08_dev - 1 2 Development: Terms Development Development...

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1 1 Development Development Measuring Development Development Issues Obstacles to Development 2 Development: Terms Development: “the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.” Every country lies at some point along a “ continuum of development .” Many countries cluster at either the high or the low end of the continuum, so we can divide countries into groups: MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (also called “ MDCs ,” Relatively Developed Countries ,” and “ Developed Countries .”) LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (also called “ LDCs ,” and Developing Countries .”) 3 Loaded Terms? Any discussion of development tends to get into issues of pride and resentment – after all, when we describe one place as “developed” and another as “less developed” – well, what are we really saying? “More Developed” “Developed” Modern “Developing” “Less Developed” Backward 4 Measuring Development How do you measure “material conditions?” For nearly 200 countries?!? For many years the basic measure used to compare the development was economic gross domestic product (total value of a country’s goods and services). But “material conditions” for the country as a whole aren’t very well described by GDP alone. So, starting in 1990, building on the work of Indian economists Partha Dasgupta and Amartya Sen, the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq worked to devise a better measure: the human development index . 5 The HDI • The United Nations creates the human development index (HDI) using a combination of measures: One economic indicator of development. Two social indicators of development. One demographic indicator of development. • A single value – an index number – is then computed, and every one of the nearly 200 countries in the world can be ranked. 6 Possible Economic Measures Gross Domestic Product Total value of goods and services produced in a country. Sector of Employment Jobs fall into three categories: primary (agriculture, fishing), secondary (manufacturing) and tertiary (services). Workers in the secondary and tertiary sectors earn more than those in the primary sector; high numbers in the primary sector means getting food is a major difficulty. Productivity Value of products, compared to the amount of labor necessary to produce them. Availability of Raw Materials A country’s access to raw materials is measure of development potential – but not a very certain one! Availability of Consumer Goods
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This note was uploaded on 12/16/2010 for the course GEOG 102 taught by Professor Osborn during the Fall '10 term at San Diego State.

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08_dev - 1 2 Development: Terms Development Development...

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