cstdygd4 - Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE Industry...

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Unformatted text preview: Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE Industry “Secondary” economic activities Origins cottage industry (small scale, ancient origins) industrial revolution: UK c. 1750 CE – why? new technology, new agriculture, new culture! diffusion through industry (steel, textiles, etc.) diffusion through Europe (UK > France, etc.) diffusion to the US, and beyond Modern distribution Four major areas North America; Western Europe; Eastern Europe; East Asia New industrial regions: Asia, Latin America, Europe outsourcing: “new international division of labor” unskilled labor = “Fordist” skilled labor = “Post-Fordist” Industrial Location Situation (focus on “inputs” or “outputs”) If inputs heavy/bulky – locate near sources of inputs (“weight-reducing”) If outputs heavy/bulky – locate near markets (“weight-gaining”) Also locating near markets: Perishables Single-market manufacturing 5 transportation modes affect situations: ship (slow, cheap, long distance) rail (slow to fast, cheap, long distance) truck (fast, expensive, medium/long) air (fast, expensive, medium/long) pipeline (liquids only, very cheap) “break-of-bulk” – from one mode to another “just-in-time delivery” – no warehousing! Site factors (focus on fixed/physical characteristics) Land, power, capital (investment) labor (skilled or unskilled) (e.g. maquiladora) “Footloose” industries – locate anywhere! Industrial problems stagnant demand, “decline of shoddy,” technological changes, increased global capacity trading blocs? Industrial problems in LDCs distance from markets, inadequate infrastructure, transnationals, “race to the bottom” Services & Settlements “Tertiary” economic activities Services tend to concentrate in settlements Types of services consumer (~45% of US jobs) producer (~20% of US jobs) public (~15% of US jobs) TOTAL: ~80% of US jobs in services! Economic base & non-base base = brings money into a city non-base = serves city dwellers different cities have different “bases” – manufacturing, finance, retail, wholesale, etc. similar size cities = similar base/non-base ratios Central place theory (“central place”=”market center”) Assumptions Featureless plain; Labor available in all locations; Transport possible in all directions range & threshold range = distance people willing to travel threshold = minimum # of people needed vary for different goods (so we use range and threshold to determine market areas) – “market area analysis” “hierarchy of hexagons” (“Christaller’s lattice”) All central places compete with each other hierarchy of settlements – small places have fewer goods Fall 2010 Final Exam (& fewer types of goods) large places have more goods (& more types of goods) “Rank-size” vs. “Primate City” Rank-size distribution of settlements In some countries (e.g. USA) – 2nd largest city is ~½ largest city, 4th largest city is ~¼ largest, etc. tend to have services widely dispersed Primate city rule In other countries (e.g. Romania, UK, etc.) – largest city more than twice as big largest city is center of economy, politics, etc. tend to have services concentrated Rural settlement structure [see Urban Patterns below for cities] even today, ½ of word still live in rural villages clustered (circular & linear) dispersed (North America, Australia) US homestead act of 1862, etc. Service distribution Consumer services distributed based on size of settlement Business services concentrated heavily in major cities Hierarchy of businesses & cities (vary in terms of kind & number of services) 1st rank – “world cities”: NY, Tokyo, London, Paris 2nd rank- “command & control centers” 3rd rank – “specialized producer” 4th rank – “dependent centers” (San Diego!?) “Geography of talent” – drawing businesses to some cities Business services in LDCs Offshore financial services (no taxes, gambling) Outsourcing (service centers, back-office centers) Political Geography Definitions Nation (group of people = “ethnicity”) State (independent country, sovereignty) Nation-State (“ideal” state with one group/ethnicity in it) Variations on “nation-state” Multi-Nation, Part Nation, Stateless Nation “Sovereign” Free (more or less) of outside control (may not be absolute – varying degrees) Colonialism Why? God, Gold, and Glory! Formerly vast empires (largest: UK & French) World's last colonies (still a few – mostly islands) Sometimes difficult: ex. China & Taiwan (1 or 2 states?) Only large territory