cstdygd3 - Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE 1. Ethnicity...

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Unformatted text preview: Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE 1. Ethnicity Greek “ethnos” (“national”) Identity, but no single factor determines ethnicity (may be based on race, language, religion, etc.) Race & Ethnicity Race: Biological ancestor, common ancestor Ethnicity: cultural traditions, common origin Racism, prejudice, hate crimes (“bias motivated”) Designations (“Hispanic” vs. Latino, etc.) US Ethnicities (major concentrations) Regional: African-Americans in Southeast Latinos in Southwest; Asians in West; Native Americans in SW & Plains Urban clusters Cities usually more ethnically diverse Ethnicities highly concentrated in some cities Ethnic neighborhoods Made by affinity, chain migration - OR Made by blockbusting & redlining (illegal!) African-American Experience Forced migration (17th-19th centuries) Triangle trade (Africa-America), slavery Southern rural to urban North (19th-20th) Sharecropping; some seek jobs in N. cities “channeled” migration (chain migration) Inner City vs. Suburbs (late 20th century) Creation of ghettos: Blockbusting: Frighten white owners into selling; Sell property to people to escape ghetto Redlining: Non-whites can only buy/rent in some areas “separate but equal” (segregation laws) “white flight” (when segregation ends) South Africa & Race History of South Africa Dutch colony; taken by British 1948 “apartheid” (separation by race) Four “official” races: White 13%, Black 76%, Asian 3%, “Coloured” 9% “Homelands” for Black groups Apartheid ends 1991 “Truth & Reconciliation Commission” Legacy, continuing problems of crime, etc. Ethnicity & Nationalism “National” from Latin “nasci,” “to be born” Nationality: group of people attached to a country. Nationalism: loyalty to a nationality Nations, Nation-States and Nationalism Nations: groups of people Nation-State: State made of a single nation Creating nationalities 18th and 19th centuries, European empires tried to destabilize each other by encouraging nationalism 20th century, colonies become independent South Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, etc.) Africa (Nigeria, Mozambique, etc.) Near East (until WWI, Turkish ruled) Lebanon – 17 nationalities! Government organized on ethnic lines – collapse 1975 – slow recovery Israel Creation of State of Israel Creation of Palestinian nation “Palestinian” = 1) People living in West Bank, etc.; 2) Israelis who are Muslim; 3) People who left Israel after the 1948-1949 Spring 2010 Third Exam war; 4) People who left the West Bank/Gaza after the 1967 war; 5) descendents of 1948 & 1967 refugees Revival of nationalism in Europe (Wales etc.) Forced migration and “ethnic cleansing” Ethnic cleansing: forced removal of ethnicity (e.g. Post WW II relocation of ethnic Germans) Yugoslavia examples (Serbs, Croats) Genocide: extermination of an ethnic group (Nazi Germany, Cambodia, Rwanda, etc.) Balkanization: states collapse in ethnic conflicts 2. Development Developed = MDC = “North” = “1st World” Less Developed = LDC = “South” = “3rd World” Measuring development Older method – Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Today – UN’s Human Development Index (HDI) 1 economic+2 social+1 demographic variables Other development measures? Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Gender Inequality Index (GII) (complicated!) More Developed Regions vs. Less Developed Regions More: Anglo-America (highest HDI), Western Europe Eastern Europe (“undeveloping” - fall in HDI); Japan; South Pacific (Australia & New Zealand) Less: Latin America (HDI equal to E. Europe!) Southeast Asia; Middle East; East Asia South Asia; Sub-Saharan Africa (lowest HDI) Two Development Schemes 1. Self-sufficiency: diversify, invest everywhere in country; focus on poverty reduction; limit imports (“substitutions”); quotas, tariffs problems: inefficiency, bureaucracy 2. International trade: concentrate on “unique” resources use profits to develop other sectors W.W. Rostow's model 1. traditional (pre-development); 2. pre-conditions; 3. takeoff ; 4. drive to maturity ; 5. mass consumption 6. “post-industrial?” problems: uneven distribution, stagnant markets, dependency on MDCs Financing development Loans (some countries now in extreme debt) “Jubilee 2000” (debt forgiveness) Many endorsements – some action “Structural adjustment”; “Fair Trade” Transnational corporations Problems of creating infrastructure, keeping the corporations happy – “race to the bottom” Microcredit Banks (Grameen Bank) 3. Agriculture “deliberate modification of the Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals” Cultivate means “care for”; cultivated plants are crops Pre-agricultural world: hunter-gatherers small groups, gathering more important, getting food takes 10-25% of time, nomadic, only ~250,000 people (0.005% of world pop.) worldwide today Origins of agriculture Carl Sauer’s model (textbook’s model) not hunger, not nomadic people not river valleys or grasslands high environment & plant diversity areas emphasis on vegetative agriculture (“roots”) SE Asia (Thailand, etc.) Ethnicity, Development, Agriculture, Industry, Services Page 