Capacity since the 1970s the number of landfills in

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Unformatted text preview: http://www.denali.gov/content/challenges/solid.htm 87 88 Dumps are pretty much self-explanatory – solid waste (trash) is just dumped. In most of the United States, dumps are now obsolete and illegal. In LDCs dumps are still common. Dumps are notorious for their stench, disease, and for attracting vermin. Sanitary Landfill Problems with Sanitary Landfills Leachate — liquid (from rain or other sources) reacts with solid waste to produce a toxic brew that can easily contaminate groundwater. Capacity — since the 1970s the number of landfills in the US has declined by 80%. NIMBY — “not-in-my-back-yard” The most common way to dispose of solid waste in the developed world today is in a sanitary landfill. Although a definite improvement on the old-fashioned dump, landfills have some serious problems. http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozpictures/lr000599.html 89 Sanitary Landfills: Declining Capacity 90 Incineration Incinerators can be designed to burn solid waste. In theory this turns a problem into an opportunity: – Waste can be burned to generate electricity. – The volume of waste can be reduced drastically (by up to 96%). – There were 86 waste-to-energy facilities in the US as of 2010, generating nearly 3,000 megawatt hours of electricity (about 1.5 times the amount produced by the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw07-fs.pdf http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/merc_program/; http://news.cnet.com/Powering-cities-on-landfill-waste/2100-11392_3-6188867.html; http://www.wte.org; http://www.sce.com/PowerandEnvironment/PowerGeneration/ 15 91 Problems With Incineration 92 Products can be “recycled” in two ways: Air Pollution — the fumes produced by burning solid waste are highly toxic. Ash — although the volume of trash is reduced by up to 96%, the remaining ash is extremely toxic and highly concentrated, and must be disposed of — probably in a toxic waste landfill. 93 Recycling: Pic...
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