these combine with atmospheric moisture to produce

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Unformatted text preview: 20 years. Image © 2004, NASA Source: http://www.floridatoday.com 59 Regional-Scale Air Pollution: RegionalAcid Precipitation http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 60 Acid Precipitation Damage Burning is a process of oxidation. Because all organic compounds contain (among other things) nitrogen and sulfur, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur are released into the atmosphere whenever we burn anything organic (wood, oil, etc.). These combine with atmospheric moisture to produce sulfuric and nitric acids — and can precipitate as acid rain or snow. Marble building ornaments, Philadelphia, showing effects of acid rain Acid precipitation affects some areas of the world far more than others — an effect of wind currents. The kinds of damage that can be done by acid rain vary from minor to disastrous. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/acidrain/2.html; http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/acidrain/5.html 10 61 62 http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths/maps2000/ http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths/maps2000/ 63 64 Local-Scale Air Pollution: Smog LocalThere are really two kinds of smog: – Sulfurous – Photochemical Smog layer, upstate NY http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/isopleths/maps2000/ http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?6626 Air Pollution: US Pollutants & Air Pollution Sources (percentages) 65 Source Particulates SO2 Photochemical smog is produced by the action of sunlight on atmospheric chemicals — mostly oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons (volatile organic compounds). One of the most dangerous compounds in photochemical smog is ozone. NOx VOC CO Lead Power 3% 87% 42% 5% 6% 13% Industry 2% 6% 3% 8% 4% 59% Solvents 0% 0% 0% 29% 0% 0% Storage 0% 0% 0% 7% 0% 0% Waste 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 16% Vehicles 1% 1% 32% 30% 56% 0% Off-Highway 1% 5% 22% 14% 22% 13% Other 92% 0% 1% 4% 10% 66 Temperature Inversion Normally, air temperature declines with altitude. In a temperature inversion, cold air at the surface is trapped beneath a layer of warm air. Since cold air doesn’t rise, the air at the surface becomes stagnant. Any pollutants released into...
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