12_pol - 1 2 “States” & “States”...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 “States” & “States” “States” Political Geography States are political units that have: • • • Defined territories; A permanent population; Are fully independent and sovereign. “States” "We live in a political world ..." States are political units that are: Bob Dylan • "Political World," Oh Mercy (1989) • Part of a federal government; Have limited independence (or sovereignty). “Country” is roughly equivalent to “state.” 3 4 Variations on “Nation” & “State” “Nations” & “Nation-States” “Multinational State” “Nations” A state whose population is made up of two or more nations. Examples: Cyprus, Russia Nations are communities or groups of people: • • • Common culture; Sense of unity, shared beliefs and customs; Usually have a strong attachment to a place. “Part-Nation State” A state whose population is only a portion of a nation. Examples: Egypt, Syria “Nation-States” A State occupied by a single nation: • • “Stateless Nation” Considered ideal; No perfect examples, but some (e.g. Japan, Norway, Lesotho) come fairly close. A nation which has no state or sovereignty, or is divided among several states. Examples: Basques, Kurds, Gypsies [Romany] Can nation-states be created? Maybe! 5 6 The World is Almost All States Note overlapping claims There is only one large piece of land anywhere on earth that is not controlled by a state – Antarctica. At least until 2041, all territorial claims here have been suspended – but they have not been abandoned. Defining States: Problems Korea Since 1945 the Korean Peninsula has been divided; since 1953 a four kilometer demilitarized zone has divided North and South Korea. Since the 1990s there have been a number of small attempts to reconcile. In 2000 the Presidents of North and South Korea met for the first time. China & Taiwan In 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, the government of China retreated to the island of Taiwan. When they lost, and the People’s Republic of China was created, Taiwan remained as holdout. Taiwan was a one-party state under martial law until 1987. Today there is a Taiwanese independence movement – which is strongly resisted both by the People’s Republic and by some Taiwanese. Western Sahara Sources: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Map_korea_without_labels.png; http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/east_asia_pacific/chinese_human_smuggling/smuggling_maps/china_map.html 1 7 8 Western Sahara’s Wall The Rise of States Nations have existed from time immemorial. States, in some sense at least, have existed for thousands of years. “City-States” in Mesopotamia and Greece. Early political empires (Agade, Egypt, Qin, Rome, etc.) The modern concept of the nation-state only dates back to Europe in the 17th-19th centuries. As recently as 1950 there were only about 50 internationally recognized independent countries; now there are at least 192 (and more may be coming). Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Westernsaharamap.png; http://maps.google.com/?t=h&ie=UTF8&om=1&ll=21.348823,16.203488&spn=0.003727,0.005246; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/4588982.stm 9 10 Austrian Colonies A colony is a territory that is legally joined to a sovereign state, and is not completely independent. The sovereign state may control the colony completely, or may just control some aspects (defense, foreign affairs). During the last 500 years, colonies were planted by European countries over much of the world. The Colonial World, 1914 Belgian Danish Dutch Why did Europe establish colonies? GOD! GOLD! GLORY! The largest imperial powers were England, France and Spain. Colonial policies varied from integration to pure exploitation. There are few colonies today – mostly islands. 11 English French German Independent Italian Japanese Ottoman Portuguese Russian Spanish USA 12 Colonies & Possessions Today Physical Characteristics of States Size States vary enormously in size, from enormous to microstates: • • The Russian Federation – 6,592,850 mi2 (17,075,400 km2). Vatican City 109 acres (44 hectares, or about .17 mi2). Shape States have five basic shapes: • • • • • COMPACT (considered ideal – theoretically very efficient). PRORUPT (projecting extension – usually created either to prevent other states from contact, or to access resources). ELONGATED (long, narrow shape – may cause a portion of a country to be isolated). FRAGMENTED (discontinuous territory – usually islands today). PERFORATED (one state completely surrounds another – an “enclave”). 2 13 14 Fragmentation: The Tin Bigha Corridor Shapes of States Compact Prorupt Elongated Fragmented Perforated 15 16 Fragmentation: The Fergana Valley – Complex Borders & Enclaves Landlocked States Landlocked states have no direct access to the sea – so their access to international trade is severely limited. Landlocked states have to depend on the cooperation of their neighbors. http://orientalreview.org/2010/04/18/kyrgyzstan-destined-to-become-another-narco-state/ 17 18 Boundaries Until modern times, most countries were separated by frontiers – zones where no state has complete political control. Boundaries may be either physical or cultural. PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES • • Physical boundaries should be easily distinguished, permanent, and (ideally) hard to cross. Examples: Mountains, deserts, bodies of water. CULTURAL BOUNDARIES • • Physical Boundari es Water Desert Mountains Cultural boundaries also ought to be easily distinguished, and permanent – but that is not always possible. Examples: Geometric, religious, linguistic. The best boundaries are those everyone agrees on – regardless of how they are drawn! 