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13_urb - 2 An Urban Planet Urban Patterns Defining Cities...

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1 1 Urban Patterns Defining Cities; The CBD; Models of Urban Structure; Social Area Analysis; Inner-City Problems; Suburban Problems; Urban Transportation; Local Governments & Fragmentation 2 An Urban Planet Source (11-19-01): http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/earth/pictures/citylights/flat_earth_nightm.jpg Greater urban population today in More Developed Countries. Greater urban growth today in Less Developed Countries. Increasing urbanization: 1800 – 3% urban. 2000 – 47% urban. 2030 – 60% urban? 3 The US: An Urban Country Source (11-11-01): http://darkskyinstitute.org/light.html 4 Defining Cities We can define cities in two different ways: Based on the social character of cities – the ways in which life in cities differs from life in rural places. Based on physical or legal criteria. 5 Defining Urban Settlements: Social Definitions In the 1930s sociologist Louis Wirth discussed how city life differs from life in non-urban places: SIZE & SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS : Cities are bigger than non-urban places – which means that in cities, you spend much of your time with strangers. Your relations with people you work with are mostly legal or contractual, not personal. DENSITY & SPECIALIZATION : People in cities tend to specialize – otherwise competition for jobs and money becomes overwhelming. HETEROGENEITY & FREEDOM : People in cities are far more diverse – behaviors or customs that would be socially unacceptable in a rural area are tolerated in cities. 6 “An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.” Legal definitions vary from country to country: US – 2,500 persons South Africa – 500 persons India – 5,000 persons with an adult male population predominantly in non-agricultural work. Defining Urban Settlements: Legal Definitions
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2 7 URBANIZED AREA: “The central city and the surrounding built-up suburbs … where population density exceeds 1,000 persons per square mile.” The physical city – the visible city . METROPOLITAN AREA: The “zone of influence” of a city; the functional city . Defining Urban Settlements: Physical Definitions 8 Since 1949 the Census Bureau has used a method for measuring and comparing the functional areas of cities — the Metropolitan Statistical Area . The exact definition of an MSA has varied over time. Today an MSA is defined as A central city with a population of at least 50,000. The county within which the city is located. Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city’s county. Defining Urban Settlements: Metropolitan Statistical Areas For more information see: http://www.census.gov/population/www/metroareas/metroarea.html 9 “MSA” — An Example 10 Overlapping Metropolitan Areas Especially in the Northeastern US, counties located between central cities send large numbers of commuters to each.
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