts
of Africa. Eastern Orthodox o About 11% of all Christians.
o Dominant in Eastern Europe, Russia, and in parts of the Eastern
Mediterranean. There are also other Christian groups (Coptic Church,
Ethiopian Church, Armenian Church, Maronites, Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, etc. 27 basic beliefs of christianity 28 the middle east hearth: islam Enormous variation among different sects as
to what it takes to be a Christian.
Some areas of general agreement: Islam is a universal, monotheistic
There are roughly 1½ billion Moslems;
Islam is the dominant religion from
North Africa to Central Asia; it is also
very important in Southeast Asia, parts
of South and East Asia, in Africa, and is
growing in the Americas. Belief in God.
Belief in Jesus, virgin birth, Jesus’ sacrifice,
possibility of universal salvation.
Importance of baptism.
Importance of the church (community of believers).
Belief in prayer. 29 islam: origins and development
Mohammed (c. 570-632 CE) (pbuh) 30 diffusion of islam Orphaned at age 6, adopted by his Uncle, began working
on camel caravans when he was 9. Traveled throughout
Middle East, worked his way up, eventually married the
caravan owner, Khadija (c. 605 CE).
At age 40 (c. 610 CE) received first revelation from the
Archangel Gabriel, began to preach, make conversions.
622 CE opposition forced Mohammed and his followers to
move to Yathrib (Medina) – the hijrah.
By 630 CE Mohammed is the most powerful political and
military leader in Arabia; conquers Mecca.
Mohammed dies 632 CE; rapid expansion of Islam:
o 632 Arabian Peninsula
650 Most of the Middle East
710 North Africa, Spain
750 Central Asia to Western China 5 31 32 the 5 pillars of islam some basic beliefs of islam The creed: “There is no God but God, and
Mohammed is His Prophet.”
Daily prayer: Five times every day a Muslim prays
facing the city of Mecca.
Charity: Muslims are obligated to give to charity.
Fasting: During the month of Ramadan Muslims
must refrain from eating, drinking and all other
“sensual pleasures” during daylight hours.
Pilgrimage: If at all possible, every Muslim should
make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during
his or her lifetime. There is a single, indivisible God who is just, omnipotent and
Islam existed before Muhammad (pbuh) was born; the origins of
Islam date back to the creation of the world, and Muhammad (pbuh)
was the last of a series of Prophets (including Adam, Noah, Abraham,
Moses and Jesus).
The Koran (Qur'an) is the word of God, dictated by the Archangel
Gabriel to Mohammed. It is the final, universal message for all
people. All people are considered children of Adam, and all children
are born pure.
There will be a Day of Judgment when people will either attain
paradise in Heaven or punishment in Hell. No individual can atone for
another's sins. 33 other religions from the middle east hearth branches of islam Zoroastrianism There are two basic branches of Islam: Universal (originally), “monotheistic.”
Originated in Persia, about 2,500 years ago.
About 200,000 members today, mostly in India and Iran. SUNNI (from a word meaning “orthodox)
o About 83% of all Muslims.
o Most widespread branch. Yazeedi Ethnic, “monotheistic.”
Complicated syncretism of Christian, Moslem, and other traditions – focus on
worship of angels (especially “the peacock angel,” or “Lucifer”).
About 60,000 members, mostly in Iraq, Syria and Turkey. SHI’ITE (from a word meaning “sectarian” or
o About 17% of all Muslims.
o Mostly concentrated in and near Iran.
o Originally split from Sunni over the issue of the succession;
belief in 12 heavenly Imams; the final Imam, the Mahdi never
died, and will someday return. Druze Ethnic (absolutely no converts allowed), monotheistic.
Originated c. 1000 CE as “reform” of Islam.
About one million members, mostly in Syria and Lebanon. Baha’i Universal, monotheistic.
Originated 19th Century, teachings of Baha'u'llah.
