Unformatted text preview: 1 2 “States” & “States”
Geography States are political units that have:
• Defined territories;
A permanent population;
Are fully independent and sovereign. “States” "We live in a political world ..." States are political units that are: Bob Dylan • "Political World," Oh Mercy (1989) • Part of a federal government;
Have limited independence (or sovereignty). “Country” is roughly equivalent to “state.” 3 4 Variations on “Nation” &
“State” “Nations” & “Nation-States” “Multinational State” “Nations” A state whose population is made up of two or more
Examples: Cyprus, Russia Nations are communities or groups of people:
• Common culture;
Sense of unity, shared beliefs and customs;
Usually have a strong attachment to a place. “Part-Nation State”
A state whose population is only a portion of a nation.
Examples: Egypt, Syria “Nation-States”
A State occupied by a single nation:
• “Stateless Nation” Considered ideal;
No perfect examples, but some (e.g. Japan, Norway,
Lesotho) come fairly close. A nation which has no state or sovereignty, or is divided
among several states.
Examples: Basques, Kurds, Gypsies [Romany] Can nation-states be created? Maybe! 5 6 The World is Almost All
States Note overlapping claims There is only one large
piece of land anywhere
on earth that is not
controlled by a state –
At least until 2041, all
territorial claims here
have been suspended –
but they have not been
abandoned. Defining States: Problems
Since 1945 the Korean Peninsula has been divided; since
1953 a four kilometer demilitarized zone has divided
North and South Korea.
Since the 1990s there have been a number of small
attempts to reconcile. In 2000 the Presidents of North
and South Korea met for the first time. China & Taiwan
In 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, the government
of China retreated to the island of Taiwan. When they
lost, and the People’s Republic of China was created,
Taiwan remained as holdout.
Taiwan was a one-party state under martial law until
1987. Today there is a Taiwanese independence
movement – which is strongly resisted both by the
People’s Republic and by some Taiwanese. Western Sahara
http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/east_asia_pacific/chinese_human_smuggling/smuggling_maps/china_map.html 1 7 8 Western Sahara’s Wall The Rise of States
Nations have existed from time immemorial.
States, in some sense at least, have existed for
thousands of years.
“City-States” in Mesopotamia and Greece.
Early political empires (Agade, Egypt, Qin, Rome, etc.) The modern concept of the nation-state only dates
back to Europe in the 17th-19th centuries.
As recently as 1950 there were only about 50
internationally recognized independent countries;
now there are at least 192 (and more may be coming).
Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Westernsaharamap.png; http://maps.google.com/?t=h&ie=UTF8&om=1&ll=21.348823,16.203488&spn=0.003727,0.005246; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/4588982.stm 9 10 Austrian Colonies
A colony is a territory that
is legally joined to a
sovereign state, and is not
The sovereign state may
control the colony
completely, or may just
control some aspects
(defense, foreign affairs).
During the last 500 years,
colonies were planted by
European countries over
much of the world. The Colonial World, 1914 Belgian
Dutch Why did Europe
GLORY! The largest imperial
powers were England,
France and Spain.
Colonial policies varied
from integration to pure
There are few colonies
today – mostly islands. 11 English
USA 12 Colonies & Possessions
Today Physical Characteristics of
States vary enormously in size, from enormous to microstates:
• The Russian Federation – 6,592,850 mi2 (17,075,400 km2).
Vatican City 109 acres (44 hectares, or about .17 mi2). Shape
States have five basic shapes:
• COMPACT (considered ideal – theoretically very efficient).
PRORUPT (projecting extension – usually created either to prevent other
states from contact, or to access resources).
ELONGATED (long, narrow shape – may cause a portion of a country to be
FRAGMENTED (discontinuous territory – usually islands today).
PERFORATED (one state completely surrounds another – an “enclave”). 2 13 14 Fragmentation: The
Tin Bigha Corridor Shapes of States Compact
Perforated 15 16 Fragmentation: The Fergana
Valley – Complex Borders &
Enclaves Landlocked States
have no direct
access to the sea –
so their access to
is severely limited.
have to depend on
the cooperation of
their neighbors. http://orientalreview.org/2010/04/18/kyrgyzstan-destined-to-become-another-narco-state/ 17 18 Boundaries
Until modern times, most countries were separated by
frontiers – zones where no state has complete political
Boundaries may be either physical or cultural.
• Physical boundaries should be easily distinguished, permanent, and
(ideally) hard to cross.
Examples: Mountains, deserts, bodies of water. CULTURAL BOUNDARIES
Mountains Cultural boundaries also ought to be easily distinguished, and permanent –
but that is not always possible.
