Httpwwwemdoegovlowlevelchap1html radioactive waste

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Unformatted text preview: ryId=9010966&contentId=7021588 29 Radioactive Waste 30 Current and Planned Low-Level Waste Disposal Radioactive waste may be either – Low-level (650,000 yd3/year) – High-level (more than 30,000 tons) Radioactive waste may be dangerous for literally thousands of years. There is, at present, no permanent waste disposal facility in the US. Yucca Mountain, NV Although the NRC review has not ended, as of today it appears the Yucca Mountain project is dead. http://www.ymp.gov/reference/photos/geology/page1.htm; http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/states/us.htm http://www.em.doe.gov/lowlevel/chap1.html 5 31 Problems with Renewable Energy Sources 32 Minerals are essential for an industrial society. Unfortunately, the earth’s crust is fairly miserly when it comes to the metals and other minerals – metallic and non-metallic – that we need. Remember that minerals are non-renewable – once they’re mined, they’re gone.* Solar, wind and wave power are dispersed – you need large areas and lots of machines to harness them – which raises costs. Hydroelectric and geothermal power can only be done in a limited number of places – and have serious environmental impacts. Biomass energy can cause pollution, and may cause a loss of food producing lands. Nuclear fusion sounds great – but it doesn’t work yet. 33 Cut-Off Grades for Ore Deposits Avg. Crust Abundance (%) Minimum Commercial Grade (%) 8.13% 30% 5.00% 25% 5.0 Manganese 0.10% 35% 350 Metal Chromium 0.02% 30% 1500 Nickel 0.008% 1.5% 188 Zinc 0.008% 4% 500 Copper 0.007% 1% 140 Silver 0.00001% 500 g/t 5000 Gold 35 Ferrous Minerals 3.7 Iron 34 *Unless they’re recycled! Concentration Factor Aluminum Mineral Resources 0.0000005% 5 g/t 1000 Nonferrous Metal Production Nonferrous metals are basically all metals that aren’t involved in iron and steel production (including precious metals like gold and silver). “Ferrous” minerals include iron and all the various alloy metals (chromium, manganese, etc.) that are used i...
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