About six million worldwide, nearly half in India. Other groups:
Sufis; Ahmadis; Nation of Islam (“Black Muslims”), etc. 35 the northern india hearth: hinduism
Hinduism is an ethnic, polytheistic
There are about one billion Hindus,
97% located in India, with small
populations in nearby countries and
throughout the world.
At one time Hinduism was widespread
in Southeast Asia (Cambodia,
Indonesia), but has retreated. 34 hinduism: origins and development 36 Your book talks about invasion by Aryan peoples about 1,500 BCE and
syncretism with native beliefs, but recent archaeological evidence
shows religious continuity back to at least 6,000 BCE.
Earliest religious texts:
C. 1,500 BCE the Vedas
C. 800 BCE the Upanishads
C. 300 BCE the Mahabharata Beliefs Focus mostly on actions, not beliefs; strong emphasis on ritual.
No central authority, only a few universal beliefs or rituals:
o Honor Brahmins (priests), protect cows.
o Avoid eating meat, marry within one’s caste.
Classical period (c. 2,000-400 BCE) focuses on the Vedas and various rituals
and prayers to the gods (Indra, Agni, Varuna, etc.).
Post-Classical (c. 100 BCE-present) focuses on variety of approaches:
o The Way of Devotion (Worship of the one of the three major gods –
Brahma, Shiva, or Vishnu).
o The Way of Knowledge (Philosophical schools, varying from polytheistic
to atheistic to monotheistic). 6 37 hinduism: caste 38 the northern india hearth: buddhism May have begun about 3,500 years ago; may be much
older. Some think it may have begun as a kind of
“apartheid,” based on ethnicity.
System of unchangeable duties based on dharma (duty).
Every individual is born into a particular social group.
Every aspect of life – social, occupation, marriage, birth,
death, etc. – may be determined by your caste.
Four main castes (with thousands of subcastes) Buddhism is a universal, polytheistic
There are at least 1/3 of a billion
Buddhists; Buddhism is the dominant
religion throughout much of East and
Southeast Asia, and there are Buddhists
around the world.
Buddhism is part of the cultural fabric
of most of Asia. Brahmin (priests, administrators)
Kshatriya (warriors, rulers)
Vaishya (traders, merchants)
Shudra (agricultural workers, laborers) Outside of the castes: “outcastes,” the religiously unclean.
The caste system became illegal in 1949 – but it still has a
great deal of force in rural areas. 39 40 buddhism: origins and development buddhism: developments Siddharta Gautama (c. 563-480 BCE) After Buddha’s death there were disagreements
about his teachings; councils failed to unify beliefs.
Two main branches: Born a vaishya, lived until 29 without awareness of the
world. Became aware of death and suffering, and
abandoned everything to seek enlightenment.
After six years of meditation, prayer and mortification,
sat quietly and became enlightened (“buddha” =
“enlightened one”). Understood “the four noble truths”: THERAVADA (“teachings of the elders”)
o Life is full of suffering.
Desire causes suffering.
Ending desire ends suffering.
To end desire, follow “the noble eight-fold path” (right views,
intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness,
o If one follows these instructions, one can achieve enlightenment.
o If one is enlightened, one can escape reincarnation and achieve
nirvana. Mostly in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Southeast Asia.
Conservative, very close to Buddha’s teachings.
Individuals work out “salvation”; little interest in gods.
Strong focus on monasticism, meditation.
China, Korea, Japan.
New teachings may be also be valid.
The Buddha was a divine being.
There can be other Buddhas, human or divine.
People can become bodhisattvas, save others, postpone nirvana.