Examples: Geometric, religious, linguistic. The best boundaries are those everyone agrees on –
regardless of how they are drawn! 3 19 20 Problems With Physical
Boundaries GEOMETRIC (“Mathematical”) Unless they are completely
impassable – and with
modern technology, nothing
really is – physical
boundaries only work well
if everyone agrees on them.
Defining boundaries is
Water boundaries have
Rivers shift courses.
Oceans lack obvious
boundaries – and nations
claim large areas for security
and economic reasons. Cultural Boundaries
Arbitrary lines drawn on the map, without regard to
physical or other cultural factors.
Usually drawn before an area has a significant
population. RELIGIOUS & LINGUISTIC (“Cultural”)
Source (10-26-01): http://www.st.nmfs.gov/st2/shipee.htm Boundaries drawn on the basis of cultural
characteristics. “In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State
has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring
and exploiting, conserving and managing the
natural resources, whether living or non-living ...
The exclusive economic zone shall not extend
beyond 200 nautical miles …”
Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part V No country on earth has perfect cultural boundaries –
because no country is a perfect nation-state. Source (10-26-01): http://www.hri.org/docs/LOS/part5-1.html 21 22 Other Kinds of
Boundaries? Boundaries & Organization
States may be organized in two ways: RELICT BOUNDARIES Unitary States: Former boundaries, which may no longer have much (or any)
legal standing, but are still visible in the landscape.
Examples: Wales-England; Spain-Britain (the 42º N North
American boundary – now the California-Oregon boundary). •
• BUFFER STATES & SATELLITE STATES Federal States:
• Independent states used by major powers to reduce mutual
conflict (“satellite” states are dominated by a major power –
but are technically independent).
Examples: Eastern Europe during the Cold War; Mongolia;
Nepal. 23 Strong central government;
Local governments have little or no power or responsibilities (except to
implement central government policies);
May be democratic, but often totalitarian, one-party;
Theoretically ideal for small, homogenous states, but many states today
are unitary; they have been common in Europe. •
• Contractual arrangement divides power between central and local
governments — “allocation of residual powers”;
Local governments have considerable power;
Central governments may be "weak" or “strong”;
Theoretically large, multinational states, but an increasing number of
states today are federal. It can be hard to tell the difference between a “strong” federal
state and “weak” unitary state! 24 Constitutional Limits on
“The powers not delegated to
the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited
by it to the States, are reserved
to the States respectively, or to
the people.” Constitutional Limits on
“No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation … coin Money;
emits Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in
Payment of Debts; pass any … ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation
of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
“No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on
Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's
inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State
on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States;
and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.
“No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress … keep Troops, or Ships of
War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or
with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such
imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.”
Article 1, Section 10, U.S. Constitution Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 4 25 26 Being “Fair” Electoral Geography
In democracies (unitary or federal), there are many
steps and many questions that have to be answered
in determining how a state will be run: a. b. c. d. Who votes? (Historical expansion of suffrage)
Who can be elected? (Eligibility – citizenship, party
membership, poll tax, etc.)
• Majority (or plurality) vs. run-off. • Proportional vs. winner-take-all. How are electoral district boundaries drawn? 27 28 The Gerrymander Racial Gerrymandering “...the deliberate
This originally appeared in 1812 in The Boston
Messenger, and is supposed to have been drawn by the
painter Gilbert Stuart. See http://historytogo.utah.gov/hmgerry.html 29 30 2008 North Carolina
Congressional Districts Gerrymander Species
By law, Congressional district boundaries must be
“contiguous and compact,” have roughly equal
populations, and can’t be drawn solely to benefit one
political party. They can be drawn on the basis of
There are three types of gerrymander:
Wasted vote: Dilute opposition so that it can’t win
Excess vote: Concentrate opposition so that it can only win
a few districts (“packing”).
Stacked vote: Connecting and concentrating groups through
oddly shaped districts. Source: http://www.ncprogress.org/PDF/Congressional_Districts.pdf 5 31 32 Are All Funny-Looking
Districts Gerrymanders? Not Gerrymanders “[U]nconstitutional discrimination occurs only when the
electoral system is arranged in a manner that will
consistently degrade a voter's or a group of voters' influence
on the political process as a whole...[S]uch a finding of
unconstitutionality must be supported by evidence of
continued frustration of the will of a majority of voters of
a fair chance to influence the political process.” (U.S. Supreme
Court, Davis v. Bandemer 1986) Gerrymanders are illegal – but just because an electoral
district is peculiar looking – even if it gives one group or
political party an advantage – it isn’t necessarily illegal.
