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Unformatted text preview: 2 An Urban Planet Urban Patterns
Defining Cities; The CBD; Models of Urban Structure; Social Area Analysis; Inner-City Problems; Suburban Problems; Urban Transportation; Local Governments & Fragmentation
1 Greater urban population today in More Developed Countries. Greater urban growth today in Less Developed Countries. Increasing urbanization: 1800 – 3% urban. 2000 – 47% urban. 2030 – 60% urban?
Source (11-19-01): http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/earth/pictures/citylights/flat_earth_nightm.jpg 3 4 The US: An Urban Country Defining Cities
We can define cities in two different ways:
Based on the social character of cities – the ways in which life in cities differs from life in rural places. Based on physical or legal criteria. Source (11-11-01): http://darkskyinstitute.org/light.html 5 6 Defining Urban Settlements: Social Definitions
In the 1930s sociologist Louis Wirth discussed how city life differs from life in non-urban places:
SIZE & SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS: Cities are bigger than non-urban places – which means that in cities, you spend much of your time with strangers. Your relations with people you work with are mostly legal or contractual, not personal. DENSITY & SPECIALIZATION: People in cities tend to specialize – otherwise competition for jobs and money becomes overwhelming. HETEROGENEITY & FREEDOM: People in cities are far more diverse – behaviors or customs that would be socially unacceptable in a rural area are tolerated in cities. Defining Urban Settlements: Legal Definitions
“An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.” Legal definitions vary from country to country: US – 2,500 persons South Africa – 500 persons India – 5,000 persons with an adult male population predominantly in non-agricultural work. 1 7 8 Defining Urban Settlements: Physical Definitions
“The central city and the surrounding built-up suburbs … where population density exceeds 1,000 persons per square mile.” The physical city – the visible city. Defining Urban Settlements: Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Since 1949 the Census Bureau has used a method for measuring and comparing the functional areas of cities — the Metropolitan Statistical Area. The exact definition of an MSA has varied over time. Today an MSA is defined as
A central city with a population of at least 50,000. The county within which the city is located. Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city’s county. METROPOLITAN AREA:
The “zone of influence” of a city; the functional city. For more information see: http://www.census.gov/population/www/metroareas/metroarea.html 9 10 Overlapping Metropolitan Areas “MSA” — An Example Especially in the Northeastern US, counties located between central cities send large numbers of commuters to each. In the region from Southern Maine to Northern Virginia, you never leave an MSA – which lead the geographer Jean Gottman to label this area Megalopolis. “Megalopolis” 11 12 US Metropolitan & Micropolitan Areas, 2000
Since 2000 the Census Bureau has recognized another kind of metropolitan area: Micropolitan Areas: The Central Business District
The central business district (CBD or downtown) is the usually the best known and most distinctive area of a city. Historically, services tend to cluster in the CBD. Characteristics of the CBD: Compact area. High land costs. Intensive land use. There are at least 362 metropolitan, and 560 micropolitan areas in the US today. Most people in the US live in Metropolitan or Micropolitan areas. If the population is more than 50,000, it’s metropolitan. If it’s between 10,000 and 50,000 it’s micropolitan. Skyline, Charlotte NC Source: http://www.bls.gov/lau/maps/uscmpr.htm 2 13 14 The CBD: Charlotte, NC Services in the CBD
High threshold services (expensive or unusual services) High range services (people have to travel a relatively long distance) Downtown worker services Producer services (financial, legal, and other services cluster in the CBD for greater efficiency) Government facilities – especially City Hall, courts, libraries Sports facilities & convention centers Business services: Public services Activities Excluded from the CBD
Manufacturing 15 16 Models of Internal City Structure
Starting in the 20th Century, social scientists began to try to create models — simplified representations of reality — to understand how cities function. There are three popular models of North American city structure that are widely used and discussed. Each has problems; none accurately describes how any particular city actually works — but the models are still useful because they give us insights into how cities grow and function. Though important at one time, land costs and improved transportation have meant that manufacturing – except in rare cases – has moved out of the CBD. Residential