Numerous sects (Pure Land, Zen, etc.) MAHAYANA (“the greater vessel”) Buddha spent the next 37 years teaching. 41 diffusion of buddhism 42 other religions from the north india hearth
Founded by Mahavira (599-527 BCE)
Some similarities to Buddhism
Emphasizes ahimsa, non-injury to living
Founded by Nanak (1469-1539 CE)
Syncretism, blending elements of Islam and
Hinduism 7 43 44 confucianism: origins and development the east asia hearth: confucianism Kung Fu-Tse (“Confucius,” born Kung Ch’iu) 551479 BCE Confucianism is not precisely a religion – it’s
more of an ethical system.
Virtually everyone in East Asia and much of
Southeast Asia can be considered Confucian,
since Confucius’s teachings are fundamental
to the culture of the region.
East Asian faiths are not exclusive; a person
can be Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, and
Shinto simultaneously. Confucius was a philosopher and a teacher; at the age of
50 he became a government official. He retired after
five years, and spent the rest of his life teaching.
Some basic concepts:
o The importance of Li (“correct behavior”)
o The five basic relationships Father to son (kindness; filial piety)
Elder brother to younger brother (gentility; humility)
Husband to wife (righteousness; obedience)
Elder to junior (consideration; deference)
Ruler to subject (benevolence; loyalty) In 136 BCE Confucians placed in charge of national
education, administration, civil service. Remained in
charge until 1905 CE. 45 46 taoism: origins and development the east asia hearth: taoism Lao-tzu (570-490 BCE) Philosopher, court librarian in Henan, at the end of his
life he despaired of people, went into exile; but before
leaving he was persuaded to write down his philosophy
– the Tao-te Ching (“the way and its power”).
For several hundred years, Taoists compete with
Confucianists (and others) as philosophers and advisors.
With the coming of Buddhism to China (c. 100 CE),
begins to merge and blend.
Development of numerous sects – from esoteric
philosophy to magical; interests in alchemy and
Persecution after the Communist revolution in 1949, but
repression eased by the 1990s. Taoism, like Confucianism, is more of an
ethical system than a religion – although
some Taoist sects have strongly religious
As with Confucianism, virtually everyone in
East Asia and much of Southeast Asia can be
considered Taoist, since those beliefs are part
of the culture. 47 basic beliefs of taoism 48 excerpts from the tao-te ching
one: Society and its rules aren’t important; people
should follow “the way” (tao).
The tao cannot be controlled or understood.
To be in harmony with the tao, “do nothing” – do
nothing unnatural, don’t strive, don’t be clever.
Life is a fundamental good.
Like Confucianism, recommends a kind of
idealized feudalism – everyone has a place,
everyone stays in their place. The tao that can be named is not the eternal tao
The name that can be named is not the eternal name two: the sage goes about doing nothing
creating, yet not possessing
working, yet not taking credit
work is done, then forgotten
therefore it lasts forever three: the wise rule by emptying hearts and stuffing bellies
by weakening ambitions and strengthening bones
if people lack knowledge and desire, then intellectuals will not try to
if nothing is done, then all will be well twenty: give up learning, and put an end to your troubles 8 49 50 shinto: origins and development the east asia hearth: shinto Until c. 500 CE and the arrival of Buddhism in Japan,
Shinto had no name; it was the beliefs of the Japanese.
By c. 800 CE Shinto had merged with Buddhism;
Buddhist priests were placed in charge of Shinto shrines,
and Shinto almost disappeared.
Beginning in the 18th Century, Shinto was revived as a
part of rising nationalism; Shinto became the State
religion under the Emperor Meiji. The Emperor was
regarded as divine, and the Japanese superior to other
After Japan’s defeat in the Second World War, State
Shinto ended, the Emperor renounced divinity.
Today there are 13 major Shinto sects, and many smaller
movements. Shinto (or kami no michi, “the way of the gods”)
is the traditional ethnic, polytheistic religion of
It is difficult to say exactly how many Shintoists
there are; virtually all Japanese participate in
Shinto activities from time to time, but only
about 3% consider Shinto their sole or primary
As with other East Asian religions, Shinto is not
exclusive – one can be a Buddhist, Confucianist,
Taoist and Shinto simultaneously. 51 shintoism and buddhism in japan 52 the world’s religions: other faiths
Tribal and native religions found in parts of the Americas, Africa,
Declining numbers as universal religions (mostly Christianity and
Islam) expand. Voudon (Voodoo, Santeria, Candomble, etc.)