Source (10-24-01): http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/irregularWest.htm 33 34 California’s
Districts Not Gerrymanders?!? Based on the 2000
gained one seat in
has 53 Representatives. Source (10-24-01): http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/irregularTX.htm 35 Source: http://www.sen.ca.gov 36 San Diego’s Congressional
Districts Texas’s Reapportionment:
2001 vs. 2003 2001 Source: http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/reports/remanual/frames.htm 2003 Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/texas.html 6 37 38 The 2008 Election:
by State & by County The 2008 Election:
The “Purple County” Analysis Blue=70% Democrat
Red=70% Republican Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/ 39 Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/countymappurpler1024.png 40 International
Cooperation Regional Alliances
Military States frequently find it both possible and profitable to cooperate.
There are two basic scales of interstate cooperation: NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Europe after World War II.
The Allies and the Central Powers in Europe during World War I. Regional
There are three basic kinds of interstate cooperation: Military alliances are often designed to create a balance of power. Political Political
Please note: political, military and economic associations are not
new – for example, the Delian League (478 BCE), the Hanseatic
League (13th Century), the Rome-Berlin Axis (1936). 41 Often based on propinquity (e.g. the Organization of American
States, the Organization of African Unity), shared historical or
cultural connections (e.g. the British Commonwealth of Nations, the
Arab League). Economic
The European Common Market (which became the European
Union), the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA). 42 Global Alliances The UN Today Until modern times the idea of a world-wide alliance was
ridiculous. However, by the 18th century, interstate wars had
become global – the Seven Years War (1756-1763) between
Britain and France was fought on every continent except
Antarctica, and European countries were in an almost
constant state of conflict on a global scale because of
After the disaster of the First World War (1914-1918), the
League of Nations was formed in 1920 to try and prevent
conflicts from becoming wars. At its height, the League had
63 member nations – but never included the United States.
After the Second World War (1939-1945) the League of
Nations was replaced with the United Nations, which today
has 192 member states. The only widely-recognized “states” that are not members of
the United Nations today are Taiwan and Vatican City. 7 43 44 The UN Charter Geopolitics WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has
brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in
the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of
nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for
the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be
maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Geopolitics is a branch of political geography that looks at the
strategic relationships of land and sea and national concerns.
During the 20th century a number of political philosophers considered
how geography and politics come together. AND FOR THESE ENDS One of the most influential concepts was developed by the British
geographer Halford J. MacKinder: the heartland. to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure by the
acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be
used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the
promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Based on European history, MacKinder concluded that whoever controlled the
Eurasian heartland would rule the world. One of the MacKinder’s students, Nicholas Spykman looked at the
same history and came to the exact opposite conclusion: HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE
AIMS The Eurasian heartland is semi-arid and powerless – it was control of the Eurasian
rimland that was key to world power. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city
of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due
form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish
an international organization to be known as the United Nations. 45 Does this matter? Directly no – but ideas affect politics (Nazi
lebensraum, “domino theory” in Southeast Asia, etc.). 46 Geopolitical Theory:
Heartland & Rimland Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by a group in
order to intimidate a population or to coerce a government
into granting its demands.
Terrorist acts differ from political assassinations in that they
are mostly directed at ordinary people, not at political
leaders or military targets.
Historically, the use of the term “terrorist” has been applied
to groups outside of any government (or at least not
controlled by a government).
Calling someone “terrorist” is often controversial; one
faction’s “terrorist” can be another’s “freedom fighter.”
Hardly anyone thinks of him or herself as a “terrorist”;
people think of themselves as “patriots” and “partisans.” 47 Individual Terrorists:
“Individual” terrorists usually work in groups.
In April 2008 the US Department of State designated 44
groups as “Foreign Terrorists.”
According to the 2001 USA Patriot Act, to be legally
designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO):
It must be a foreign organization.
It must engage in terrorist activity, or terrorism, or “retain the
capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism.”