not part of a state today: Antarctica Characteristics of States Size: Enormous (Russia largest) to tiny “microstates” Shapes: compact, prorupt, elongated, fragmented, perforated (containing enclave) Landlocked (no ocean access) Borders (no border is perfect!) ‘Frontier’ (area no one really controls) Physical: Deserts, mountains, rivers, etc. Cultural: Geometric, linguistic, religious, etc. Also – “buffer” & “satellite” states Internal Organization of States Unitary States Strong central government Local governments have little or no power Often (not always!) totalitarian, one-party Federal States Divide, share power (central & local govts.) Increasing numbers of states today Electoral geography Voting issues (voting, wining, etc.) Electoral districts Gerrymanders Voting districts drawn unfairly (to give advantage to one party) Three kinds: wasted, excess, stacked Services, Political Geography, Urban Patterns, Resource Issues Page 1 Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE Not all odd districts are “gerrymanders”! International Cooperation Scale Regional (e.g. NATO, NAFTA, etc.) Global (UN – more than 190 states today) Types of cooperation: Political, Military (“balance of power”), Economic “Geopolitics” Theories about strategic relationships “Heartland Theory” (heart of Eurasia) “Rimland Theory” (edge of Eurasia) Effects? Maybe (“Lebensraum,” Domino theory) Terrorism Systematic violence, attacking ordinary people (terror) Tactic – not a political philosophy Foreign and domestic terrorism Outside government – but state sponsored, too! Few say “I’m a terrorist” – call selves “patriots,” etc. Urban Patterns Worldwide growth of urban population 1800 - 3% urban -- 2000 - 47% (now global majority!) Greater urban population in MDCs, Greater growth in LDCs Social differences between city/rural (Louis Wirth (1930s)) Large size (know everybody vs. strangers) High density (general vs. specialized occupations) Heterogeneity vs. homogeneity (more vs. less diversity) Physical definitions of “city” Legal definitions (“sovereignty” over territory?) Urbanized area (built-up – > 1,000/mi2; looks “city”) Metropolitan area (functional area, area of influence) MSA (Metropolitan & “Micropolitan”) Overlapping MSAs ("Megalopolis") Central business districts (CBD or “downtown”) CBDs – compact area, expensive, intense land use Services cluster in CBDs: Consumer services, esp. retail activities high range goods and high threshold goods (also — services for CBD/city residents) Producer services Finance, legal, etc. Public services (government, “city hall”) Excluded from CBD Manufacturing (high land costs) Residential (high land costs) High land costs = intensive land use (Skyscrapers!) Suburbanization of business Manufacturing, Some producer services, and – malls! Models of City Structure (North America only!) Concentric Zone Model (1923) [“walking city”] central business district, transition zone (= “inner city”), workers' homes, better residences, commuter zone Sector Model (1939) [“railroad city”] central business district, transport & industry corridor, low-class, middle-class, high-class Multiple Nuclei Model (1945) [“freeway city”] central business district, wholesale, low-class,middle-class, high-class, heavy manufacturing, outlying business district, residential suburb, industrial suburb, etc.! “Social Area Analysis” (predicting patterns?) Models For Other Areas of the World European (wealthy sectors, centers & “slum suburbs”) Less Developed Countries Pre-colonial cities (religious & market core, winding streets) Colonial cities (European areas (power, control), market areas independence=growth, changes – but not completely! Latin-American Model Market center/CBD, “zone of accretion,” “elite spine,” squatter settlements Problems of Inner Cities Social “the underclass,” “culture of poverty” lack of skills, education, homelessness Fall 2010 Final Exam crime (very high in “inner city”) ethnic/racial segregation Physical “filtering” (dividing up old buildings = more people, severe strain on facilities) redlining: restricting where ethnicities live blockbusting: inducing white panic public housing (problems in many areas) “gentrification” (poor areas become rich!) Economic funding gap (little money for poor areas) white flight (integration, blockbusting) annexation? (cities “take” outlying areas) (Traditional method; not usually practical today) Suburban Problems “Peripheral” model of city structure “Edge cities” (no “center” – & malls!) More than ½ of US pop. now in suburbs Sprawl, Segregation, Zoning