High land costs mean that few people actually can live in the CBD. Rents are simply unaffordable. 17 18 Three Models
Concentric Zone Model
Oldest (1923) Postulates a series of concentric rings of decreasing land value surrounding the Central Business District (CBD) Concentric Zone Model
Pre World War II (1939) Incorporates linear and transport corridors Continued emphasis on CBD Multiple Nuclei Model
Post World War II (1945) Multiple centers of attraction Less emphasis on a single CBD 3 19 Multiple Nuclei Model 20 Sector Model 21 22 Social Area Analysis
None of the three models is perfect – they are simplified, not “real.” However, the test of a model is whether or not it’s useful – can we use the three models – individually or in combination – to make predictions about cities? Maybe – some patterns (family size, income, ethnicity) can be predicted using the models. Models Outside North America
None of the models developed for North America are very useful in other parts of the world:
In Europe the wealthy cluster in a sector extending from the CBD; however, the wealthy also tend to live in near the center of town, not just in suburbs. The poor today tend to be concentrated in “slum suburbs.” Less Developed Countries
Pre-colonial cities often surround a religious “core.” Most cities in LDCs have also been affected by colonialism Since independence, cities have grown enormously As in Europe, there tend to be “slum suburbs” and a wealthy sector. Latin American cities often have a distinctive “elite spine.” Most cities in LDCs have extensive squatter settlements in and around them. 23 24 Fez: Pre-colonial vs. Colonial Cities
Most major cities in the LDCs have gone through three periods: preEuropean colonial, colonial, and post-colonial development. Ho Chi Minh City
Unlike Fez, in Ho Chi Minh City, the French completely destroyed the original city and replaced it. Note the similar street layout in Fez’s “New Town.” Fez, in Morocco, is unique in that the French built the “New Town” next to the “Old Town.” The differences between the two include:
Street layout and size. Public squares and open spaces. Density. 4 25 26 The Latin America City Model
This model was originally developed here at San Diego State University! Yay! Note that it combines elements of the Sector and Concentric Zone models. Note the zone of squatter settlements and the elite spine. Europe: Professional Centers, Poor Suburbs
Wealthy Europeans tend to live in (or near) city centers. Many also own suburban or rural houses – and weekend traffic is frequently terrible as they go to and from the country. 27 28 Problems of “Inner Cities”
Instead of squatter settlements and slum suburbs, in North America areas of poverty are often concentrated in the inner city – the area surrounding the CBD. North American inner cities suffer from social, physical, and economic problems. Inner Cities: Social Problems
Most people who live in inner cities are there because they can’t afford to go anywhere else – they are poor! “The Underclass” – the idea that people are trapped in a cycle of problems – often because of the lack job skills, or that they have become a part of the one to two million homeless in America. The Culture of Poverty in the inner city includes high rates of Single parent families Crime Homelessness Ethnic and racial segregation 29 30 Public Housing Inner Cities: Physical Problems
The major physical problem of the inner cities is the poor condition of the housing.
“Filtering” – large, old single-family homes become multi-family apartments – without upgrading the facilities. Eventually, as the facilities become worse and worse, they are abandoned. Redlining & Blockbusting – illegal processes designed to concentrate ethnicities in ghettos – where services are few and it is impossible to get loans to improve property. URBAN RENEWAL
In theory, a process of replacing deteriorated housing with public housing. Although public housing has been successful in some places, in others it has been a brutal nightmare. Gentrification – rather than tear down deteriorated housing, in some places it has been renovated – but the poor who once lived in the neighborhood can’t afford new renovated housing, and must move. The Robert Taylor Homes in Chicago, completed in 1962, was the largest single public housing project in the world – 28 sixteen storey buildings and nearly 30,000 people. Because of a combination of factors – poor planning, lack of opportunity, crime, etc. – all of the buildings have been demolished and the area is being redeveloped.