The organization's terrorist activity or terrorism must threaten the
security of U.S. nationals or the national security (national defense,
foreign relations, or the economic interests) of the United States.
http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/08/103392.htmhttp://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm 48 US Designated FTOs
1. Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) (International)
2. Abu Sayyaf Group (Philippines)
3. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (Palestine)
4. Al-Shabaab (Somalia)
5. Ansar al-Islam (Iraq, Kurdistan)
6. Armed Islamic Group (GIA) (Algeria)
7. Asbat al-Ansar (Lebanon)
8. Aum Shinrikyo (Japan)
9. Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) (Spain, France)
10.Communist Party of the Philippines
11. Continuity Irish Republican Army (Northern Ireland)
12. Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Egypt)
13. HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) (Palestine)
14.Harakut ul-Jihad-i-Islami (Bangladesh)
15. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) (Kashmir)
16. Hizballah (Translates: Party of God) (Lebanon)
17. Islamic Jihad Group (Syria)
18. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) (Uzbekistan)
19. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Pakistan)
20.Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI) (South East Asia)
21. al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) (Egypt)
22. Kahane Chai (Kach) (Israel) 23.
44. Kongra-Gel (KGK, formerly PKK) (Kurdistan)
Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Kashmir)
Lashkar i Jhangvi (Pakistan)
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri Lanka)
Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) (Libya)
Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (Morocco)
Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (Iran)
National Liberation Army (ELN) (Colombia)
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (Palestine)
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) (Palestine)
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
PFLP-General Command (Palestine)
Tanzim Qa’idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (Iraq)
Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (Maghreb)
Real IRA (Northern Ireland)
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Colombia)
Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA) (Greece)
Revolutionary Organization 17 November (Greece)
Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (Turkey)
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) (Peru)
United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia Source: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm 8 49 50 Individual Terrorists:
US Domestic Terrorists
The FBI has 3 categories of domestic terrorist organizations in the US: 1.
12. Right-wing extremist groups (mostly religious, racist, anti-government groups).
Left-wing and Puerto Rican extremist groups (anarchist, socialist, communist
groups; Puerto Rican separatists).
Special interest extremists (focused on specific issues: Animal Liberation Front
(ALF), Earth Liberation Front (ELF), etc.) Note that "FBI investigations of domestic terrorist groups or
individuals are not predicated upon social or political beliefs; rather,
FBI investigations are based upon information regarding planned or
actual criminal activity.“
At present the US does not publish a formal list of domestic terrorist
groups (although the Department of Homeland Security is reportedly
preparing a draft for future release). However, The Southern Poverty
Law Center's Intelligence Project counted 926 active hate groups in the
United States in 2008. 13.
15. American Christian Nationalists
Animal Liberation Front (ALF)
Arizona Patriots (AP)
Armed Forces of National Liberation
Army of God
Aryan Nations (AN)
Aryan Resistance Army (ARA)
Black Revolutionary Assault Team
Coalition to Save the Preserves (CSP)
Covenant Sword and Arm of the Lord
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist
International Conspiracy (EMETIC)
Fourth Reich Skinheads 17.
30. Jewish Defense League (JDL)
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
May 19 Communist Order
National Association for the
Advancement of White People
Oklahoma Constitutional Militia
Puerto Rican Armed Resistance
Revolutionary Force Seven
Sheriff's Posse Comitatus
Weather Underground Organization
White Aryan Resistance
World Church of the Creator Sources: http://www.tkb.org/; http://cfrterrorism.org/groups/american3.html#Q16;
http://www.militia-watchdog.org/default.asp Sources: http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress01/freeh051001.htm;
http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=1027 51 Domestic Terrorist
& Hate Groups: A Selection
16. Hammerskin Nation 52 State-Sponsored
Historically, many States have used “volunteers” and
“irregular combatants,” in wars, including privateers (a kind
of state-sanctioned pirate) and guerillas.
States sponsor terrorism and terrorist organizations in several
Sanctuary – providing a safe place or base of operations for
Supplies – giving aid, either in the form of money, or weapons.
Services– providing intelligence, helping to plan terrorist actions. The US Department of State today lists four countries as
State Sponsors of Terrorism: Cuba, Iran, Sudan and Syria
(North Korea was removed from the list as a result of
negotiations; Iraq was removed after the US invasion).
http://www.artsandopinion.com/2004_v3_n1/lieber.htm “But I HATE Politics!”
“Politics is not a picture on a wall or a television sitcom you
can decide you don't much care for. Is the person who
prescribes your eyeglasses qualified to do so? How deep will
you be buried when you die? What textbooks are your
children learning from at school? What will happen if you
become seriously ill? Is the meat you're eating tainted? Will
you be able to afford to go to college or to send your kids?
Would you like a vacation? Expect to retire before you die?
Can you find a job? Drive a car? Afford insurance? Is your
credit card company or your banker or your broker ripping
you off? It's all politics, Bubba. You don't get to opt out for
lack of interest.”
“What Difference Does it Make?” Molly Ivins October 29th, 2002
(http://www.sacbee.com/content/opinion/national/ivins/story/4987177p-5996343c.html) 9 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 12/16/2010 for the course GEOG 102 taught by Professor Osborn during the Fall '10 term at San Diego State.
- Fall '10