1 Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE Standard model SW Asia (Turkey, Syria, etc.) grain (seed) based (also lentils, dates, etc.) Agricultural hearths Vegetative hearths (“roots”) Diffusion: Asia, Europe Independent: SE Asia, Africa, America Seed based hearths Diffusion: India, China, Ethiopia Independent: SW Asia, Mexico, South America Others possible? (NI Vavilov & Jack Harlan?) Agricultural regions Subsistence vs. Commercial different purpose (eat vs. sell); % of population (high vs. low); machinery (little/none vs. intense); farm size (small vs. large) [USUALLY]; integration with industry Types of Subsistence Agriculture Shifting cultivation “slash & burn”; cut trees, burn, plant in ash poor tropical soils; short use, long fallow period only 5% of world pop. practice slash & burn Pastoral nomadism animal herding (adaptation to dry areas) large areas (usually); precise migration patterns (usually); transhumance (seasonal, elevation) Intensive subsistence, wet rice "paddy" (or sawah!) – intensive hand labor no crop rotation: “double cropping” Intensive subsistence, not wet rice grain primary, but other crops (animals, too) intensive hand labor, crop rotation typical Middle Ages, Andes today, etc. Types of commercial agriculture Mixed crop & livestock “the old fashioned farm” integration of crops & animals most land used for grain; crops fed to animals; most income from animals crop rotation (see above) Dairy farming extremely valuable products (butter, cheese) traditional “milkshed” location fluid milk vs. butter, cheese changes in transportation=change in location Grain farming Wheat (#1 world trade – but more rice grown) spring vs. winter wheats US largest wheat producer today other grains (corn, oats, rye, etc.) highly mechanized agriculture Livestock ranching Mostly done where too dry for other agriculture (sort of like pastoral nomadism) US ranching changes, 17th – 21st century “feed lots” (or “livestock fattening”) ranching elsewhere (Brazil, etc.) Mediterranean agriculture Mediterranean climate (wet winter-dry summer) tree crops (olives, citrus, etc.) some grain, a little livestock Truck farming (gardening & fruit farming) “market gardening” – specialized crops near cities (but not always – CA, FL, etc.) Plantations tropics & subtropics (usually) Spring 2010 Third Exam less developed countries (usually) intense hand labor - foreign ownership specialize in 1-2 crops (coffee, sugar, etc) produced in LDCs, consumption in MDC Agriculture & environment Constrained by environment (usually) slash & burn, overgrazing, desertification, irrigation Agriculture & economics Subsistence Rising population - Boserup hypothesis?? Cash crops - drugs! Commercial von Thünen model; overproduction problems low income – boom & bust; sustainable agriculture; off-farm migration; agribusiness, loss of crop diversity Increasing food supply Diet modification; expanding agricultural land; increasing productivity; finding new food sources 3. Industry “Secondary” economic activities Origins cottage industry (small scale, ancient origins) industrial revolution: UK c. 1750 CE – why? new technology, new agriculture, new culture! diffusion through industry (steel, textiles, etc.) diffusion through Europe (UK > France, etc.), US, etc. Modern distribution Four major areas tdoay North America; Western Europe; Eastern Europe; East Asia -- and now, the rest of the world? Industrial Location Situation (focus on “inputs” or “outputs”) If inputs heavy/bulky – locate near sources of inputs (“weight-reducing”) If outputs heavy/bulky – locate near markets (“weight-gaining”) Also locating near markets: Perishables; Single-market manufacturing 5 transportation modes affect situations: ship (slow, cheap, long distance) rail (slow to fast, cheap, long distance) truck (fast, expensive, medium/long) air (fast, expensive, medium/long) pipeline (liquids only, very cheap) Site factors (focus on fixed/physical characteristics) Land, power, capital (investment) labor (skilled or unskilled) (e.g. maquiladora) “Footloose” industries – locate anywhere! Industrial problems in MDCs stagnant demand, “decline of shoddy,” increased global capacity trading blocs? Transnationals? Industrial problems in LDCs distance from markets, inadequate infrastructure, transnationals SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS T F 1. According to W.W. Rostow’s model of development, the final stage (and the ultimate goal of development) is called “The Traditional Society.” T F 2. According to the model in your book (actually it was developed by the geographer Carl Sauer), the primary reason that people developed agriculture was hunger. T F 3. A special tax imposed on goods coming into a country to try to “protect” domestic industries is called a “tariff.” 4. What single factor always determines a person’s ethnicity? a. Race. b. Language. c. Religion. d. This is a trick question. No trait always determines a person’s ethnicty. 5. Which of the following is an example of what we called a "weight-gaining" industry? Ethnicity, Development, Agriculture, Industry, Services a. Smelting copper. b. Bottling Coca-Cola®. Page 2 c. Making steel. d. Making canned tomatoes. ...
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