Sources: http://www.robsherman.com/information/report/2004/CHA.htm; http://www.route99.org/fundraising.html; http://www.illinoisleader.com/spotlight/spotlightview.asp?c=4404; http://www.lpb.org/programs/forest/chicago.html 5 31 32 Gentrification
Gentrification is a kind of renovation – buildings that have decayed, been abandoned, or are being repurposed (from industrial to residential) are turned into desirable homes. Gentrification can be beneficial – and controversial, if lowerincome people are forced to leave their neighborhood because it’s become too expensive for them.
Adapted from: http://media.www.lewisflyer.com/media/storage/paper638/news/2005/04/25/News/Gentrification.Stirs.Issues-935125.shtml Inner Cities: Economic Problems
Poor people and poor housing mean that inner cities have enormous needs – and no money to pay for them. Cities have two choices when it comes to paying for services they can’t afford: Reduce services (disastrous in areas that are already hurting). Raise taxes (disastrous in areas that already find it hard to attract people and businesses to the area). Other solutions have been tried: Annexation (taking over land outside the city, thereby expanding the tax base – this once was feasible, but in most areas it isn’t any longer). State and Federal contributions (loans and grants). 33 34 Chicago: Historical Annexation
Chicago grew rapidly in the 19th and early 20th centuries through annexation. Today, Chicago (and most other cities) are surrounded by small independent cities – who generally do not want to become part of large cities. The Growth of Suburbs
The suburban population of the US has grown enormously in the past 50 years – much faster than the overall population growth rate. About 50% of all Americans now live in suburbs – and their popularity is extremely high (90% of people polled say they prefer suburbs to inner cities). At the same time, the percentage of people living in central cities has declined. About 30% of all Americans now live in central cities. 35 36 The Peripheral Model Problems of Suburbs
Sprawl: “… the progressive spread of development over the landscape.”
Costs of extending services; Loss of agricultural land; Dependence on the automobile (and a lack of public transportation). Segregation
Physical segregation from work Social segregation
By age By family structure By race By income By social class Problems caused by sprawl include: Around the central city is the suburban residential and business area, circled by a beltway. Around the beltway are business nodes – edge cities (and of course – malls!) 6 37 Zoning
Since the 19th Century (and especially since New York’s ordinances of 1916) cities, counties and States in the US have used zoning to limit and control land use and development. Zoning controversies: Sprawl Segregation Property rights issues
Source: http://www.greatergreenville.com/development/zoning_districts.htm Suburbanization of Businesses 38 Many businesses have moved out of the CBD into the suburbs. Reasons for moving to peripheral locations include land costs and accessibility. Types of businesses that have moved to the suburbs:
Manufacturing (industrial parks, factories requiring large amounts of land) Producer services (in locations with easy access) Retailing • The Mall of America, in Bloomington MN
– – – – – – – – – – The Mall of America 39 40 The West Edmonton Mall – over 23,500 employees
– over 20,000 parking spaces – “Galaxyland,” world’s largest indoor amusement park – “Ice Palace” hockey rink (“Second Home of the Edmonton Oilers”) – “Dolphin Lagoon,” home of the world’s largest indoor wave pool – A life-sized replica of Columbus’ “Santa Maria” – “Professor Wem’s” 18-hole miniature golf course – The 24-hour Palace Casino, with 30 table games, 650 slots and bingo. – The 354 room “Fantasyland Hotel,” featuring 118 “theme rooms” (Hollywood, Igloo, African Safari, etc.) 4.2 million square feet More than 520 stores 20 sit-down restaurants 30 fast food restaurants 36 specialty food stores 8 nightclubs 14 movie screens 11,000 employees 12,550 parking spaces Attractions include Nickelodeon Universe®, Underwater Adventures® Aquarium, LEGO® Imagination Center, Dinosaur Walk Museum, A.C.E.S. Flight Simulation, NASCAR Silicon Motor Speedway, and The Chapel of Love • The West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta Canada is the 5th largest shopping mall on the planet (the largest is in Malaysia). • Mall facts:
– – – – – 5.3 million sq. feet over 800 stores 26 movie theaters 110 restaurants IMAX 3-D theater Sources (4-1-2005): http://www.mallofamerica.com/about_the_mall/mallfacts.aspx; http://www.bloomingtonmn.org/mallofamerica_facts.asp Source (4-1-2005): http://www.westedmontonmall.com/home/default.asp Sprawl: Suburban Development in the US & UK 41 42 “Smart Growth”
In some parts of the US, steps have been taken to restrict sprawl. Examples:
Maryland Oregon New housing in the U.K. is likely to be in planned new towns, while in the U.S. growth occurs in discontinuous developments. Smart growth has many critics. Since smart growth limits construction, they claim it causes congestion, higher density, higher housing prices, restricts property rights, etc. Sources: http://www.mdp.state.md.us/pfamap.htm; http://www.northwestwatch.org/press/recent_portsprawl.asp 7 43 44 Urban transportation
Most people in the US travel by motor vehicle (car or truck). This is a matter of personal preference. It’s also a matter of policy – government subsidizes motor vehicle use and road construction. In 2001 92% of households had at least one car – and nearly a quarter had three or more. In 2007 there were more than 247,000,000 cars, trucks and other vehicles registered in the US. Public Transportation in the US
According to the Federal Transit Administration’s “National Transit Summaries and Trends,” there are 5 dominant modes of public transportation in the US: bus, heavy rail, light rail, commuter rail, demand response, and vanpool. On an average weekday, US transit systems carry over 29 million riders – but that’s only about 5% of all US trips. Public transportation is well suited to, and very efficient in larger cities, but almost nonexistent elsewhere in the US, although it has begun to expand in some areas (like San Diego’s trolley system).
Source: http://www.ntdprogram.com/NTD/NTST/2003/HTMLFiles/ 2003%20National%20Transit%20Summaries%20and%20Trends.htm Adapted from: http://www.bts.gov/publications/pocket_guide_to_transportation/2004/html/figure_10.html; http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2007/; http://www.forbes.com/2007/06/11/traffic-highways-interstates-biz-logistics_cx_rm_0611traffic.html?partner=autos_newsletter 45 46 Public Transportation in Europe
In many parts of the world, heavy rail, light rail, and bus systems are tightly integrated. This encourages the use of public transportation.
Brussels, Belgium Fragmentation: Too Many Governments?
In many parts of the US, there has been an explosion in local governmental bodies – neighborhood councils, elementary school districts, high school districts, community college districts, fire districts, irrigation districts, floodcontrol districts, sewage districts, parks and recreation districts, sheriff districts, library district, mosquito abatement district, etc. Many communities overlap dozens – sometimes hundreds of these different districts and bodies. This overlapping makes it hard for cities in the US to deal with their problems. 47 48 Local Government Fragmentation: Solutions?
An association of local governments – council of governments – designed to coordinate activities in an urban area. Usually not designed to replace other bodies – generally assists with planning – often involved with smart growth initiatives. Usually not elected (Example: SANDAG). Cities of the Future
Victory City Federations
A separate regional government – above local cities – that can make planning decisions and even impose decisions about land use. Usually elected (Examples: Toronto, Portland OR). Consolidations
In some areas cities have legally consolidated – combined governmental bodies together. Usually elected (Example: Dade County FL, Indianapolis/Marion Country Indiana). Architects, urban planners, science fiction writers, and the insane have pondered what the urban world of the future is going to look like. The best guesses are – probably nothing like these! "Visionary City," 1908 General Motor’s “Futurama,” 1939 Sources: http://www.geocities.com/ny1939wf/GMbuilding.html; http://www.yesterdaystomorrows.org/commimage.html ;http://www.victorycities.com/tour/index.html 8 ...
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