3 19 20 Problems With Physical Boundaries GEOMETRIC (“Mathematical”) Unless they are completely impassable – and with modern technology, nothing really is – physical boundaries only work well if everyone agrees on them. Defining boundaries is often contentious. Water boundaries have special problems: Rivers shift courses. Oceans lack obvious boundaries – and nations claim large areas for security and economic reasons. Cultural Boundaries Arbitrary lines drawn on the map, without regard to physical or other cultural factors. Usually drawn before an area has a significant population. RELIGIOUS & LINGUISTIC (“Cultural”) Source (10-26-01): http://www.st.nmfs.gov/st2/shipee.htm Boundaries drawn on the basis of cultural characteristics. “In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living ... The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles …” Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part V No country on earth has perfect cultural boundaries – because no country is a perfect nation-state. Source (10-26-01): http://www.hri.org/docs/LOS/part5-1.html 21 22 Other Kinds of Boundaries? Boundaries & Organization Inside States States may be organized in two ways: RELICT BOUNDARIES Unitary States: Former boundaries, which may no longer have much (or any) legal standing, but are still visible in the landscape. Examples: Wales-England; Spain-Britain (the 42º N North American boundary – now the California-Oregon boundary). • • • • BUFFER STATES & SATELLITE STATES Federal States: • Independent states used by major powers to reduce mutual conflict (“satellite” states are dominated by a major power – but are technically independent). Examples: Eastern Europe during the Cold War; Mongolia; Nepal. 23 Strong central government; Local governments have little or no power or responsibilities (except to implement central government policies); May be democratic, but often totalitarian, one-party; Theoretically ideal for small, homogenous states, but many states today are unitary; they have been common in Europe. • • • Contractual arrangement divides power between central and local governments — “allocation of residual powers”; Local governments have considerable power; Central governments may be "weak" or “strong”; Theoretically large, multinational states, but an increasing number of states today are federal. It can be hard to tell the difference between a “strong” federal state and “weak” unitary state! 24 Constitutional Limits on Federal Power “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Constitutional Limits on State Power “No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation … coin Money; emits Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any … ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. “No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress. “No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress … keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.” Article 1, Section 10, U.S. Constitution Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 4 25 26 Being “Fair” Electoral Geography In democracies (unitary or federal), there are many steps and many questions that have to be answered in determining how a state will be run: a. b. c. d. Who votes? (Historical expansion of suffrage) Who can be elected? (Eligibility – citizenship, party membership, poll tax, etc.) Who wins? • Majority (or plurality) vs. run-off. • Proportional vs. winner-take-all. How are electoral district boundaries drawn? 27 28 The Gerrymander Racial Gerrymandering “...the deliberate manipulation of political district boundaries to achieve a particular electoral outcome.” This originally appeared in 1812 in The Boston Messenger, and is supposed to have been drawn by the painter Gilbert Stuart. See http://historytogo.utah.gov/hmgerry.html 29 30 2008 North Carolina Congressional Districts Gerrymander Species By law, Congressional district boundaries must be “contiguous and compact,” have roughly equal populations, and can’t be drawn solely to benefit one political party. They can be drawn on the basis of “shared interests.” There are three types of gerrymander: Wasted vote: Dilute opposition so that it can’t win (“cracking”). Excess vote: Concentrate opposition so that it can only win a few districts (“packing”). Stacked vote: Connecting and concentrating groups through oddly shaped districts. Source: http://www.ncprogress.org/PDF/Congressional_Districts.pdf 5 31 32 Are All Funny-Looking Districts Gerrymanders? Not Gerrymanders “[U]nconstitutional discrimination occurs only when the electoral system is arranged in a manner that will consistently degrade a voter's or a group of voters' influence on the political process as a whole...[S]uch a finding of unconstitutionality must be supported by evidence of continued frustration of the will of a majority of voters of a fair chance to influence the political process.” (U.S. Supreme Court, Davis v. Bandemer 1986) Gerrymanders are illegal – but just because an electoral district is peculiar looking – even if it gives one group or political party an advantage – it isn’t necessarily illegal. Source (10-24-01): http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/irregularWest.htm 33 34 California’s Congressio nal Districts Not Gerrymanders?!? Based on the 2000 Census, California gained one seat in Congress. California has 53 Representatives. Source (10-24-01): http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/irregularTX.htm 35 Source: http://www.sen.ca.gov 36 San Diego’s Congressional Districts Texas’s Reapportionment: 2001 vs. 2003 2001 Source: http://www.fairvote.org/redistricting/reports/remanual/frames.htm 