Syncretism, blending traditional African polytheistic faiths and
Found throughout the Americas in former slave-holding regions
(with different practices in different areas), and parts of Africa. Modern pagans
Revived or re-created faiths (maybe even “made up”), based
(mostly) on pre-Christian belief systems.
Found mostly in highly educated, urban, largely secular areas. 53 animism: cargo cults
“Cargo cults” appeared in the Pacific
during and after World War II.
Stone-age cultures were forced into
contact with American, Japanese,
British, and other advanced cultures
during the war.
The idea was that the manufactured
“cargo” that the outsiders brought
(and gave to the islanders) was
created by supernatural methods, and
if the islanders perform the right
magical rites, including building mock
“airstrips,” the cargo will come again.
Some cargo cults are focused on a
spiritual figure, John Frum, who will
come someday and bless his people. 54 the non-religious
About one billion people worldwide are
ATHEISTS: Do not believe in any gods
AGNOSTICS: God or gods may exist, but
the evidence is uncertain.
SECULAR: Only means “not related to
religion”; it is not a belief system (except in
the sense that a “secularist” believes there
are things that are not related to religion). Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6370991.stm 9 55 56 the calendar cosmogony Calendars in ethnic religions tend to be tied to
local, usually agricultural cycles.
Calendars in universal religions tend to be tied to
events in the life of the founder of the religion.
Christian – calendar dates from (assumed)
birth of Jesus Christ.
Islam – calendar dates from the Hijra.
The basic problem of the calendar: the solar year
and the lunar year don’t match. Religions deal
with this, either by:
Ignoring the lunar year (Christianity – except
for Easter and associated events).
Ignoring the solar year (Islam – except for 11
year leap cycle).
Inserting extra days or months to make the
two come back into alignment (Judaism). Cosmogony is the study of the origin and fate of
The importance of creation stories varies – it is
often extremely important in universal religions.
Cosmogony is not just concerned with origins, but
also with what happens next – what should we do
with the universe?
Christianity and Islam tend to see the world as
something we can change.
Ethnic religions usually see the world as hard or
impossible to change – it has to accepted as it is. 12 lunar months
12 solar months 57 58 holy places the organization of space Many religions – both ethnic and universal – have
declared certain places holy (divine, worthy of
In universal religions these places are usually
associated with the life of the founder of the
religion (or with some other important figure).
In ethnic religions holy places are usually
associated with distinctive natural features –
mountains, rivers, etc.
Pilgrimage – a journey made to holy places for
spiritual purposes – is important in many
religions, both ethnic and universal. Religions are a part of culture, and
culture must deal with the world – with
issues of space and place, including:
HOLY PLACES AND PILGRIMAGE
o THE PLACES OF THE DEAD
o RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES
o ADMINISTRATION OF SPACE 59 60 the hajj places of pilgrimage
Hindu holy places Jerusalem, sacred to Jews,
Christians and Moslems “Ihram” (purification) (pilgrims make themselves spiritually clean; they
publicly announce their intention to go on the hajj; men wear a simple white
outfit, women wear “modest” clothing, cover their head).
2) “Tawaf” (pilgrims walk seven times counterclockwise around the Ka’bah at
the center of the Holy Mosque in Mecca).
3) “Sa’y” (pilgrims run seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah).
4) Encampment at Mina (meditation and prayer).
5) “Wuquf” (pilgrims travel about six miles east to the plain of ‘Arafat, where
they spend time standing or sitting in prayer; some climb a small mountain
called Jabal Ramah).