Transportation (Dependence on cars) public transportation hard in suburbs! Local Government Fragmentation Too many governments? Metropolitan government? Federations? Consolidation? “Smart Growth?” Resource Issues Resources Renewable (replaced in a reasonable time) Non-renewable (not replaced – or too slowly) Non-renewable are finite; unevenly distributed “The Tragedy of the Commons” Energy resources (“inanimate power”) Consumption: MDCs consume ½ the world’s power (US nearly ¼!) Fossil Fuels Coal: Producers: US, China; Consumers: China, US Oil: Producers: Middle East; Consumers: US, China, Japan Natural Gas: Producers:Russia, Iran; Consumers: US, Russia Fossil Fuel Problems Dependence & distribution (not much US oil!) “Proven” vs. “potential” reserves Pollution (air, water, soil, disposal, etc.) Alternative Energy Sources Non-renewable Nuclear fission (problems: waste, accidents, bombs [nuclear & “dirty”], costs) Nuclear fusion (great idea – but not yet!) Alternative fossil fuels (tar sands, etc.) Renewable Solar (passive or active) (includes photovoltaics) hydroelectric, wind, geothermal, biomass, etc. Good idea – but still economic, storage problems Mineral resources Changing needs=changing demand Nonmetallic (building stone, fertilizers, etc.) Metallic: Ferrous (iron & steel related) Nonferrous (aluminum, gold, etc.) Pollution Point (specific) & Non-Point (area) Sources Air pollution global scale: global warming, ozone hole regional scale: acid deposition (“acid rain”) local scale: smog sulfurous smog (uncommon today) photochemical smog (sun + pollutants) different pollutants, different sources (most SOx from power plants, NOx vehicles, etc.) Water pollution Global scale: DDT, PCBs, etc. Regional scale: Aral Sea, etc. Local scale: industry (point & non-point) sewage (mostly point) primary, secondary, tertiary treatments Services, Political Geography, Urban Patterns, Resource Issues Page 2 Cultural Geography STUDY GUIDE agriculture (mostly non-point) eutrophication/BOD (“over fertilizing”) Land pollution: Solid waste disposal (not sewage) Dumps (obsolete in US, common in LDCs) Sanitary landfill (standard in MDCs) Incineration (burns - but not everything!) Recycling (good idea – economical?) Toxic waste (very hard to deal with!) Reducing pollution: Recycling Recycling in same production process (aluminum can >> aluminum can) Recycling in different production process (plastic bottle >> plastic broom) Pick-Up: Deposit programs; drop-off centers; curbside programs; buy-back programs Processing & Re-Manufacturing Four items make up 50% of all re-manufacturing: Paper; Plastic; Glass; Aluminum Increase capacity of the environment Sustainability Conservation: sustainable use & management of resources Conservation is not the same as preservation “Sustainable Development” Development for today that doesn’t negatively affect the future Biodiversity (biological diversity), Global vs. local diversity Rainforests =7% of earth’s land, 50% of species! Extinctions mostly from species introductions, habitat loss Final Exam SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS T F 1. There is no area of the earth’s land surface today that is not part of a recognized independent state. T F 2. Most “urban” residents in the US actually live in suburbs. T F 3. A business that is not dependent on local conditions, and that can locate anywhere it wants to is called “footloose.” 4. As we discussed in class, which of the following is a good example of a "stateless nation?" a. Japan b. Kurds c. Canada d. None of the above – it's a contradiction in terms. 5. The process of changing a low-income neighborhood into a highincome neighborhood by refurbishing or renovating older buildings is called a. “blockbusting.” b. “filtering.” c. “gentrification.” d. “redlining.” 6. The distance people are usually willing to travel for a particular good or service is called its a. “rank.” b. “fetch.” c. “range.” d. “base.” Central Place Theory The Gerrymander Shapes of states: Fragmented: Comoros, Equatorial Guinea Perforated: South Africa Elongated: Malawi Compact: Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Lesotho Prorupt: Namibia Latin American City Structure Model Models of US city structure: Concentric Zone; Sector; Multiple Nuclei Fall 2010 Services, Political Geography, Urban Patterns, Resource Issues Page 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2010 for the course GEOG 102 taught by Professor Osborn during the Fall '10 term at San Diego State.

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