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• No lab next week enjoy your Veteran’s Day No
• Maybe go to Chula Vista Nature Center? • Nature Center Assignment and Experimental Final Nature Draft due on Dec. 2nd Draft • Average on test was a 22 Average • Presentations Presentations • Hand in lab report drafts Hand Lab 10: Cladistics and the Kindoms of Life Kindoms Introduction Introduction Current best estimates show that life began Current approximately 4.5 billion years ago approximately Science has only identified 2 million Science species, but it is estimated that there are anywhere between 5 and 100 million species on earth species Systematics Systematics The science of systematic classification Cladistics- system of classification based on Cladisticsphylogenetic and evolutionary history of organisms organisms Taxonomy- a type of cladistics used to Taxonomyclassify organisms using structural similarities similarities Example of a Taxonomic Tree Example Robert Whittaker Robert American plant ecologist First to propose 5 kingdom First taxonomic classification (1969) taxonomic
– – – – – Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Monera (Bacteria) Whittaker (cont.) Whittaker Based his classifications on physical Based characteristics of cells such as the lack of a nucleus (bacteria) nucleus Did not include viruses as living organisms Did because they require a host and are not “free living” “free
– Some biologists include them as a separate Some kingdom kingdom Whittaker’s 5 Kingdoms Whittaker’s 3 Domains of Life Domains Carolus Linnaeus Carolus Swedsish biologist In 1750s, developed a In formal system to categorize all living things on earth things Became known as Became Linnaean system in which each organism has a unique name consisting of two parts (genus and species) (genus Taxonomic Classification Taxonomic Phyologenetic ClassificatonPhyologenetic classification of organisms into distinct groups based on physical and genetic characteristics characteristics King Phillip Cried Out For King Good Soup Good
– Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Kingdom, Order, Family, Genus, Species Order, – Homo sapiens (Genus species) Homo (Genus Example of Linnaean Classification of the Grizzly Bear of Biological Species Concept Biological Idea that a species was a group of interbreeding individual Idea organisms that are reproductively isolated from all other individuals individuals Mating between different species would not produce viable Mating offspring offspring Biological Species Concept Biological Didn’t work Found that dramatically different plants that are Found normally found on different continents often can interbreed easily – producing viable offspring interbreed Practically, biologists define species as Practically, populations of organisms that have a high level of genetic similarity. Investigation 1 Investigation Create a cladogram similar to figure 10.1 Create showing the physical similarities and thus the close relationships between the butterflies butterflies Predict which species are the most closely Predict related to the common ancestor related Let’s go over the characteristics Investigation 2 Investigation Use the given clues and Appendix A to Use perform a scavenger hunt for the different species of animals on the bench species ...
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