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Unformatted text preview: Experiment: First Draft – Due in 2 Weeks What do you need to do? Format is in your packet
• • • • Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Check you grammar and spelling! Use charts/figures to summarize your results and data Bibliography
• 3 references • Make sure you are citing correctly Put methods in past tense
• Look at scientific journal articles for examples and use as resources • Try not to use “I” or “we” Lab 9: Evolution Lab What is Evolution? What Change over time Fashions evolve Populations of living things evolve Populations “Evolution occurs through selection acting on the Evolution variation within a species and favorable traits are passed variation favorable on through the generations, which causes changes in composition of populations -- and all this happens over composition long time periods (i.e. it is gradual)” gradual)” Qualities or features that enable an organism to survive Qualities and reproduce in its environment and Evolution and selection usually favor a particular Evolution adaptation adaptation
http://www.geocities.com/we_evolve/Evolution/darwin.html What are adaptations? What Early Evolution Early In the 1700’s scientists started In proposing theories that life was not due to creationism but by something else something Jean Baptiste Lamarck Jean proposed one the early theories of evolution in which traits were formed due to use or disuse. or We now know this could not be true. Lamarck theory focused on changes in the phenotype rather then the genotype Evolution Evolution Not only discovered by Darwin Many other scientists were coming to this Many conclusion at the same time conclusion Alfred Russel Wallace was also working Alfred on an evolution theory on In 1858 Wallace sent Darwin his theories In and Darwin was surprised at their similarities similarities Darwin rushed to publish his book Origin of Species Origin Published in 1859 Many scientists already believed in its Many theories theories Was a best seller Most influential book of its time Within a couple decades most Within scientists believed in evolution scientists In the 20th century the theory of In evolution became unavoidable with the discovery of genes and mutations the Who was Charles Darwin? Who Studied organisms on Studied the Galapagos Islands the Many unique endemic Many organisms organisms Endemic – naturally Endemic occurs in only that one region or area region
http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/Newsbriefs/9601/01-11/galapagos.jpg Natural Selection Natural
the driver of evolution Natural Selection Natural
the driver of evolution Natural Selection Natural
the driver of evolution What is Natural Selection? What Natural Selection: Environmental selection of individuals best Environmental suited for the environment due to adaptation suited This happens to individuals, NOT to the This population population Evolution occurs at the population level, Evolution not to individuals not What is sexual selection? What A second kind of selection The theory that the competition for mates drives The evolution. evolution. Any characteristic that affects the ability of an Any organism to mate is subject to sexual selection organism Could be dis-favored by natural selection For example: For Darwin’s Paradise: Darwin’s the Galapagos Islands Centered on in the eastern pacific, off the Centered coast of Peru coast “HOT SPOT” for evolution Darwin’s Paradise: Darwin’s the Galapagos Islands The island chain consists of 13 islands The (only 5 inhabited) and upwards of 100 more smaller islands more A Species on one island can be Species completely different on a neighboring island island Darwin’s Paradise: Darwin’s the Galapagos Islands The Galapagos Tortoise 14 described species, with 11 still in existence Tortoises on different islands have different Tortoises variations in their shells allowing for different food preferences and avoidance of predators food Darwin’s Paradise: Darwin’s the Galapagos Islands Darwins Finches Investigation 1 Natural selection selection
Each student represents an individual fly. Randomly draw 1 white gender card (X-girl or Randomly white Y-boy), 2 yellow freeze-reflex cards (F or f), 2 cards camouflage blue cards (D or d). Place your camouflage alleles in cups. Record your genotype in table11-1. table11-1. XY Ff DD Genotype – Generation 1 Sex XY Freeze-Reflex Camouflage Ff DD A llizard moves into your area which has poor izard eyesight and relies on movement to catch its prey. Check your yellow cards and throw the dice to Check determine if you can survive from this predator. determine FF (no freeze-reflex) – survive if you roll < 8. FF Ff (no freeze-reflex) – survive if you roll < 8. Ff ff (excellent freeze reflex) – survive if you roll < ff 11. 11. A bird moves into your area which can spot flies bird at a distance if they are distinct from the background. Check your blue cards and throw the dice to Check determine if you can survive from this predator. determine DD (poor camouflage) – survive if you roll < 8. DD Dd (poor camouflage) – survive if you roll < 8. Dd dd (excellent camouflage) – survive if you roll < dd 11. 11. Indicate your survival in table 11-1. If either predators kills you, put all your If cards back to the appropriate bowls Let me know If you survive, begin searching for a mate If (must be of the opposite sex). Each pair will produce 2 offspring and then die. Each one of you will keep one of the offspring and that is your new genotype, record that in table 11-1. in XX
Generation 1 XY DD Ff Dd Ff A
Generation 2 B
XX DD Ff Dd Ff A B Determine your survival as generation 2 Determine using the same criteria and repeat the process for two more generations. We will tally our results as a class We Investigation 2 Sexual selection selection
Each student represents an individual bird. Randomly draw 1 white gender card (X-girl or Randomly white Y-boy), 2 Green partiality cards (P or p), 2 Pink cards coloration cards (B or b). Place your alleles in coloration cups. Record your genotype in table11-1. cups. XY Pp BB Genotype – Generation 1 Sex XY Freeze-Reflex Camouflage Pp BB Males begin searching for a mate. PP can Males accept any male. Pp accept BB or Bb. pp only accepts only bb. If there are more females than males, males may mate with 2 females. But males But females can have only one mate. females If you are unable to mate, let me know After you select a mate, each pair will After produce 2 offspring as Inv.1. produce Record the genotype of the offspring as Record generation 2 You now become your offspring, so pick You appropriate alleles appropriate If you were not able to find a mate, you’ll If be assigned a genotype based on their frequencies – XX, Bb, Pp frequencies Repeat for following generations We’ll tally results as a class Investigation 3. Effects of precipitation on beak size in finches This exercise requires the use of a user name and This password. Bench 1: a: 01biolab100l – evolve01 b: 02biolab100l – evolve02 b: Bench 2: a: 03biolab100l – evolve03 b: 04biolab100l – evolve04 b: Bench 3: a: 05biolab100l – evolve05 b: 06biolab100l – evolve06 b: Bench 4: a: 07biolab100l – evolve07 b: 08biolab100l – evolve08 b: ...
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