07_eth - Terms Ethnic: from the Greek ethnikos, or national...

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1 1 Ethnicity 2 Terms Ethnic: from the Greek ethnikos , or “national” Ethnicity: –“identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.” 3 No Single Defining Trait • No single trait always defines a person’s ethnicity. • Ethnicity can be based on any trait or combination of traits, including: Language (Quebec, Belgium) Religion (Northern Ireland) National Origin (Italian-Americans, etc.) Regional Origin (territorial isolation) (Appalachian “hillbillies,” Texans, etc.) Race 4 Race: Reality? • Research into genetic diseases has shown that “race” is not a very good predictor of who is and who isn’t going to get various genetic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, Tay- Sachs, etc.). • Since the human genome has been sequenced, we now know that skin color, eye color, etc. aren’t very good at predicting what our genetic heritage really is. • For example, in America, – African-American’s West African genetic heritage varies from 20% to 100%. – 30% of Americans who consider themselves “white” have less than 90% European ancestry. Data & illustration from Bamshad, MJ and Olson SE. 2003. Does race exist? Scientific American 289:6 78-85. 5 Race vs. Ethnicity • A person's race may not be the same as a person's ethnicity. • In the US the concepts of race and ethnicity are often confused – sometimes by law! – " Asian " is recognized by the US Census Bureau as a race (so that people from Pakistan, China, Japan and Papua New Guinea will all be classified as the same "race"). – " African-American " is recognized as a race , but it is not necessarily the same as "black." There are many "Blacks" who trace their cultural heritage – and their ethnicity – to countries in the Caribbean or Latin America. – " Hispanic " ( Latino ) is considered an ethnicity , not a race. Hispanics may therefore be of any race. 6 Racism : "belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race." Racist : "a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism." Prejudice : a preformed, unsupported judgment or opinion about a person or a group of people, based on stereotypes.
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2 7 Hate Crimes in the US • Also known as “bias motivated crimes.” • The Federal Government does not classify “hate crimes.” –State and local authorities collect and classify data, and send it to the FBI. –Standards vary from place to place, so national statistics are questionable. • Despite these problems, we can say that there are thousands of hate crimes in the US each year. 8
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07_eth - Terms Ethnic: from the Greek ethnikos, or national...

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