Encampment at Muzdalifah (most pilgrims select 49 small stones for
7) Stoning at Jamarat (pilgrims throw stones at three pillars that symbolize
8) "'Id al-Adha" ("Feast of the Sacrifice"; to commemorate Abraham's rejection
of Satan, pilgrims sacrifice a sheep; men shave their heads, women cut off a
lock of hair. Pilgrims may return to their normal clothing).
9) Return to the Holy Mosque (pilgrims repeat the “tawaf” and the “sa’y,” and
may also return to Jamarat to stone the pillars again).
10) Pilgrims make a final “tawaf”; the pilgrimage is officially ended.
Source: “Welcoming God’s Guests,” by Samia El-Moslimany. Saudi Aramco World (53:3):8-29 10 61 steps to the hajj 62 place names
In many parts of the world places
are named for saints, holy people,
miraculous events, or other sacred
This shouldn’t come as a surprise
to anybody living in “San Diego
County,” which contains
communities named “San Carlos,”
“San Marcos” and “San Ysidro,” as
well as natural features like the
“San Luis Rey River,” “San Miguel
Mountain,” “San Onofre Beach,”
“San Pasqual Valley,” and the “San
Vicente Reservoir!” Map of the hajj The plain of ‘Arafat Place Names in Québec Source: “Welcoming God’s Guests,” by Samia El-Moslimany. Saudi Aramco World (53:3):8-29 63 places of worship places of the dead
Death and the fate of the dead is a
fundamental human concern, and the proper
disposal of the dead is always of great
importance. Sacred structures “anchor”
religions, and most major
religions have distinctive places
The function of such structures
Christian churches are often
considered sacred – sanctified
Mosques are places for the
community to come together,
but are not usually considered
Hindu and Buddhist temples
may be sacred, but are not
usually places for the religious
community to worship together. 64 Mosque, Samarkand Buddhist stupa,
Taos NM There are several different methods that are
BURIAL (favored by most Christians, Muslims, Jews
and by the Chinese)
BURIAL AT SEA (favored by some Animists)
CREMATION (favored by Hindus and some Buddhists)
EXPOSURE (favored by some Animists, Zoroastrians
and some Buddhists) Protestant church and
cemetery, Ferndale CA Sources: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/architecture.html; http://www.rinpoche.com/newsltr10.99.htm 65 disposing of the dead 66 religious settlements
Most settlements are
established for economic
reasons – but not all are.
Types of religious settlements: Hindu funeral pyre, India Ancient Zoroastrian ‘Tower of Silence,’ Iran Chinese cemetery, near Bangkok
http://www.thaiworldview.com/bouddha/chine2.htm; http://www.ancientroute.com/Monument/Tombs/TwrSilnc.htm MONASTIC (individuals or
groups of men or women who
abandon the world for
UTOPIAN (ideal community
built around a religious way of
life). Erdene Zuu Khiid Monastery
at Harhorin, Mongolia Garden at New Harmony IN Sources: http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/research/geology/mongolia98/9-9-98.html;
http://www.in.gov/ism/HistoricSites/NewHarmony/Historic.asp 11 67 administration of space
such as Roman
Mormonism, have a
well-defined geographic structure.
Territory is organized
into local, regional and
larger units in a
such as Islam and some
Christian denominations like the Baptists,
as well as most ethnic
religions, are basically
self-governing -loosely organized, with
little or no hierarchy. 68 religion and conflict
Religious conflicts may arise for many reasons:
Conflicts between traditional religious values and new,
o Hinduism, caste and ideas of equality. Conflicts between governments and religious beliefs,
values or communities.
o Communist states and religious communities. Conflicts between different interpretations of the same
o Northern Ireland. Conflicts between different religions.
Roman Catholic organization of space
at local, regional, and national scales. o Christians vs. Muslims (the Crusades 1095-1270 CE).
o Hindus vs. Muslims (Kashmir)
o Jews vs. Muslims (Palestine). 12 ...
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