2003 Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/texas.html 6 37 38 The 2008 Election: by State & by County The 2008 Election: The “Purple County” Analysis Blue=70% Democrat Red=70% Republican Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/ 39 Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/countymappurpler1024.png 40 International Cooperation Regional Alliances Military States frequently find it both possible and profitable to cooperate. There are two basic scales of interstate cooperation: NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Europe after World War II. The Allies and the Central Powers in Europe during World War I. Regional Global There are three basic kinds of interstate cooperation: Military alliances are often designed to create a balance of power. Political Political Military Economic Please note: political, military and economic associations are not new – for example, the Delian League (478 BCE), the Hanseatic League (13th Century), the Rome-Berlin Axis (1936). 41 Often based on propinquity (e.g. the Organization of American States, the Organization of African Unity), shared historical or cultural connections (e.g. the British Commonwealth of Nations, the Arab League). Economic The European Common Market (which became the European Union), the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA). 42 Global Alliances The UN Today Until modern times the idea of a world-wide alliance was ridiculous. However, by the 18th century, interstate wars had become global – the Seven Years War (1756-1763) between Britain and France was fought on every continent except Antarctica, and European countries were in an almost constant state of conflict on a global scale because of colonialism. After the disaster of the First World War (1914-1918), the League of Nations was formed in 1920 to try and prevent conflicts from becoming wars. At its height, the League had 63 member nations – but never included the United States. After the Second World War (1939-1945) the League of Nations was replaced with the United Nations, which today has 192 member states. The only widely-recognized “states” that are not members of the United Nations today are Taiwan and Vatican City. 7 43 44 The UN Charter Geopolitics WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Geopolitics is a branch of political geography that looks at the strategic relationships of land and sea and national concerns. During the 20th century a number of political philosophers considered how geography and politics come together. AND FOR THESE ENDS One of the most influential concepts was developed by the British geographer Halford J. MacKinder: the heartland. to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Based on European history, MacKinder concluded that whoever controlled the Eurasian heartland would rule the world. One of the MacKinder’s students, Nicholas Spykman looked at the same history and came to the exact opposite conclusion: HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS The Eurasian heartland is semi-arid and powerless – it was control of the Eurasian rimland that was key to world power. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. 45 Does this matter? Directly no – but ideas affect politics (Nazi lebensraum, “domino theory” in Southeast Asia, etc.). 46 Geopolitical Theory: Heartland & Rimland Terrorism Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or to coerce a government into granting its demands. Terrorist acts differ from political assassinations in that they are mostly directed at ordinary people, not at political leaders or military targets. Historically, the use of the term “terrorist” has been applied to groups outside of any government (or at least not controlled by a government). Calling someone “terrorist” is often controversial; one faction’s “terrorist” can be another’s “freedom fighter.” Hardly anyone thinks of him or herself as a “terrorist”; people think of themselves as “patriots” and “partisans.” 47 Individual Terrorists: Foreign Terrorist Organizations “Individual” terrorists usually work in groups. In April 2008 the US Department of State designated 44 groups as “Foreign Terrorists.” According to the 2001 USA Patriot Act, to be legally designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO): It must be a foreign organization. It must engage in terrorist activity, or terrorism, or “retain the capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism.” The organization's terrorist activity or terrorism must threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security (national defense, foreign relations, or the economic interests) of the United States. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/08/103392.htmhttp://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm 48 US Designated FTOs 1. Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) (International) 2. Abu Sayyaf Group (Philippines) 3. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (Palestine) 4. Al-Shabaab (Somalia) 5. Ansar al-Islam (Iraq, Kurdistan) 6. Armed Islamic Group (GIA) (Algeria) 7. Asbat al-Ansar (Lebanon) 8. Aum Shinrikyo (Japan) 9. Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) (Spain, France) 10.Communist Party of the Philippines 11. Continuity Irish Republican Army (Northern Ireland) 12. Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Egypt) 13. HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) (Palestine) 14.Harakut ul-Jihad-i-Islami (Bangladesh) 15. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM) (Kashmir) 16. Hizballah (Translates: Party of God) (Lebanon) 17. Islamic Jihad Group (Syria) 18. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) (Uzbekistan) 19. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Pakistan) 20.Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI) (South East Asia) 21. al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) (Egypt) 22. Kahane Chai (Kach) (Israel) 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. Kongra-Gel (KGK, formerly PKK) (Kurdistan) Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Kashmir) Lashkar i Jhangvi (Pakistan) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri Lanka) Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) (Libya) Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group (Morocco) Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (Iran) National Liberation Army (ELN) (Colombia) Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (Palestine) Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) (Palestine) Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine PFLP-General Command (Palestine) Tanzim Qa’idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (Iraq) al-Qa’ida (Global) Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (Maghreb) Real IRA (Northern Ireland) Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Colombia) Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA) (Greece) Revolutionary Organization 17 November (Greece) Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (Turkey) Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL) (Peru) United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia Source: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm 8 49 50 Individual Terrorists: US Domestic Terrorists The FBI has 3 categories of domestic terrorist organizations in the US: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Right-wing extremist groups (mostly religious, racist, anti-government groups). Left-wing and Puerto Rican extremist groups (anarchist, socialist, communist groups; Puerto Rican separatists). Special interest extremists (focused on specific issues: Animal Liberation Front (ALF), Earth Liberation Front (ELF), etc.) Note that "FBI investigations of domestic terrorist groups or individuals are not predicated upon social or political beliefs; rather, FBI investigations are based upon information regarding planned or actual criminal activity.“ At present the US does not publish a formal list of domestic terrorist groups (although the Department of Homeland Security is reportedly preparing a draft for future release). However, The Southern Poverty Law Center's Intelligence Project counted 926 active hate groups in the United States in 2008. 13. 14. 15. American Christian Nationalists Animal Liberation Front (ALF) Arizona Patriots (AP) Armed Forces of National Liberation Army of God Aryan Nations (AN) Aryan Resistance Army (ARA) Black Panthers Black Revolutionary Assault Team Coalition to Save the Preserves (CSP) Covenant Sword and Arm of the Lord (CSA) Earth Liberation Front (ELF) Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) Fourth Reich Skinheads 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Jewish Defense League (JDL) Ku Klux Klan (KKK) May 19 Communist Order Montana Freemen National Association for the Advancement of White People Oklahoma Constitutional Militia Omega-7 The Order Puerto Rican Armed Resistance Revolutionary Force Seven Sheriff's Posse Comitatus Weather Underground Organization White Aryan Resistance World Church of the Creator Sources: http://www.tkb.org/; http://cfrterrorism.org/groups/american3.html#Q16; http://www.bcpl.net/~rfrankli/hatedir.htm; http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/tergps/tgdom.htm; http://www.militia-watchdog.org/default.asp Sources: http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress01/freeh051001.htm; http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=1027 51 Domestic Terrorist Organizations & Hate Groups: A Selection American Front 16. Hammerskin Nation 52 State-Sponsored Terrorism Historically, many States have used “volunteers” and “irregular combatants,” in wars, including privateers (a kind of state-sanctioned pirate) and guerillas. States sponsor terrorism and terrorist organizations in several ways: Sanctuary – providing a safe place or base of operations for terrorists. Supplies – giving aid, either in the form of money, or weapons. Services– providing intelligence, helping to plan terrorist actions. The US Department of State today lists four countries as State Sponsors of Terrorism: Cuba, Iran, Sudan and Syria (North Korea was removed from the list as a result of negotiations; Iraq was removed after the US invasion). Sources: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/c14151.htm; http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2003/31644.htm; http://www.artsandopinion.com/2004_v3_n1/lieber.htm “But I HATE Politics!” “Politics is not a picture on a wall or a television sitcom you can decide you don't much care for. Is the person who prescribes your eyeglasses qualified to do so? How deep will you be buried when you die? What textbooks are your children learning from at school? What will happen if you become seriously ill? Is the meat you're eating tainted? Will you be able to afford to go to college or to send your kids? Would you like a vacation? Expect to retire before you die? Can you find a job? Drive a car? Afford insurance? Is your credit card company or your banker or your broker ripping you off? It's all politics, Bubba. You don't get to opt out for lack of interest.” “What Difference Does it Make?” Molly Ivins October 29th, 2002 (http://www.sacbee.com/content/opinion/national/ivins/story/4987177p-5996343c.html) 9 ...
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